List of emperors of the Han dynasty

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Western-Han miniature pottery infantry (foreground) and cavalry (background); in 1990, when the tomb complex of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157–141 BC) and his wife Empress Wang Zhi (d. 126 BC) was excavated south of Yangling, over 40,000 miniature pottery figures were unearthed. All of them were one-third life size, smaller than the 8,000-some fully life size soldiers of the Terracotta Army buried alongside the First Emperor of Qin. Smaller miniature figurines, on average 60 centimeters (24 in) in height, have also been found in various royal Han tombs where they were placed to guard the deceased tomb occupants in their afterlife.[1]

The Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) was the second imperial dynasty of China following the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and preceding the Three Kingdoms (220–265 AD). It is conventionally divided between the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and Eastern Han (25–220 AD) periods and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. Below is a complete list of emperors of the Han dynasty, including their personal, posthumous, and era names. Excluded from the list are de facto rulers such as regents and empress dowagers.

The Han dynasty was founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gao (r. 202 –195 BC) or Gaodi. The longest reigning emperor of the dynasty was Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC), or Wudi, who reigned for 54 years. After Wang Mang was overthrown, Liu Xiu reestablished the Han dynasty on 5 August and is known posthumously as Emperor Guangwu (r. 25–57 AD), or Guangwu Di.[2] The last Han emperor, Emperor Xian (r. 189–220 AD), was more or less a puppet monarch of Chancellor Cao Cao (155–220 AD), who dominated the court and was made King of Wei.[3] In 220 AD, Cao's son Pi usurped the throne as Emperor Wen of Wei (r. 220–226 AD) and ended the Han dynasty.

The emperor was the supreme head of government.[4] He appointed all of the highest-ranking officials in central, provincial, commandery, and county-level administrations.[5] He also functioned as a lawgiver, the highest court judge, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and high priest of the state-sponsored religious cults.[6]

Naming conventions[edit]

Emperor[edit]

Emperor Guangwu of Han (r. 25–57 AD), as depicted by the Tang artist Yan Liben (600–673 AD)
A gilded bronze handle (with traces of red pigment) in the shape of a dragon's head, made during the Eastern Han; depending on circumstance, the dragon could be a symbol of either good or bad omen for the Han emperors.[7]

In ancient China, the rulers of the Shang (c. 1600 BC – c. 1050 BC) and Zhou (c. 1050 BC – 256 BC) dynasties were referred to as kings (王 wang).[8] By the time of the Zhou dynasty, they were also referred to as Sons of Heaven (天子 Tianzi).[8] By 221 BC, the King of Qin, Ying Zheng, conquered and united all the Warring States of ancient China. To elevate himself above the Shang and Zhou kings of old, he accepted the new title of emperor (皇帝 huangdi) and is known to posterity as the First Emperor of Qin (Qin Shi Huang). The new title of emperor was created by combining the titles for the Three Sovereigns (Sanhuang) and Five Emperors (Wudi) from Chinese mythology.[9] This title was used by each successive ruler of China until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911.[10]

Posthumous, temple, and era names[edit]

From the Shang to Sui (581–618 AD) dynasties, Chinese rulers (both kings and emperors) were referred to by their posthumous names in records and historical texts.[10] Temple names, first used during the reign of Emperor Jing of Han (r. 157–141 BC), were used exclusively in later records and historical texts when referring to emperors who reigned during the Tang (618–907 AD), Song (960–1279 AD), and Yuan (1271–1368 AD) dynasties.[10] During the Ming (1368–1644 AD) and Qing (1644–1911 AD) dynasties, a single era name was used for each emperor's reign and became the preferred way to refer to Ming and Qing emperors in historical texts.[11]

Use of the era name was formally adopted during the reign of Emperor Wu of Han (r.141–87 BC), yet its origins can be traced back further. The oldest method of recording years—which had existed since the Shang—set the first year of a ruler's reign as year one.[12] When an emperor died, the first year of a new reign period would begin.[13] This system was changed by the 4th century BC when the first year of a new reign period did not begin until the first day of the lunar New Year following a ruler's death.[14] When Duke Huiwen of Qin assumed the title of king in 324 BC, he changed the year count of his reign back to the first year.[14] For his newly adopted calendar established in 163 BC, Emperor Wen of Han (r. 180–157 BC) also set the year count of his reign back to the beginning.[15]

