List of enclaves and exclaves
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In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land which is totally surrounded by a foreign territory. An exclave is a piece of land which is politically attached to a larger piece but not physically contiguous with it because of surrounding foreign territory. Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves.
Enclaves which are also exclaves 
National Level 
- Armenia/Azerbaijan — In Armenia, there exist five Azerbaijani exclaves. Barxudarlı ( ) and Yuxarı Əskipara ( ) are in north-eastern Armenia. Another, Karki ( ), is located north of the region of Nakhchivan (which is a detached fragment of Azerbaijan situated between Armenia, Iran and Turkey). Two others, "Yaradullu", are tiny, unpopulated Azeri fields about 500 m apart within the Armenian province of Tavush. Reciprocally, there exists one Armenian exclave, a village called Artsvashen in north-western Azerbaijan ( ).
- Bangladesh/India — On the India-Bangladesh border in the Indian district of Cooch-Behar, there are 92 Bangladeshi exclaves, with a total area of 47.7 km². Similarly, there are 106 Indian exclaves inside Bangladesh, with a total area of 69.5 km². Twenty-one of the Bangladeshi exclaves are within Indian exclaves, and four of the Indian exclaves are within Bangladeshi exclaves. The largest Indian exclave, Balapara Khagrabari (formed by three contiguous Indian chhits), surrounds a Bangladeshi exclave, Upanchowki Bhajni 110, which itself surrounds an Indian exclave called Dahala Khagrabari #51, of less than one hectare. See link to external map here. An agreement has been reached between India and Bangladesh for these enclaves to be extinguished, at an unspecified date in the future.
- Belgium/Netherlands — The town of Baarle ( ) in the southern Netherlands is made up of the municipality of Baarle-Hertog, a group of 22 Belgian enclaves within the Netherlands; and of the Dutch municipality of Baarle-Nassau, which itself has one enclave in the main body of Belgium and 7 counter-enclaves inside two of the Belgian enclaves.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina — The town of Sastavci (part of Rudo municipality in Republika Srpska) is completely surrounded by Serbia near the municipality of Priboj, in Zlatibor District.
- Cyprus — The villages of Ormidhia and Xylotymvou ( ) are surrounded by the British Sovereign Base Area of Dhekelia. Inside this base, the Dhekalia Power Station also belongs to Cyprus, even though the station is surrounded by British land and is also divided in two by a road which is under British sovereignty.
- Germany — Büsingen, Germany ( ) is an exclave in the canton of Schaffhausen, northern Switzerland. Germany also has a group of 5 enclaves that were created 6 November 1922 when Belgium assumed permanent sovereignty of the Vennbahn railway trackbed between the towns of Roetgen and Monschau (south of Aachen).
- Israel — Mount Scopus was an enclave of Israeli territory within East Jerusalem from 1949 to 1967. Since the disputed annexation of East Jerusalem by Israel, it is in Israel's eyes no longer an exclave.
- Italy — Campione d'Italia ( ) is enclaved in the canton of Ticino, Switzerland, although in practice it is administered as part of Switzerland. It is part of Swiss customs, uses the Swiss franc, its inhabitants have to pay income tax to Italy, though in a reduced measure, and it is under Italian sovereignty.
- Tajikistan/Uzbekistan — The Fergana Valley has a large number of enclaves. The Uzbek areas of Sokh ( ) and Shakhimardan, as well as the two tiny territories of Chon-Kara ( ) (or Qal'acha) and Jani-Ayil ( ) (or Dzhangail), are all surrounded by Kyrgyzstan. Also, the Tajik village of Sarvan is in Uzbek territory, and the Tajik village of Vorukh ( ) plus another small piece of land near Kairagach are embedded in Kyrgyz land. Barak, a small Kyrgyz village, was thought to have been an enclave, but has been shown not to be entirely surrounded by Uzbekistan.
