List of emperors of the Liao dynasty

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The Liao Dynasty, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in East Asia that at its height ruled over what is now Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, and Inner Mongolia provinces in China, as well as portions of the Korean peninsula, portions of the Russian Far East, and much of the country of Mongolia.[1][2]

There were nine emperors of the Liao Dynasty, which at its height ruled over an area composing modern day Mongolia and northern China for over two hundred years. The emperors of the Liao Dynasty were Khitans from Yelü clan.

Liao Dynasty 907-1125
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 miàohào) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號 shìhào) Birth Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 niánhào) and their according range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Taizu (太祖 Tàizǔ) Shen Tian Huangdi Yelü Abaoji (耶律阿保機 Yēlǜ Ābǎojī) 907-926 Shence (神冊 Shéncè) 916-922[3]
Tianzan (天贊 Tiānzàn) 922-926[4]
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Xiao Wu Huangdi Yelü Deguang (耶律德光 Yēlǜ Déguāng) 926-947 Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 926-937[5]
Huitong (會同 Huìtóng) 937-947[6]
Datong (大同 Dàtóng) 947[7]
Shizong (世宗 Shìzōng) Tian Shou Huangdi Yelü Ruan (耶律阮 Yēlǜ Ruǎn) 947-951 Tianlu (天祿 Tiānlù) 947-951[8]
Muzong (穆宗 Mùzōng) Yelü Jing (耶律璟 Yēlǜ Jǐng) 951-969 Yingli (應曆 Yìnglì) 951-969[9]
Jingzong (景宗 Jǐngzōng) Yelü Xian (耶律賢 Yēlǜ Xián) 969-982 Baoning (保寧 Bǎoníng) 969-979[10]
Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 979-982[11]
Shengzong (聖宗 Shèngzōng) Wen Wu Da Xiao Xuan Huangdi Yelü Longxu (耶律隆緒 Yēlǜ Lóngxù) 982-1031 Qianheng (乾亨 Qiánhēng) 982[11]
Tonghe (統和 Tǒnghé) 983-1012[12]
Kaitai (開泰 Kāitài) 1012-1021[13]
Taiping (太平 Tàipíng) 1021-1031[14]
Xingzong (興宗 Xīngzōng) Xiao Zheng Huangdi Yelü Zongzhen (耶律宗真 Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn) 1031–1055 Jingfu (景福 Jǐngfú) 1031-1032[15]
Chongxi (重熙 Chóngxī) 1032-1055[16]
Daozong (道宗 Dàozōng) Yelü Hongji (耶律洪基 Yēlǜ Hóngjī) 1055–1101 Qingning (清寧 Qīngníng) 1055-1064[17]
Xianyong (咸雍 Xiányōng) 1065-1074[18]
Taikang (太康 Tàikāng) or Dakang (大康 Dàkāng) 1075-1084[19]
Da'an (大安 Dà'ān) 1085-1094[20]
Shouchang (壽昌 Shòuchāng) or Shoulong (壽隆 Shòulóng) 1095-1101[21]
Tianzuodi (天祚帝 Tiānzuòdì) Yelü Yanxi (耶律延禧 Yēlǜ Yánxǐ) 1101–1125 Qiantong (乾統 Qiántǒng) 1101-1110[22]
Tianqing (天慶 Tiānqìng) 1111-1120[23]
Baoda (保大 Bǎodà) 1121-1125[24]

Family tree[edit]

The following is a family tree of Chinese emperors from 581 to 1279, the second of three periods of 700 years, from the unification of China under the Sui Dynasty to the conquest of China by the Mongols under Kublai Khan.

