List of emperors of Tibet

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The traditional list of the ancient Tibetan rulers consists of 42 names.[1] The first 26 rulers may belong to the realm of legend, as there is insufficient evidence of their existence, but modern scholars believe that the kings from no. 27 to no. 32 were historical.[2] The rulers from no. 33 to no. 42 are well documented in many reliable Tibetan, Chinese and foreign sources.

A unified Tibetan state did not exist before the times of the kings number 31, 32, and 33. The earlier rulers, known as the Yarlung dynasty, were probably just local chiefs in the Yarlung Valley area, certainly not emperors of Tibet.[3]

Traditional Tibetan titles for the emperor include tsenpo ("Emperor") and lhase ("Divine Son").[4]

In the list the common transliteration is given first, the academic one in brackets.

Number Name Reign
1 Nyatri Tsenpo (gNya'-khri bTsan-po) 127 BCE - ?
2 Mutri Tsenpo (Mu-khri bTsan-po)
3 Dingtri Tsenpo (Ding-khri bTsan-po)
4 Sotri Tsenpo (So-khri bTsan-po)
5 Mertri Tsenpo (Mer-khri bTsan-po)
6 Dakrri Tsenpo (gDags-khri bTsan-po)
7 Siptri Tsenpo (Sribs-khri bTsan-po)
8 Drigum Tsenpo (Gri-gum bTsan-po)
9 Chatri Tsenpo
10 Esho Lek (E-sho-legs)
11 Desho Lek (De-sho-legs)
12 Tisho Lek (Thi-sho-legs)
13 Guru Lek (Gu-ru-legs)
14 Trongzhi Lek ('Brong-zhi-legs)
15 Isho Lek (I-sho-legs)
16 Zanam Zindé (Za-nam Zin-lde)
17 Detrul Namshungtsen (lDe-'phrul gnam-gzhung-btsan)
18 Senöl Namdé (Se-snol gNam-lde)
19 Senöl Podé (Se-snol Po-lde)
20 Senöl Nam (lDe-snol-nam)
21 Senöl Po (lDe-snol-po)
22 Degyel Po (lDe-rgyal-po)
23 Detrin Tsen (lDe-sprin-btsan)
24 Tori Longtsen (rGyal-to-ri Long-btsan)
25 Tritsen Nam (Su-khri bTsan-nam)
26 Tridra Pungtsen
27 Tritog Jetsen (Khri-rje Thog-btsan)
28 Lha Thothori Nyantsen (lHa-tho-tho-ri gNyan-btsan)
29 Trinyen Zungtsen (Khri-gnyan gZung-btsan)
30 Drongnyen Deu ('Bro-gnyan lDe'u)
31 Tagbu Nyasig (sTag-ri gNyan-gzigs) 579–619
32 Namri Songtsen (gNam-ri Srong-btsan)  ?–629
33 Songtsen Gampo (Srong-btsan sGam-po) 618–649
34 Gungsrong Gungtsen (Gung-srong gung-btsan) 638–655?
35 Mangsong Mangtsen 653–676
36 Tridu Songtsen 676–704
37 Me Agtsom (Khri-lde-gtsug-brtsan) 680–743
38 Trisong Detsen 755–797
39 Muné Tsenpo 797–799?
40 Sadnalegs c. 800 or 804–815?
41 Ralpacan 815–836
42 Langdarma 836–842

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Haarh, Erik: Extract from "The Yar Lun Dynasty", in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 144.
  2. ^ Haarh, Erik: Extract from "The Yar Lun Dynasty", in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 147; Richardson, Hugh: The Origin of the Tibetan Kingdom, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 159 (and list of kings p. 166-167).
  3. ^ Kirkland, Russell: The Spirit of the Mountain, in: The History of Tibet, ed. Alex McKay, Vol. 1, London 2003, p. 183.
  4. ^ Samten Karmay, in McKay 2003, pg. 57

References[edit]

  • McKay, Alex (ed.). Tibet and Her Neighbors: A History (2003) Walther Konig. ISBN 3-88375-718-7