- Oman/United Arab Emirates — Madha ( ) is an Omani territory enclaved in the UAE, which in turn hosts the tiny territory of Nahwa, a UAE enclave within Madha.
- Russia — In the eastern part of Belarus, the Russian exclave of Sankovo-Medvezhye ( ) is made up of two villages. This area has been depopulated since the Chernobyl disaster due to the presence of radioactive pollution.
- Spain — The town of Llívia ( ), an exclave in southern France near Font-Romeu, east of Andorra and close to Puigcerda.
- Argentina — Isla Martín García ( ) is surrounded by Uruguayan territorial waters in the Río de la Plata. In addition, the Argentine islands of Apipé ( ) and Isla Entre Ríos are surrounded by Paraguayan territorial waters in the Paraná River, as are some small islets.
- Malawi — Chizumulu Island and Likoma Island ( ) are located within Mozambican territorial waters in Lake Malawi.
- Uruguay — The Filomena Islands, which are surrounded by Argentinian territorial waters in the Uruguay River.
- High Seas — The coastal Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Russia and Japan each surround one of the only four high-seas enclaves in the world, and that of New Zealand surrounds two of them. International waters comprise these enclaves, which are surrounded by, respectively, Russia's EEZ in the Sea of Okhotsk, Japan's EEZ between Honshu and Parece Vela, and New Zealand's EEZ southwest of the Chatham Islands in the first instance, as well as west of the Antipodes Islands in the second.
Tabular Listing 
See Indo-Bangladesh enclaves for similar tables of the Cooch-Behar enclaves.
|Home Country & Name ||Within||Area (km2)||Notes|
|Büsingen am Hochrhein||Switzerland||7.62||German enclave within Canton of Schaffhausen, Switzerland; at its closest, less than 700 meters from Germany proper (to the east).|
|Mützenich||Belgium||12.117||An enclaved part of the German city of Monschau, west of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed; at one place at the edge of the enclave, a German road crosses beneath a viaduct of the Belgian Vennbahn.|
|Roetgener Wald||Belgium||9.98||An enclave consisting of the western part of the German municipality of Lammersdorf and the southern part of Roetgen, including blended forested area (wald), west and south of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed. From 1922 to 1958, the center portion (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach creek) was Belgian territory. Because the road connecting the two outer German portions was German territory until 1949, the German land formed one enclave.|
|Münsterbildchen||Belgium||1.826||An enclaved part of the German city of Roetgen, west of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed; the northernmost German enclave, mainly populated with industrial and warehouse businesses.|
|Ruitzhof||Belgium||0.937||An enclaved part of the German city of Monschau, west of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed; the southernmost of the Vennbahn enclaves (Hemmeres had been southernmost until its 1949 annexation by Belgium).|
|Rückschlag||Belgium||0.016||An enclaved part of the German city of Monschau, west of Belgium's Vennbahn trackbed; the smallest German enclave, consisting of one inhabited house with a garden.|
|Llívia||France||12.84||Spanish enclave within the French department of Pyrénées-Orientales; part of the town of Cerdanya, province of Girona, in Catalonia, Spain; separated from the rest of Spain by a corridor about 2 km wide, which includes the French communes of Ur and Bourg-Madame.|
|Campione d'Italia||Switzerland||1.6||Italian enclave within the Swiss Canton of Ticino; a municipality of the Province of Como in the Lombardy region, separated from the rest of Italy by Lake Lugano and mountains; less than 1 km at the shortest distance from the rest of Italy, but the terrain requires a 14 km road journey to reach the nearest Italian town, Lanzo d'Intelvi.|
|Jungholz||Germany||7.0||Austrian enclave within Germany, a small town in the Austrian district of Reutte, Tyrol, that is only accessible through Germany; it has a quadripoint connection on a mountaintop with the main boundary of Austria.|