Chinese emperors family tree (ancient)Chinese emperors family tree (early)Chinese emperors family tree (middle)Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Southern and Northern Dynasties[edit]

Liu Song[edit]

Liu Yu 刘裕 (363--422)
Wudi (r. 420-422)
Liu Yifu 刘义符 (406-424)
Shao (r. 423-424)
Liu Yilong 刘义隆 (407-453)
Wen (r. 424-453)
Liu Shao 刘劭
426-453; r. 453
Liu Jun (430-464)
Xiaowu (r. 453-464)
Liu Yu 刘彧 (465-472)
Ming (r. 465-472)
Liu Xiufan 刘休范 (448-474)
Liu Ziye 刘子业 (449-465)
Qianfei (r. 464-465)
Liu Zixun (劉子勛) (456–466; r. 466) Liu Yu (劉昱) (463-477)
Houfei (r. 472-477)
Liu Zhun (劉準) (469-479)
Shun (r. 477-479)


Southern Qi[edit]

Xiao Chengzhi 萧承之 (384-447)
Xiao Daosheng 萧道生 Xiao Daocheng 蕭道成 (427–482)
Gao (r. 479-482)
Xiao Luan 蕭鸞(452–498)
Ming (r. 494-498)
Xiao Ze 蕭賾 (440–493)
Wu (r. 482-493)
Xiao Baojuan 蕭寶卷
(483–501; r. 498-501)
Xiao Baoyin 蕭寶寅
(487–530; r. 527)
Xiao Baorong 蕭寶融 (488–502)
He (r. 501-502)
Xiao Zhangmao 蕭長懋 (458–493)
Xiao Zhaoye 蕭昭業
473–494; r. 493-494
Xiao Zhaowen 蕭昭文
480–494; r. 494


Liang dynasty[edit]

Xiao Shunzhi 萧顺之
Xiao Yi 萧懿 (d. 500) Xiao Yan 蕭衍(464–549)
Wu (r. 502-549)
Xiao Hong 蕭宏 (473-526)
Xiao Yuanming 蕭淵明 (d. 556. r. 555) Xiao Tong 萧统 (501-531) Xiao Gang 蕭綱 (503-551)
Jianwen (r. 549-551)
Xiao Yi 蕭繹 (508–555)
Yuan (r. 552-554)
Xiao Ji 蕭紀
508–553; r. 552-553
Xiao Zhengde 蕭正德
d.549; r. 548-549
Xiao Huan 萧欢 Xiao Cha 蕭詧 (519-562)
Xuan of Western Liang (r. 555-562)
Xiao Fangdeng 蕭方等 (528-549) Xiao Fangzhi 蕭方智 543-558
Jing (r. 555-557)
Xiao Dong 萧栋 (d. 552; r. 551) Xiao Kui 蕭巋 (542–585)
Ming of Western Liang (r. 562-585)
Xiao Yan 蕭巖 Xiao Zhuang 蕭莊
548-577?; r. 557-560
Xiao Cong 蕭琮
Jing of Western Liang (r. 585-587)
Xiao Xuan 萧璿
Xiao Xian 萧铣 (583-621; r. 617–621)


Chen dynasty[edit]

Chen Wenzan 陈文赞
Chen Daotan 陈道谭 Chen Baxian 陳霸先 (503–559)
Wu (r. 557-559)
Chen Qian 陳蒨 (522–566)
Wen (r. 559-566)
Chen Xu 陈顼 (530–582)
Xuan (r. 569-582)
Chen Chang 陳昌 (537–560)
Chen Bozong 陳伯宗 (554?–570)
Fei (r. 566-568)
Chen Shubao 陈叔宝
553–604; r. 582-589


Northern Wei, Eastern Wei, Western Wei[edit]

Tuoba Gui
Daowu
371–386–409
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Si
Mingyuan
392–409–423
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Xi
399-421
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Tao
Taiwu
408–423–452
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Ta
416-488
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Huang
428–451
 
Tuoba Yu
452
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Zhongkui
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Jun
Wencheng
440–452–465
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Zhen
447-496
 
Yuan Faseng
453-536
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Hong
Xianwen
454–465–471–476
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Bin
464-499
 
Yuan Yi
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tuoba Hong
Xiaowen
467–471–499
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Yu
470-501
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Yong
d.528
 
Yuan Xiang
476-504
 
Yuan Xie
d.508
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Rong
481-526
 
Yuan Ye
530–531; d.532
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Ke
Xuanwu
483–499–515
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Yu
488-508
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Yi
487-520
 