Since six was considered a lucky number, Han Emperors Jing and Wu changed the year count of their reigns back to the beginning every six years.[15] Since every six-year period was successively marked as yuannian (元年), eryuan (二元), sanyuan (三元), and so forth, this system was considered too cumbersome by the time it reached the fifth cycle wuyuan sannian (五元三年) in 114 BC.[16] In that year a government official suggested that the Han court retrospectively rename every "beginning" with new characters, a reform Emperor Wu accepted in 110 BC.[17] Since Emperor Wu had just performed the religious feng (封) sacrifice at Mount Taishan, he named the new era yuanfeng (元封). This event is regarded as the formal establishment of era names in Chinese history.[18] Emperor Wu changed the era name once more when he established the 'Great Beginning' (太初 Taichu) calendar in 104 BC.[19] From this point until the end of Western Han, the court established a new era name every four years of an emperor's reign. By Eastern Han there was no set interval for establishing new era names, which were often introduced for political reasons and celebrating auspicious events.[19]

Regents and empress dowagers[edit]

The story of Jin Midi. Wu Liang Shrine, Jiaxiang, Shandong province, China, 2nd century AD; an ink rubbing of an Eastern-Han stone-carved relief

At times, especially when an infant emperor was placed on the throne, a regent, often the empress dowager or one of her male relatives, would assume the duties of the emperor until he reached his majority. Sometimes the empress dowager's faction—the consort clan—was overthrown in a coup d'état. For example, Empress Lü Zhi (d. 180 BC) was the de facto ruler of the court during the reigns of the child emperors Qianshao (r. 188–184 BC) and Houshao (r. 184–180 BC).[20] Her faction was overthrown during the Lü Clan Disturbance of 180 BC and Liu Heng was named emperor (posthumously known as Emperor Wen).[21] Before Emperor Wu died in 87 BC, he had invested Huo Guang (d. 68 BC), Jin Midi (d. 86 BC), and Shangguan Jie (上官桀)(d. 80 BC) with the power to govern as regents over his successor Emperor Zhao of Han (r. 87–74 BC). Huo Guang and Shangguan Jie were both grandfathers to Empress Shangguan (d. 37 BC), wife of Emperor Zhao, while the ethnically-Xiongnu Jin Midi was a former slave who had worked in an imperial stable. After Jin died and Shangguan was executed for treason, Huo Guang was the sole ruling regent. Following his death, the Huo-family faction was overthrown by Emperor Xuan of Han (r. 74–49 BC), in revenge for Huo Guang poisoning his wife Empress Xu Pingjun (d. 71 BC) so that he could marry Huo's daughter Empress Huo Chengjun (d. 54 BC).[22]

Since regents and empress dowagers were not officially counted as emperors of the Han dynasty, they are excluded from the list of emperors below.

Emperors[edit]