|Sastavci||Serbia||3.9584||Bosnia-Herzegovinian enclave south of the Lim River and west of the Serbian town of Priboj; part of village of Međurečje in the municipality of Rudo in Republika Srpska; distance to the home land of Bosnia-Herzegovina is 1130 meters.|
|Brezovica Žumberačka||Slovenia||0.0183||A Croatian enclave (Slovenian village of Brezovica pri Metliki, about 437 m long and 60 m wide; confirmed by both Croatian and Slovenian cadaster maps, although boundary lines slightly differ; administered as part of the Croatian town of Ozalj in Karlovac County, about 100 meters away at the closest point ) containing four dwellings surrounded by agricultural land near the|
|Ormidhia||Akrotiri and Dhekelia||1.694||Cypriot enclave within UK's Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area on Cyprus; a village in Larnaca District in south-eastern Cyprus, it is one of four exclaves surrounded by the United Kingdom's Akrotiri and Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory administered as a Sovereign Base Area.|
|Xylotymbou||Akrotiri and Dhekelia||0.947||Cypriot enclave within UK's Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area on Cyprus; a small town in the Larnaca District in south-eastern Cyprus, it is one of four exclaves surrounded by the United Kingdom's Akrotiri and Dhekelia, a British Overseas Territory administered as a Sovereign Base Area.|
|"Electricity Authority of Cyprus" Refugee Settlement||Akrotiri and Dhekelia||~0.28||Cypriot enclave within UK's Dhekelia Sovereign Base, on the island of Cyprus, north of Dhekelia Power Station from which it is separated by a British road; the closest point between the two exclaves is 21 meters.|
|Dhekelia Power Station||Akrotiri and Dhekelia||~0.161||Cypriot enclave partially bordering the coast, it is within the UK's Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area on Cyprus; surrounded by UK waters to the south and UK land elsewhere; the power station is owned by the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC); no permanent population.|
|San'kovo-Medvezh'e||Belarus||4.54||Russian enclave within Belarus with two abandoned villages, unpopulated due to contamination from the 1986 explosion at the Chernobyl power plant in Ukraine.|
|Artchvašen (Bashkend)||Azerbaijan||~40||Armenian enclave within Azerbaijan, an exclave of Armenia's Gegharkunik province and controlled by Azerbaijan since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in 1992.|
|Yukhari Askipara||Armenia||~37||Azeri enclave within Armenia (west of the town of Qazax); a destroyed Azeri village in the Qazakh Rayon of Azerbaijan that has been controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May, 1992.|
|Barkhudarli||Armenia||~22||Azeri enclave within Armenia (west-southwest of the town of Qazax); a village in the Qazakh Rayon of Azerbaijan that has been controlled by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May, 1992.|
|Karki||Armenia||~10||Azeri enclave within the Ararat Province of Armenia, north of Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan; a part of the Sadarak Rayon of Azerbaijan that has been occupied by Armenia since the Nagorno-Karabakh War in May, 1992.|
|"Yaradullu" (north and south)||Armenia||0.12 and 0.06||These two tiny, Azeri farmland enclaves are located just across the border in Armenia from the Azeri village of Yaradullu. They are 750 m and 1500 m southwest of the municipality of Tatli, on the west bank of the Akhum River, and measure approximately 300x400 m and 300x200 m. The northern enclave is about 55 m from Yaradullu at the closest point; Armenia has likely annexed them unilaterally.|
|Vorukh||Kyrgyzstan||~96.7||Tajik enclave within Kyrgyzstan located south of the mountain Ak-Tash; population is 95% Tajik and the rest Kyrgyz.|
|Sarvan (also Sarvaksoi, Sarvaki-bolo)||Uzbekistan||8.4||Tajik enclave within Uzbekistan, located in the Fergana and Isfara valleys region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet.|