Yuan Huai
488-517
 
Yuan Yue
494-532
 
Yuan Xin
 
Yuan Gong
Jiemin
498–531–532
 
Yuan Yu
d. 555
 
Yuan Hao
d.529
 
Yuan Shao
d.528
 
Yuan Ziyou
Xiaozhuang
507–528–531
 
Yuan Lang
513–531–532
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Xu
Xiaoming
510–515–528
 
Yuan Baohui
 
Yuan Baoju
Wen
507–535–551
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan Dan
d.537
 
Yuan Ti
506-528
 
Yuan Xiu
Xiaowu
510–532–535
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yuan unnamed
b./r.528
 
Yuan Zhao
526–528
 
Yuan Qin
Fei
551–554
 
Yuan Kuo
Gong
537–554–556–557
 
Yuan Shanjian
Xiaojing
524–534–550–552
 
Yuan Zan


Northern Qi[edit]

Gao Huan 高欢 (496-547)
Gao Cheng 高澄 (521-549) Gao Yang 高洋 (526–559)
Wenxuan (r. 550-559)
Gao Yan 高演 (535-561)
Xiaozhao (r. 560-561)
Gao Dan 高湛 (537–569)
Wucheng (r. 561-565)
Gao Jie 高湝 (?-577)
Gao Yanzong 高延宗
(?-578; r.576)
Gao Yin 高殷 (545-561)
Fei (r. 559-560)
Gao Shaoyi 高紹義
(b. 546; r.578-580)
Gao Wei 高緯 (557–577)
Houzhu (r. 565-577)
Gao Yan 高儼 (558–571)
Gao Heng 高恆 (570–577)
Youzhu (r. 577)


Northern Zhou[edit]

Yuwen Gong 宇文肱 (d.526) Yuan Huai 元怀 (488-517)
Yuwen Hao 宇文顥 (d. 524) Yuwen Tai 宇文泰 (507–556) Princess Fengyi (d. 541) Yuan Xiu 元脩 (510–535)
Yuwen Hu 宇文護 (513–572) Yuwen Yu 宇文毓 (534–560)
Ming (r. 557–560)
Yuwen Jue 宇文覺 (542–557)
Xiaomin (r. 557)
Yuwen Yong 宇文邕
Wu (r. 560–578)
Yuwen Yun 宇文贇(559–580)
Xuan (r. 578–579)
Yuwen Yan 宇文衍 (573–581)
Jing (r. 579–581)

Sui Dynasty[edit]

The following is a simplified family tree for the Sui Dynasty (隋朝), which ruled China between AD 581 and 618. The Dynasty was named for the family title: the Yang (楊) family were the Dukes of Sui.

Those who became emperor are listed in bold, with their years of reign large. The names given for emperors are posthumous names, the form by which Sui emperors were most commonly known.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dugu Xin 獨孤信
 
 
 
 
 
 
SUI DYNASTY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Jian 楊坚 541–604
Wendi 文帝
581–604
 
Dugu Qieluo 獨孤伽羅 544–602
Empresss Xian 獻皇后
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Duchess Dugu
 
Li Bing 李昺 d. 572
Duke of Tang 唐國公
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
 
 
TANG DYNASTY
Yang Yong 楊勇 d. 604
Prince of Fangling 房陵王
 
Yang Guang 楊廣 569–618
Yangdi 煬帝
604–617
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Jun 楊俊 571–600
Prince Xiao of Qin 秦孝王
 
 
 
 
Li Yuan 李淵 566–635
Gaozu 高祖
618–626
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Zhao 楊昭 584–606
Cr.Prince Yuande 元德太子
 
Yang Jian 楊暕 585–618
Prince of Qi 齊王
 
Yang Gao 楊杲 607–618
Prince of Zhao 趙王
 
Yang Hao 楊浩 d. 618
Prince of Qin 秦王

618?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
3
Yang Tan 楊倓 603–618
Prince of Yan 燕王
 