Han dynasty sovereigns
Posthumous name[note 1] Personal name Period of reign Era name Range of years[note 2]
Western Han dynasty 202 BC – 9 AD
Gaozu 高祖 Liu Bang 劉邦 202–195 BC[23] '[24]
Huidi 惠帝 Liu Ying 劉盈 195–188 BC[25] Did not exist[26]
Shaodi (Shaodi Gong) 少帝 Liu Gong 劉恭 188–184 BC[27] Did not exist[28]
Shaodi (Shaodi Hong) 少帝 Liu Hong 劉弘 184–180 BC[27] Did not exist[29]
Wendi 文帝 Liu Heng 劉恆 180–157 BC[30] Qíanyuán 前元 179–164 BC[31]
Hòuyuán 後元 163–156 BC[32]
Jingdi 景帝 Liu Qi 劉啟 157–141 BC[30] Qíanyuán 前元 156–150 BC[33]
Zhōngyuán 中元 149–143 BC[34]
Hòuyuán 後元 143–141 BC[35]
Wudi 武帝 Liu Che 劉徹 141–87 BC[36] Jiànyuán 建元 141–135 BC[37]
Yuánguāng 元光 134–129 BC[38]
Yuánshuò 元朔 128–123 BC[39]
Yuánshòu 元狩 122–117 BC[40]
Yuándǐng 元鼎 116–111 BC[41]
Yuánfēng 元封 110–105 BC[42]
Tàichū 太初 104–101 BC[43]
Tiānhàn 天漢 100–97 BC[44]
Tàishǐ 太始 96–93 BC[45]
Zhēnghé 征和 92–89 BC[46]
Hòuyuán 後元 88–87 BC[47]
Zhaodi 昭帝 Liu Fuling 劉弗陵 87–74 BC[48] Shǐyuán 始元 86–80 BC[49]
Yuánfèng 元鳳 80–75 BC[50]
Yuánpíng 元平 74 BC[51]
The Prince of Changyi 昌邑王 or 海昏侯 Liu He 劉賀 74 BC[27] Yuánpíng 元平 74 BC[51]
Xuandi 宣帝 Liu Bingyi 劉病已 74–49 BC[48] Běnshǐ 本始 73–70 BC[52]
Dìjié 地節 69–66 BC[53]
Yuánkāng 元康 65–61 BC[54]
Shénjué 神爵 61–58 BC[55]
Wǔfèng 五鳳 57–54 BC[56]
Gānlù 甘露 53–50 BC[57]
Huánglóng 黃龍 49 BC[58]
Yuandi 元帝 Liu Shi 劉奭 49–33 BC[59] Chūyuán 初元 48–44 BC[60]
Yǒngguāng 永光 43–39 BC[61]
Jiànzhāo 建昭 38–34 BC[62]
Jìngníng 竟寧 33 BC[63]
Chengdi 成帝 Liu Ao 劉驁 33–7 BC[59] Jiànshǐ 建始 32–28 BC[64]
Hépíng 河平 28–25 BC[65]
Yángshuò 陽朔 24–21 BC[66]
Hóngjiā 鴻嘉 20–17 BC[67]
Yǒngshǐ 永始 16–13 BC[68]
Yuányán 元延 12–9 BC[69]
Suīhé 綏和 8–7 BC[69]
Aidi 哀帝 Liu Xin 劉欣 7–1 BC[59] Jiànpíng 建平 6–3 BC[70]
Yuánshòu 元壽 2–1 BC[70]
Pingdi 平帝 Liu Kan 劉衎 1–6 AD[59] Yuánshǐ 元始 1–5 AD[71]
Ruzi 孺子 Liu Ying 劉嬰 6–9 AD[59] Jùshè 居攝 6–8 AD[72]
Chūshǐ 初始 8–9 AD[73]
Xin dynasty (9–23 AD)
Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (王莽) 9–23 AD[74] Shǐjiànguó 始建國 9–13 AD[75]
Tiānfēng 天鳳 14–19 AD[76]
Dìhuáng 地皇 20–23 AD[77]
Continuation of Han dynasty
Gengshi-di 更始帝 Liu Xuan 劉玄 23–25 AD[78] Gēngshǐ 更始 23–25 AD[79]
Eastern Han dynasty 25–220 AD
Guangwu-di 光武帝 Liu Xiu 劉秀 25–57 AD[80] Jiànwǔ 建武 25–56 AD[81]
Jiànwǔzhōngyuán 建武中元 56–57 AD[82]
Mingdi 明帝 Liu Zhuang 劉陽 57–75 AD[83] Yǒngpíng 永平 57–75 AD[84]
Zhangdi 章帝 Liu Da 劉炟 75–88 AD[85] Jiànchū 建初 76–84 AD[86]
Yuánhé 元和 84–87 AD[87]
Zhānghé 章和 87–88 AD[88]
Hedi 和帝 Liu Zhao 劉肇 88–106 AD[89] Yǒngyuán 永元 89–105 AD[90]
Yuánxīng 元興 105 AD[91]
Shangdi 殤帝 Liu Long 劉隆 106 AD[92] Yánpíng 延平 9 months in 106 AD[93]
Andi 安帝 Liu Hu 劉祜 106–125 AD[94] Yǒngchū 永初 107–113 AD[95]
Yuánchū 元初 114–120 AD[96]
Yǒngníng 永寧 120–121 AD[97]
Jiànguāng 建光 121–122 AD[97]
Yánguāng 延光 122–125 AD[98]
Shaodi, the Marquess of Beixiang 少帝 or 北鄉侯 Liu Yi 劉懿 125 AD[99] Yánguāng 延光 125 AD[98]
Shundi 順帝 Liu Bao 劉保 125–144 AD[100] Yǒngjiàn 永建 126–132 AD[101]
Yángjiā 陽嘉 132–135 AD[102]
Yǒnghé 永和 136–141 AD[103]
Hàn'ān 漢安 142–144 AD[104]
Jiànkāng 建康 144 AD[104]
Chongdi 沖帝 Liu Bing 劉炳 144–145 AD[105] Yōngxī 永熹 145 AD[106]
Zhidi 質帝 Liu Zuan 劉纘 145–146 AD[105] Běnchū 本初 146 AD[106]
Huandi 桓帝 Liu Zhi 劉志 146–168 AD[107] Jiànhé 建和 147–149 AD[108]
Hépíng 和平 150 AD[109]
Yuánjiā 元嘉 151–153 AD[109]
Yǒngxīng 永興 153–154 AD[109]
Yǒngshòu 永壽 155–158 AD[110]
Yánxī 延熹 158–167 AD[111]
Yǒngkāng 永康 167 AD[112]
Lingdi 靈帝 Liu Hong 劉宏 168–189 AD[113] Jiànníng 建寧 168–172 AD[114]
Xīpíng 熹平 172–178 AD[115]
Guānghé 光和 178–184 AD[116]
Zhōngpíng 中平 184–189 AD[117]
Shaodi, the Prince of Hongnong 少帝 or 弘農王 Liu Bian 劉辯 189 AD[99] Guāngxī 光熹 189 AD[118]
Zhàoníng 昭寧 189 AD[118]
Xiandi 獻帝 Liu Xie 劉協 189–220 AD[119] Yǒnghàn 永漢 189 AD[118]
Chūpíng 初平 190–193 AD[120]
Xīngpíng 興平 194–195 AD[121]
Jiàn'ān 建安 196–220 AD[122]
Yánkāng 延康 220 AD[123]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The conventional way of referring to these rulers in Chinese is "Han + posthumous name" (for instance "Han Wudi," "Han Jingdi"). Exceptions to this rule include Liu Gong, Liu Hong, Ruzi Ying, the Prince of Changyi, the Marquess of Beixiang, and the Prince of Hongnong. They either died within a year of taking the throne, were removed from power within a year, or were very young and ruled over by a regent during their entire "reign".
  2. ^ The years of the Chinese lunisolar calendar do not correspond exactly with the years given in the column for era names. Some years given in the table also belong to two reign periods because some era names were adopted before the beginning of the following year.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Paludan (1998), 34–36.
  2. ^ Hymes 2000, p. 36.
  3. ^ Beck (1986), 354-355.
  4. ^ de Crespigny (2007), 1216; Bielenstein (1980), 143; Hucker (1975), 149–150.
  5. ^ Wang (1949), 141–142.
  6. ^ Wang (1949), 141–143; Ch'ü (1972), 71; Crespigny (2007), 1216-1217.
  7. ^ de Visser (2003), 43–49.
  8. ^ a b Wilkinson (1998), 105.
  9. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 105–106.
  10. ^ a b c Wilkinson (1998), 106.
  11. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 106–107.
  12. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 176.
  13. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 176–177.
  14. ^ a b Wilkinson (1998), 177.
  15. ^ a b Wilkinson (1998), 177; Sato (1991), 278.
  16. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 177–178; Sato (1991), 278.
  17. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 177–178; Sato (1991), 278–279.
  18. ^ Wilkinson (1998), 178; Sato (1991), 278–279.
  19. ^ a b Wilkinson (1998), 178.
  20. ^ Loewe (1986), 135; Hansen (2000), 115–116.
  21. ^ Loewe (1986), 136–137; Torday (1997), 78.
  22. ^ Loewe (1986), 174–187; Huang (1988), 44–46.
  23. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28 and Loewe (2000), 253–258.
  24. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 433–440.
  25. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28, 31.
  26. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 441–442.
  27. ^ a b c Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Twitchett and Loewe (1986), xxxix.
  28. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 442–443.
  29. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 443.
  30. ^ a b Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28, 33.
  31. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 444–446.
  32. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 446–447.
  33. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 447–448.
  34. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 449–452.