|"Kairagach"||Kyrgyzstan||~0.88||Tajik enclave within Kyrgyzstan, located near the railway station of Kairagach, next to the Kyrgyz-Tajik border in the Leilek District; also referred to as "Western Qalacha" due to its proximity to the Tajik town of Qalacha; apparently there is no named settlement.|
|Sokh||Kyrgyzstan||~234||Large Uzbek enclave within Kyrgyzstan; population is 99% Tajik and the rest Kyrgyz, with almost no ethnic Uzbeks.|
|Shakhimardan||Kyrgyzstan||~38.2||Uzbek enclave within Kyrgyzstan, located close to the Alay Mountains in a narrow fertile valley where the rivers Ak-Suu and Kara-Suu meet to form the rapid Shakhimardan-sai.|
|Chon-Kara or Qalacha (the 2 Uzbek villages in the enclave)||Kyrgyzstan||~3||A tiny Uzbek enclave within Kyrgyzstan lying on the Sokh River, immediately north of Sokh; measures about 3 km long by 1 km wide, with the Uzbek villages of Chon-Kara (or Chongara ) and Qalacha ( ) at either end; the Kyrgyz village of Chong-Kara (or Chon-Qora ) lies 2 km northwest. [Note: The Kyrgyz Cyrillic alphabet contains three characters not present in the Uzbek alphabet. One of these characters is romanized from Kyrgyz as the digraph "ng," which is not present in romanized Uzbek words.]|
|Jani-Ayil (also Dzhangail)||Kyrgyzstan||< 1||A tiny Uzbek enclave within Kyrgyzstan, located northwest of the Shakhimardan enclave within a kilometer of the Uzbek main border; does not appear to have an official Uzbek place name; the Kyrgyz towns of Jani-Ayil (Kalmion ( ) lie outside opposite edges of the Uzbek enclave.) and|
|Madha||United Arab Emirates||~75||Omani enclave within the Emirate of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates, halfway between the Omani fragment on the Musandam Peninsula and the rest of Oman; forms part of Oman's Musandam Governorate.|
|Nahwa||Oman||~5.2||United Arab Emirates' counter-enclave surrounded by the Omani exclave, Madha; reported to consist of around forty houses, it is part of the Emirate of Sharjah in the UAE home land.|
|Likoma Island||Mozambique||130.0 (incl a territorial water area)||Lacustrine enclave, including some smaller islets, belonging to the Likoma District of Malawi; surrounded by Mozambique's territorial waters in Lake Malawi (Lake Nyasa for Mozambique) and only about 5 kilometers from the shores of Lake Nyasa on the Mozambique side; combined dry land area of Likoma Is. and the smaller Chizumulu Is. is 18 km².|
|Chizumulu Island (incl Lundu Is., Papia Is., Ngkyvo Is.)||Mozambique||101.4 (incl 2-mile territorial water area)||Lacustrine enclave, including some smaller islets, belonging to the Likoma District of Malawi; surrounded by Mozambique's territorial waters in Lake Malawi; the mainland on the Malawian side is 46 kilometers from Chizumulu.|
|Filomena Islands (5)||Argentina||~23||Five adjacent Uruguayan islands (Isla Filomena Grande, Isla Filomena Chica, Isla Palma Chica, Isla Bassi, Isla Tres Cruces) are enclaves within the Río Uruguay, being surrounded by waters of the Province of Entre Rios in Argentina; uninhabited and administratively part of the Department of Río Negro, they form part of the Esteros de Farrapos National Park.|
|Isla Apipé (4)||Paraguay||~320||Four adjacent Argentine islands (Isla Apipé Grande, Isla Apipé Chico, Isla Los Patos and Isla San Martín) are enclaves within channels of the Río Paraná, 39 km east of Isla Entre Rios, surrounded by territorial inland waters of Paraguay; Corrientes Province in Argentina occupies the southern bank of the river; Isla Apipé Grande appears to be the biggest true enclave in the world with an area of about 276 km²; areas of the other islands are 23.8, 11.8 and 3.7 km², respectively.|
|Isla Entre Ríos||Paraguay||~36||An Argentine island enclave in the Río Paraná, 39 km west of Isla Apipé, surrounded by the territorial inland waters of Paraguay; uninhabited.|
|Isla Martín García||Uruguay||~2.0||An Argentine island enclave in the Río de la Plata, surrounded by Uruguayan territorial waters on the Uruguayan side of the border; Martín García was designated as a nature reserve under the jurisdiction of Argentina in 1973.|