Yang Tong 楊侗 605–619
Gongdi 恭帝
618–619
 
Yang You 楊侑 605–619
Gongdi 恭帝
617–618
 
 

Tang and Second Zhou Dynasties[edit]

The following is a simplified family tree for the Tang Dynasty (唐朝), which ruled China between AD 618 and 907. The Tang Dynasty was interrupted by the reign of Empress Wu Zetian (AD 690—705), who after deposing her sons, declared herself the founder of a second Zhou (周) Dynasty; the Tang Dynasty was resumed by her sons following her abdication. The Dynasty was named for the family title: the Li (李) family were the Dukes of Tang.

The names given in bold for emperors are temple names, the form by which Tang emperors were most commonly known (with the exception of Shangdi/Shaodi (殤帝 / 少帝), whose posthumous titles mean simply "died young" and "the young emperor", and Aidi (哀帝), also known as Zhaoxuan (昭宣), neither of whom were awarded temple names). It should be noted that the names of Xuanzong I (玄宗) and Xuanzong II (宣宗) are different in the original Chinese, but are rendered the same in Pinyin English transliteration (once the accents have been removed).

The Tang emperors claimed descent from people such as Li Guang and Laozi.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Yuan 李淵 566–635
Gaozu 高祖
618–626
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
4
 
 
 
 
Li Jiancheng 李建成 589–626
Cr.Prince Yin 隱太子
 
Li Shimin 李世民 599–649
Taizong 太宗
626–649
 
Li Yuanji 李元吉 603–626
Prince of Qi 齊王
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
8
 
 
 
 
 
Li Ke 李恪 d. 653
Prince of Yulin 鬱林王
 
 
Li Zhen 李貞 d. 688
Prince Jing of Yue 越敬王
 
 
1
 
4
 
9
 
 
 
 
 
ZHOU DYNASTY
Li Chengqian 李承乾 619–645
Prince Min of Hengshan 恆山愍王
 
Li Tai 李泰 618–652
Prince Gong of Pu 濮恭王
 
Li Zhi 李治 628–683
Gaozong 高宗
649–683
 
 
 
 
 
Wu Zhao 武曌 624–705
Wu Zetian 武則天
690–705
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
4
 
5 (1)
 
7 (3)
 
8 (4)
 
 
 
 
Li Zhong 李忠 643–665
Prince of Yan 燕王
 
Li Sujie 李素節 646–690
Prince of Xu 許王
 
Li Hong 李弘 652–675
Xiaojing 孝敬
 
Li Xian 李顯 656–710
Zhongzong 中宗
684, 705–710
 
Li Dan 李旦 662–716
Ruizong 睿宗
684–690, 710–712
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Chongmao 李重茂 695/698–714
Shangdi 殤帝
710
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Chengqi 李成器 679–742
Rangdi 讓帝
 
Li Longji 李隆基 685–762
Xuanzong I 玄宗
712–756
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
3
 
16
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Cong 李琮 d. 752
Fengtian 奉天
 
Li Ying 李瑛 d. 737
Crown Prince
 
Li Heng 李亨 711–762
Suzong 肅宗
756–762
 
Li Lin 李璘 d. 757
Prince of Yong 永王
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Yu 李豫 727–779
Daizong 代宗
762–779
 
Li Tan 李倓 d. 757
Chengtian 承天
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Gua 李适 742–805
Dezong 德宗
779–805
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Song 李誦 761–806
Shunzong 順宗
805
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Chun 李純 778–820
Xianzong 憲宗
805–820
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
13
 
 
 
 
Li Ning 李寧 793–812
Cr.Prince Huizhao 惠昭太子
 
Li Heng 李恆 795–824
Muzong 穆宗
820–824
 
 
 
 
 
Li Chen 李忱 810–859
Xuānzong 宣宗
846–859
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
5
 
1
 
 
 
 
Li Zhan 李湛 809–827
Jingzong 敬宗
824–827
 
Li Ang 李昂 809–840
Wenzong 文宗
827–840
 
Li Yang 李炎 814–846
Wuzong 武宗
840–846
 
Li Cui 李漼 833–873
Yizong 懿宗
859–873
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5
 