  35. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 452.
  36. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 28, 36 and Loewe (2000), 273–280.
  37. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 452–453.
  38. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 454–455.
  39. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 456–457.
  40. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 457–459.
  41. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 459–460.
  42. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 460–462.
  43. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 463–464.
  44. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 467–468.
  45. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 468.
  46. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 468–470.
  47. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 470–471.
  48. ^ a b Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range come from Paludan (1998), 40.
  49. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 471–472.
  50. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 472–473.
  51. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 473.
  52. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 473–475.
  53. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 475.
  54. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 476.
  55. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 477.
  56. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 478–479.
  57. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 479–480.
  58. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 480.
  59. ^ a b c d e Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 40, 42.
  60. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 481–482.
  61. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 482–483.
  62. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 483–484.
  63. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 484.
  64. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 485–486.
  65. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 486–487.
  66. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 487.
  67. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 487–488.
  68. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 488–489.
  69. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 489.
  70. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 490.
  71. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 495. While traditional sources do not give a exact date when the Yuanshi era was announced, it was implied that the first year of Yuanshi did not start until the first month of the lunar calendar — ergo, in 1 AD. See, e.g., Ban Gu, Book of Han, vol. 12.
  72. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 495–496.
  73. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 496; Wang Mang became emperor in the 12th month of the era Chushi, which correlates with either January or February 9 AD.
  74. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 42–43.
  75. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 496–497.
  76. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 498–499.
  77. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 499–500.
  78. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from de Crespigny (2007), 558–560.
  79. ^ Bo Yang (1977) 500–501.
  80. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44 and de Crespigny (2007), 557–566.
  81. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 501–509.
  82. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 509.
  83. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44, 49 and de Crespigny (2007), 604–609.
  84. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 509–513.
  85. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 44, 49 and de Crespigny (2007), 495–500.
  86. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 514–515.
  87. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 515–516.
  88. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 516.
  89. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 588–592.
  90. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 517–523.
  91. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 523.
  92. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 531.
  93. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 524.
  94. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50 and de Crespigny (2007), 580–583.
  95. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 524–526.
  96. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 526–527.
  97. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 528.
  98. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 529.
  99. ^ a b Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Twitchett and Loewe (1986), xl.
  100. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51 and de Crespigny (2007), 473–478.
  101. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 530–531.
  102. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 532.
  103. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 532–534.
  104. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 534.
  105. ^ a b Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51.
  106. ^ a b Bo Yang (1977), 535.
  107. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50–51 and de Crespigny (2007), 595–603
  108. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 535–536.
  109. ^ a b c Bo Yang (1977), 536.
  110. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 536–537.
  111. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 537–540.
  112. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 541.
  113. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50, 52 and de Crespigny (2007), 511–517.
  114. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 541–542.
  115. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 542–543.
  116. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 543–545.
  117. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 545–547.
  118. ^ a b c Bo Yang (1977), 547.
  119. ^ Latin spelling, Chinese characters, and date range from Paludan (1998), 50, 55.
  120. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 547–550.
  121. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 551.
  122. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 552–564.
  123. ^ Bo Yang (1977), 564.