|High Seas||Russia||?||An enclave (international waters entirely surrounded by the waters of Russia's EEZ in the Sea of Okhotsk; lies between the territorial zones of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island (termed the "Peanut Hole")) consisting of|
|High Seas||Japan||?||An enclave (Japan's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Honshu, Shikoku, the Bonin Islands, Okino-tori-shima and Okinawa Island) consisting of international waters entirely surrounded by the waters of|
|High Seas||New Zealand||?||A small enclave (New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of the Chatham Islands, North Island and the Bounty Islands) consisting of international waters entirely surrounded by the waters of|
|High Seas||New Zealand||?||A larger enclave (New Zealand's EEZ; it lies between the territorial zones of Campbell Island, South Island and the Antipodes Islands) consisting of international waters entirely surrounded by the waters of|
Subnational enclaves which are also exclaves 
- In Australia, the Australian Capital Territory is an enclave of New South Wales. At one time, the ACT administered the separate coastal enclave of Jervis Bay on the New South Wales southern coast.
- In Azerbaijan, the Raion of Abşeron has an exclave within Baku.
- The Brčko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a condominium that belongs to both the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska; it surrounds two uninhabited enclaves belonging to the Federation. Those two uninhabited enclaves are very small, and there is even a possibility that they are on a mine field. Because of the joint administration of Brčko, they may be considered semi-exclaves of the Federation.
- In Estonia:
- In Ida-Viru County:
- Olgina district of Narva municipality is surrounded by Vaivara Parish.
- In Ethiopia, the Benishangul-Gumuz Region has two exclaves in the Oromia Region.
- In France (départements):
- Hautes-Pyrénées has two exclaves in Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
- Meurthe-et-Moselle has one exclave inside Meuse.
- Nord has one exclave in Pas-de-Calais.
- Vaucluse has a rather large exclave within the Drôme département. The Enclave des Papes was part of the possessions of the Pope in France near Avignon; it was attached to Vaucluse when annexed after the départements were created (see Comtat Venaissin). The Enclave des Papes contains 4 towns: Valréas, Visan, Grillon and Richerenches.
- In Germany:
- The state of Free Hanseatic City of Bremen consists of two separate enclaves: Bremen, officially the "City" which is the state capital, and the city of Bremerhaven. Both are on the River Weser; Bremerhaven is 60 km downstream by the North Sea. Both cities are completely surrounded by the neighboring state of Lower Saxony. The two cities are the only administrative subdivisions of the state, and thus are exclaves of each other.
- Fehr Moor is a part of Leherheide, which is a sub-division within the city of Bremerhaven in the state of Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. Fehr Moor is separated by a narrow strip of Lower Saxony from the rest of Bremerhaven, and thus, it is an exclave of the city and of the state.
- In India, the union territory of Puducherry comprises four districts: Pondicherry and Karaikal in the state of Tamil Nadu, Yanam in the state of Andhra Pradesh, and Mahé in the state of Kerala. The four districts of Puducherry were French colonies until 1954. Until 1952, France maintained a fifth colony in India, Chandannagar, which also reported to the Governor of Pondichéry, and which was an enclave in Bengal, just upriver from Calcutta.
- Pondicherry district consists of a cluster of nine true enclaves and three coastal pene-enclaves, one of which contains an enclave of Tamil Nadu. Mahé consists of two true enclaves and one coastal pene-exclave.
- Bara Lowkuthi is an exclave of Cooch Behar, state of West Bengal, with an area of 5.47 km2, that is surrounded by Kokrajhar, state of Assam.