7
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Xuan 李儇 862–888
Xizong 僖宗
873–888
 
Li Yue 李曄 867–904
Zhaozong 昭宗
888–904
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Zhu 李柷 892–908
Aidi 哀帝 or
Zhaoxuan 昭宣
904–907


Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period[edit]

The fifty years between the fall of the Tang Dynasty and the establishment of the Song Dynasty were a time of upheaval known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. During this period, five short-lived imperial dynasties ruled the heart of China, while a series of small independent kingdoms were established in the south.

Later Liang[edit]

The Later Liang ruled between 907 and 923.


 
 
Zhu Wen 朱溫 852–912
Taizu 太祖 907–912
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
8
Zhu Yougui 朱友圭 d. 913
912–913
 
Zhu Zhen 朱瑱 888–923
Modi 末帝 913–923

Later Tang and Later Jin[edit]

The Later Tang ruled between 923 and 937. The Later Jin ruled between 936 and 947.


 
 
LATER TANG
 
 
 
 
adopted
 
 
Li Keyong 李克用 856–908
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Cunxu 李存勖 885–926
Zhuangzong 莊宗 923–926
 
Li Siyuan 李嗣源 867–933
Mingzong 明宗 926–933
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LATER JIN
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Congke 李從珂 885–937
Modi 末帝 934–937
 
Li Conghou 李從厚 914–934
Mindi 愍帝 933–934
 
Empress Li d. 950
 
Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭 892–942
Gaozu 高祖 936–942
 
Shi Jingru 石敬儒
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shi Chonggui 石重貴 914–974
Chudi 出帝 942–947

Later Han and Northern Han[edit]

The Later Han ruled between 947 and 951. Liu Min, brother of Emperor Gaozu the founder of the Later Han, established the Northern Han kingdom, which ruled the area north of the Chinese heartland until it was overrun by Emperor Taizong of Song in 979.


 
 
LATER HAN
 
 
 
 
adopted
 
 
Liu Tian 劉琠
Xianzu 显祖
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LATER HAN
 
NORTHERN HAN
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Zhiyuan 劉知遠 895–948
Gaozu 高祖 947–948
 
Liu Min 劉旻 895–954
Shizu 世祖 951–954
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Chengyou 劉承祐 929–951
Yindi 隱帝 948–951
 
Liu Jun 劉钧 926–968
Ruizong 睿宗 954–968
 
Xue Zhao 薛钊
 
Lady Liu 劉氏
 
Mr. He 何某
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Liu Jien 劉继恩 d. 968
Shaozhu 少主 968
 
Liu Jiyuan 劉继元 d. 992
Yingwudi 英武帝 968–979

Later Zhou[edit]

The Later Zhou ruled between 951 and 960.


 
 
Mr. Chai 柴翁
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chai Shouli 柴守礼 896–967
 
Empress Shengmu
圣穆皇后
 
Guo Wei 郭威 904–954
Taizu 太祖 951–954
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Chai Rong 柴榮 921–959
Shizong 世宗 954–959
 
 
 
 
Chai Zongxun 柴宗训 953–973
Gongdi 恭帝 959–960

Later Shu[edit]

The Later Shu kingdom gained independence from the Later Tang in 934, remaining an independent state until conquered by the Song Dynasty in 965.


Meng Zhixiang 孟知祥 874–934
Gaozu 高祖 934
 
 
Meng Chang 孟昶 919–965
Houzhu 后主 934–965

Wu and Southern Tang[edit]

The Wu kingdom existed as an independent state 907–937. In 937 Li Bian (also known as Xu Zhigao), at one point an adopted son of Yang Xingmi and later the adopted son of the paramount general Xu Wen, usurped power and established the Southern Tang kingdom, which remained an independent state until conquered by the Song Dynasty in 975.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
WU
 
SOUTHERN TANG
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Xingmi 杨行密 874–905
Taizu 太祖
(902–905)
 