References[edit]

  • Beck, Mansvelt. (1986). "The Fall of Han," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 317-376. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Bielenstein, Hans. (1980). The Bureaucracy of Han Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22510-8.
  • Bo Yang (1977). Timeline of Chinese History (中國歷史年表). Taipei: Sing-Kuang Book Company Ltd.
  • Ch'ü, T'ung-tsu. (1972). Han Dynasty China: Volume 1: Han Social Structure. Edited by Jack L. Dull. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95068-4.
  • de Crespigny, Rafe. (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. ISBN 90-04-15605-4.
  • Hansen, Valerie. (2000). The Open Empire: A History of China to 1600. New York & London: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-97374-3.
  • Huang, Ray. (1988). China: A Macro History. Armonk & London: M.E. Sharpe Inc., an East Gate Book. ISBN 0-87332-452-8.
  • Hucker, Charles O. (1975). China's Imperial Past: An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0887-8.
  • Hymes, Robert (2000), Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-11004-4 .
  • Loewe, Michael. (1986). "The Former Han Dynasty," in The Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, 103–222. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • Loewe, Michael. (2000). A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han, and Xin Periods (221 BC - AD 24). Leiden, Boston, Koln: Koninklijke Brill NV. ISBN 90-04-10364-3.
  • Paludan, Ann. (1998). Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: the Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd. ISBN 0-500-05090-2.
  • Sato, Masayuki. "Comparative Ideas of Chronology" History and Theory, Vol. 30, No. 3 (Oct., 1991), pp. 275–301.
  • Torday, Laszlo. (1997). Mounted Archers: The Beginnings of Central Asian History. Durham: The Durham Academic Press. ISBN 1-900838-03-6.
  • Twitchett, Denis and Michael Loewe. (1986). "Han Emperors" in Cambridge History of China: Volume I: the Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 B.C. – A.D. 220, xxxix-xli. Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-24327-0.
  • de Visser, M.W. (2003). Dragon in China and Japan. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-5839-X.
  • Wang, Yu-ch'uan. "An Outline of the Central Government of the Former Han Dynasty," Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1/2 (Jun., 1949): pp. 134–187.
  • Wilkinson, Endymion. (1998). Chinese History: A Manual. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Asia Center of the Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-12378-6.

External links[edit]