- Choto Pokalagi is an exclave of Dhubri, state of Assam, with an area of 0.549 km2, that is surrounded by Cooch Behar, state of West Bengal.
- Gobrarkuthi is an exclave of Dhubri, state of Assam, with an area of 0.149 km2, that is surrounded by Cooch Behar, state of West Bengal.
- Ramrayerkuthi is an exclave of Dhubri, state of Assam, with an area of 0.084 km2, that is surrounded by Cooch Behar, state of West Bengal.
- In Italy, part of the comune of Città di Castello in the region Umbria is completely surrounded by the region of Marche.
- In Liechtenstein, many Gemeinden (municipalities) are fragmented (see map, right). There are three exclaves which are also enclaves: Planken and Vaduz each have an exclave in Schaan, and Schaan has one in Planken.
- In Moldova, the Chişinău-controlled Dubăsari district is split into five pieces, of which two are enclaves within Transnistria. Transnistria is de facto independent, but not recognized by any UN members.
- In Mongolia, the municipality of Ulan Bator is divided into three parts, two of which are enclaves in Töv Province.
- In New Zealand, the Kawerau District is an enclave within the Whakatane District.
- In Norway, the municipality of Malvik, Sør-Trøndelag has two small exclaves (the Jøsås farms) in the neighbouring municipality of Stjørdal, Nord-Trøndelag. As the municipalities are also in different counties, this also implies that small parts of Sør-Trøndelag are enclaves in Nord-Trøndelag. The municipality of Sandefjord has one exclave, Himberg, inside the neighbouring municipality of Larvik.
- In Panama:
- In Portugal, as a consequence of administrative reforms during the 19th century (in the 1830s, then again in the 1850s, and to a much lesser extent in the 1890s), as well as more recent legislation forbidding the creation of territorial discontinuities, there are almost no sub-national exclaves or enclaves, and the few that persist are on the municipal or civil parish level:
- Two civil parishes comprise the city of Estremoz. The parish of Santa Maria (the new town and its rural environs) surrounds an enclave, the walled old town of the parish of Santo Andre. The citadel inside Santo Andre is a counter-enclave that belongs to Santa Maria.
- Exclaves that are sub-parts of civil parishes and that yet remain within the municipal-level boundary are located in the following municipalities: Ansião, Belmonte, Coimbra, Oliveira de Frades, Penela. For example, in the Coimbra municipality, the civil parish of Taveiro has an exclave that is enclaved by the civil parish of Ribeira de Frades.
- In Russia, Moscow has several exclaves within Moscow Oblast. The entire city used to be surrounded by the oblast, but has since expanded. The exclave-enclaves that still exist are Zelenogradsky Administrative Okrug, Vostochny District (an exclave of the Eastern Administrative Okrug and has an exclave-enclave of its own), and part of Kuntsevo District (administered by the Western Administrative Okrug).
- In Spain:
- In Andalusia, Villar is an exclave of Córdoba province surrounded by Seville province.
- Cantabria — Villaverde de Trucios is a small exclave within the Basque province of Biscay.
- Castile-La Mancha — The province of Guadalajara has a tiny enclave La Canaleja in the Autonomous Community of Madrid.
- Castile and León — The province of Burgos has four exclaves: The Condado de Treviño is an enclave of the Basque province of Álava. Sajuela and Ternero are enclaves of the Autonomous Community of Rioja. La Rebolleda is an enclave of the province of Palencia. Palencia also has four exclaves which are enclaves: Cezura and Lastrilla are within Cantabria. Villodrigo and Aguanares are in the province of Burgos. Also, the Province of Valladolid administers San Llorente, which is within the province of León.
- In Catalonia, the province of Girona administers Solelles de les Rovires, which is surrounded by the province of Barcelona.
- Navarre — Within the Aragonese province of Zaragoza are two enclaves, Petilla de Aragón and Baztanes.