Xu Wen 徐溫 862–927
Yizu 義祖
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Wo 杨渥 886–908
Liezu 烈祖
(905– ) 907–908
 
Yang Longyan 杨隆演 897–920
Gaozu 高祖
908–920
 
Yang Pu 杨溥 900–938
Ruidi 睿帝
920–937
 
Li Bian 李昪 888–943
Liezu 烈祖
937–943
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yang Lian 杨琏
 
Princess Yongxing 永兴公主
 
Li Jing 李璟 916–961
Yuanzong 元宗
943–961
 
Li Jingsui 李景遂
Crown Prince Wencheng 文成太弟
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Li Yu 李煜 937–978
Houzhu 后主
961–975
 

Wuyue[edit]

Qian Liu 錢鏐 850-932
Taìzǔ (太祖) r.907-9321
Qian Yuanguan 錢元瓘 887-941
Shìzōng (世宗) r.932-9412
Qian Hongzuo 錢弘佐 928-947
Chéngzōng (成宗) r.941-9473
Qián Zōng 錢倧 928-971
r.9474
Qian Chu 錢俶 929–988
Zhongyi (忠懿王) r.947-9785


Min[edit]

Wang Nin 王恁
Wang Chao 王潮
b.846-d.898
Wang Shenzhi 王審知 b.862–d.925
Tàizǔ 太祖 r.909-925
Wang Shengui 王審邽
b.858-d.904
Wang Yanhan 王延翰 d.927
r.925-926
Wang Yanjun 王延鈞 d.935
Huìzōng 惠宗 r.927-935
Wang Yanxi 王延羲 d.944
Jǐngzōng (景宗) r.939-944
Wang Yanzheng 王延政 d.951
Tiande (天德帝) r.943-945
Wang Jipeng 王繼鵬 d.939
Kāngzōng (康宗) r.935-939


Chu[edit]

Ma Yin 馬殷 (b.853-d.930)
Wumu 楚武穆王 r.907-930
Ma Xizhen 馬希振 Ma Xisheng 馬希聲 (899-932)
r.930-932
Mǎ Xī'è 馬希萼
r.950-951
Ma Xifan 馬希範 (899-947)
Wénzhāo 文昭 r.932-947
Ma Xiwang 馬希旺 (d.~933) Ma Xigao (馬希杲) d.945 Mǎ Xīchóng 馬希崇 b.912
r.950-951
Mǎ Xīguǎng 馬希廣 d.950
r.947-950
Mǎ Guānghuì 马光惠


Southern Han[edit]

Liu Zhiqian 劉知謙 (d. 894)
Liu Yin 劉隱
b.874–d.911
Liu Yan 劉龑 889–942
Gaozu 高祖 r.917-942
Liu Tai 劉台
Emperor
Huizong of Min
Liu Hua 劉華
b.896-d.930
Liu Bin 劉玢 920-943
Shāng 殤皇 r.942-943
Liu Sheng 劉晟 920–958
Zhongzong r.943-958
Liu Chang 劉鋹 942–980
r.958-971


Jingnan[edit]

Gao Jixing 高季興 b.858-d.929
Wǔxìng 武信 r.924-928
Gao Conghui 高從誨 891-948
Wénxiàn 文獻 r.928-948
Gao Baoxu 高保勗 924-962
Zhenan r.960-962
Gao Baorong 高保融 920-960
Zhenyi r.948-960
Gao Jichong 高繼沖 943–973
Deren r.962-963

Song Dynasty[edit]

The following is a simplified family tree for the Song Dynasty, which ruled China between 960 and 1279. The names given are temple names, the form by which Song Emperors are most commonly known (with the exception of the last emperor, Bing, who is simply known by his given name). The Song Dynasty is often divided into the Northern Song (960–1127), which ended when the Song lost control of Northern China to the Jin Dynasty, and the Southern Song (1127–1279).

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
adoption
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Hongyin 趙弘殷 899–956
Xuanzu 宣祖
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
 
 
 
 
3
 
 
Zhao Kuangyin 趙匡胤 927–976
Taizu 太祖
960–976
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Guangyi 趙光義 939–997
Taizong 太宗
976–997
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
4
 
3
 
4
Zhao Dezhao 趙德昭 951–979
Prince Yi of Yan 燕懿王
 
Zhao Defang 趙德芳 959–981
Prince Kanghui of Qin 秦康惠王
 
Zhao Heng 趙恆 968–1022
Zhenzong 真宗
997–1022
 
Zhao Yuanfen 趙元份 969–1005
Prince Gongjing of Shang 商恭靖王
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
2
 
6
 
3
Zhao Weiji 趙惟吉
Prince Ji 冀王
 
Zhao Weixian 趙惟憲 979–1016
Duke of Ying 英國公
 
Zhao Zhen 趙禎 1010–1063
Renzong 仁宗
1022–1063
 
Zhao Yunrang 趙允讓 995–1059
Prince Anyi of Pu 濮安懿王
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4
 
3
 
 
 
 
 
13
Zhao Shoudu 趙守度
Marquess of Lujiang 庐江侯
 
Zhao Congyu 趙從郁
Marquess of Xinxing 新興侯
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Shu 趙曙 1032–1067
Yingzong 英宗
1063–1067
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
Zhao Shikuo 趙世括
Duke of Jia 嘉国公
 
Zhao Shijiang 趙世將
Marquess of Huayin 華陰侯
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Xu 趙頊 1048–1085
Shenzong 神宗
1067–1085
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6
 
11
Zhao Lingjia 趙令稼
Duke of Fang 房国公
 
Zhao Linghua 趙令譮
Duke of Qing 慶國公
 
Zhao Xu 趙煦 1076–1100
Zhezong 哲宗
1085–1100
 
Zhao Ji 趙佶 1082–1135
Huizong 徽宗
1100–1126
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
9
Zhao Zishi 趙子奭
Duke of Wu 吳國公
 
Zhao Zicheng 趙子偁 d. 1143
Prince Anxi of Xiu 秀安僖王
 
Zhao Huan 趙桓 1100–1161
Qinzong 欽宗
1126–1127
 
Zhao Gou 趙構 1107–1187
Gaozong 高宗
1127–1162
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
 
Zhao Bowu 趙伯旿
Duke of Yi 益國公
 
Zhao Shen 趙昚 1127–1194
Xiaozong 孝宗
1162–1189
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3
Zhao Shiyi 趙師意
Duke of Zhao 趙國公
 
Zhao Dun 趙惇 1147–1200
Guangzong 光宗
1189–1194
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2
Zhao Xilu 趙希瓐
Prince Rong 榮王
 
Zhao Kuo 趙擴 1168–1224
Ningzong 寧宗
1194–1224
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
 
 
Zhao Yun 趙昀 1205–1264
Lizong 理宗
1224–1264
 
Zhao Yurui 趙與芮 1207–1287
Prince Rong 榮王
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zhao Mengqi 趙孟启 1240–1274
Duzong 度宗
1264–1274
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1
 
2
 
3
Zhao Shi 趙昰 1268–1278
Duanzong 端宗
1276–1278
 
Zhao Xian 趙顯 1271–1323
Gongdi 恭帝
1274–1276
 
Zhao Bing 趙昺 1271–1279
Bing
1278–1279

Northern Border Empires[edit]

Liao Dynasty[edit]

The following is a simplified family tree for the Liao Dynasty, which ruled much of northern China between 907 and 1125. The names given are temple names, the form by which Liao Emperors are most commonly known (with the exception of the last emperor, Tianzuodi, who was not awarded a temple name).