- Comunidad de Madrid - Dehesa de la Cepeda is a minute exclave of Madrid on the Northern slopes of Sierra de Guadarrama, wedged between the provinces of Ávila and Segovia, in Castile and León.
- In South Africa, the Eastern Cape Province has an exclave which is an enclave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, containing the town of Umzimkulu.
- In Sweden many municipalities have exclaves (most notably the municipalities of Dalarna County). At least eleven of the exclaves are also exclaves of the first subnational, county, level:
- Halland County has three very tiny exclaves in Jönköping County.
- Jönköping County has one exclave in Halland County.
- Jönköping County has two exclaves in Västra Götaland County.
- Västra Götaland county has one second degree exclave inside one of the two Jönköping County exclaves.
- Uppsala County has one exclave in Västmanland County.
- Jämtland County has two exclaves in Gävleborg County.
- Västerbotten County has one exclave in Norrbotten County.
- In Switzerland:
- Aargau — Kloster Fahr is a 1.48-hectare exclave of the municipality of Würenlos in the Baden District of Canton of Aargau. It is enclaved by the municipality of Unterengstringen in Dietikon District of Canton of Zürich. From 1803 through 2007 the Benedictine convent was not part of a municipality.
- Appenzell Innerrhoden has four exclaves, two of which, Kloster Grimmenstein and Kloster Wonnenstein, are enclaved by Appenzell Ausserrhoden. (The others, not enclaves, are the two parts of Oberegg District.)
- Bern — Münchenwiler, part of Laupen district, is entirely surrounded by the canton of Fribourg.
- Fribourg — Of Fribourg's five exclaves, the Broye district has three exclaves separated by Vaud, of which two (Surpierre and Vuissens) are enclaves, and the other is bounded by Vaud and Lake Neuchâtel. Another enclave from See district – Wallenbuch – lies within the canton of Bern.
- Geneva has two exclaves within Vaud, each being one of the two separate parts that form the commune of Céligny. The larger part has a shoreline on Lake Geneva.
- Solothurn — Steinhof is an exclave, enclaved by the canton of Bern.
- In Ukraine:
- In the United States of America:
- In Alaska, the community of Klukwan is surrounded by Haines Borough, even though the community is part of the Hoonah-Angoon Census Area, which is in turn part of the Unorganized Borough.
- In Colorado, Arapahoe County has two exclaves within the City and County of Denver, one of which is the city of Glendale. Additionally, Boulder and Weld counties both have an exclave within the City and County of Broomfield, and Broomfield has an exclave in Boulder County.
- In Georgia, Bibb County has an exclave within Monroe County. This boundary is disputed, however.
- In Kentucky, following the merger of the Louisville and Jefferson County governments in 2003, the new Louisville Metro has several disjoint parcels of land throughout the county, some of which are enclaves in other cities.
- In New Jersey, Middletown Township in Monmouth County has an exclave surrounded by the borough of Keansburg.
- New York has two exclaves in New Jersey. Only the above-water part of Liberty Island and the original 3.3 acres (1.3 ha) of Ellis Island not created by landfill are part of New York County, located in the Hudson County municipality of Jersey City.
- In Ohio:
- In Summit County:
- The city of Cuyahoga Falls has four small enclave/exclaves along its border with the city of Akron. Several houses along Smith Road are legally in the Falls, while neighbors and municipal lands on all sides of the properties are legally within Akron.
- Bath Township has four exclaves, one of which is an enclave of Akron.
- Springfield Township has six exclaves, two of which are enclaves in Akron.
- Coventry Township has six exclaves, five of which are enclaves in Akron. Two of these are joined at a quadripoint.
- Twinsburg Township has seven exclaves, four of which are enlaves in the city of Twinsburg. The city in turn has one piece connected by only a quadripoint, otherwise surrounded by the township.
- In Summit County:
- In Virginia, Fairfax County has an exclave within the City of Fairfax that houses the county courthouse and some other county governmental offices. Prince William County has an exclave within the City of Manassas that houses the county courthouse and some other county governmental offices. Note that in Virginia, communities that are incorporated as cities are completely separate from counties; see Political subdivisions of Virginia.