 
 
 
Yelü Abaoji 耶律阿保機 872–926
Taizu 太祖
907–926
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yelü Bei 耶律倍 ~900–936
Yingzong 義宗
 
Yelü Deguang 耶律德光 902–947
Taizong 太宗
926–947
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yelü Ruan 耶律阮 918–951
Shizong 世宗
947–951
 
Yelü Jing 耶律璟 931–969
Muzong 穆宗
951–969
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yelü Xian 耶律賢 948–982
Jingzong 景宗
969–982
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yelü Longxu 耶律隆緒 971–1031
Shengzong 聖宗
982–1031
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yelü Zongzhen 耶律宗真 1015–1054
Xingzong 興宗
1031–1055
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yelü Hongji 耶律洪基 1032–1101
Daozong 道宗
1055–1101
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yelü Jun 耶律浚 1057–1077
Shunzong 顺宗
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yelü Yangxi 耶律延禧 1075–1128
Tianzuodi 天祚帝
1101–1125
 

Jin Dynasty[edit]

The following is a simplified family tree for the Jin Dynasty. Arising from a family of Jurchen chieftains (whose years of rule are given in brackets), the Dynasty was declared by Wanyan Aguda in 1115; in 1125 his successor Wanyan Wuqimai conquered the Liao Dynasty. The Jin ruled much of northern China until their conquest by the Mongol Empire 1234. They were the ancestors of the Qing Dynasty, which was initially named the Later Jin in recognition of this heritage. The names given are temple names, the form by which Jin Emperors are most commonly known (with the exceptions of Hailingwang, Weishaowang and Modi; these are posthumous names, as temple names were not awarded).

 
 
 
 
Wanyan Wugunai 完颜乌骨迺 1021–1074
Jingzu 景祖
(~1050–1074)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wanyan Helibo 完颜劾里钵 1039–1092
Shizu 世祖
(1074–1092)
 
Wanyan Polashu 完顏頗刺淑 1042–1094
Suzong 肅宗
(1092–1094)
 
Wanyan Mingge 完顏盈歌 1053–1103
Muzong 穆宗
(1094–1103)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wanyan Wuyashu 完顏烏雅束 1061–1113
Kangzong 康宗
(1103–1113)
 
Wanyan Aguda 完颜阿骨打 1068–1123
Taizu 太祖
(1113– ) 1115–1123
 
Wanyan Wuqimai 完顏吳乞買 1075–1135
Taizong 太宗
1123–1135
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wanyan Zongjun 完颜宗峻 d. 1124
Huizong 徽宗
 
Wanyan Zonggan 完颜宗干 d. 1141
Dezong 德宗
 
Wanyan Zongfu 完顏宗辅 1096–1135
Ruizong 睿宗
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wanyan Hela 完顏合剌 1119–1149
Xizong 熙宗
1135–1149
 
Wanyan Liang 完顏亮 1122–1161
Hailingwang 海陵王
1149–1161
 
Wanyan Yong 完顏雍 1123–1189
Shizong 世宗
1161–1189
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wanyan Yungong 完顏允恭 1146–1185
Xianzong 顯宗
 
Wanyan Yongji 完顏永濟 1168–1213
Weishaowang 衛紹王
1209–1213
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wanyan Jing 完顏璟 1168–1208
Zhangzong 章宗
1190–1208
 
Wanyan Xun 完顏珣 1163–1223
Xuanzong 宣宗
1213–1223
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wanyan Shouxu 完顏守緒 1198–1234
Aizong 哀宗
1224–1234
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Wanyan Chenglin 完顏承麟 d. 1234
Modi 末帝
1234

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steinhardt (1994), 5.
  2. ^ Mote (1999), 58.
  3. ^ Bo (1977) 842-845.
  4. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 845-849.
  5. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 849-856.
  6. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 856-863.
  7. ^ Bo (1977), p. 863.
  8. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 863-867.
  9. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 867-879.
  10. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 879-882.
  11. ^ a b Bo (1977), pp. 882-883.
  12. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 883-893.
  13. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 893-895.
  14. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 895-896.
  15. ^ Bo (1977), p. 896.
  16. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 896-905.
  17. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 905-908.
  18. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 908-913.
  19. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 913-917.
  20. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 918-921.
  21. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 922-927.
  22. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 927-929.
  23. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 929-932.
  24. ^ Bo (1977), pp. 933-935.

Notes[edit]

References[edit]