- The lands within numerous Indian reservations have been fragmented, with privately owned real estate intermixed with tribal, city, county, state, and federal authorities in a bewildering array of jurisdictional geographies.
Enclaves which are not exclaves 
National Level 
Some enclaves are sovereign states, completely surrounded by another one, and therefore not exclaves. Three such sovereign countries exist:
- The Kingdom of Lesotho, embedded inside South Africa
- The republic of San Marino, enclaved within Italy
- Vatican City, within the city of Rome, in Italy
Subnational enclaves which are not exclaves 
- In Australia:
- In New South Wales, the City of Broken Hill is surrounded by the Unincorporated Far West Region.
- In South Australia:
- In Western Australia, the Town of Narrogin is surrounded by the Shire of Narrogin.
- In Victoria, a few unincorporated areas for ski resorts form enclaves within the surrounding shires: Falls Creek and Mount Hotham within Alpine Shire and Mount Baw Baw in Baw Baw Shire. In addition, Mount Buller and Mount Stirling share a border with each other, but are surrounded by Mansfield Shire.
- In Austria, the province of Vienna is an enclave in Lower Austria. Vienna was the capital of Lower Austria until 1922, when it became a province of its own. Between 1922 and 1986, Lower Austria did not have its own capital, and the province's administration had its seat in Vienna.
- In Azerbaijan, several cities are administratively separate from the rayons and form enclaves. These include Mingachevir, Naftalan, Shaki, Khankendi/Stepanakert (in Nagorno-Karabakh), Yevlakh, and Nakhichevan.
- In Belarus, Minsk city is an enclave in Minsk Province.
- In Belgium, the Brussels-Capital Region is an enclave within the Flemish Region, and within the province of Flemish Brabant.
- In Brazil:
- In Cambodia, Phnom Penh Municipality is surrounded by Kandal Province.
- In Canada:
- In Quebec, the city of Westmount, the town of Mount Royal, and, collectively, the municipalities of Hampstead, Côte Saint-Luc and Montreal West (Montréal-Ouest) are all enclaves in the city of Montreal. Similarly, the city of L'Ancienne-Lorette is an enclave in Quebec City after the demerger on January 1, 2006.
- In Saskatchewan, the city of Saskatoon is an enclave inside the rural municipality of Corman Park.
- In the People's Republic of China: In the Xinjiang autonomous region, the prefecture-level city of Karamay (which has two non-contiguous parts) and the county-level city of Kuytun (a part of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture) are completely surrounded by the Tacheng Prefecture (which is also technically part of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture).
- In Colombia: In the Capital District, La Candelaria municipality is an enclave of SantaFé.
- In the Czech Republic, Prague is not part of the Central Bohemian Region, although it is the region's capital.
- In Denmark, Frederiksberg is an enclave of Copenhagen.
- In Estonia, many urban municipalities are enclaves, when a town or a borough is surrounded by a single parish. Such cases include the towns of Jõgeva, Mõisaküla, Põltsamaa, Põlva, Püssi, Tõrva and Võru and the boroughs of Järvakandi and Vändra.
- In Ethiopia, Addis Ababa city and Harari Region are two of the four enclaves in Oromia Region.
- In Finland: In Uusimaa region, the town of Kauniainen is enclosed by the city of Espoo. The two are located west of Helsinki, in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area.
- In France: In Côtes-d'Armor département, the commune of Plessix-Balisson is surrounded by the commune of Ploubalay.
- In Germany:
- In Hungary: the city of Budapest is an enclave within Pest County, of which it is the capital (although it does not form part of it).
- In Iceland, the municipality of Hveragerði is an enclave in Sveitarfélagið Ölfus.
- In India: the city of Dadra, an exclave of the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli, is a true enclave of the state of Gujarat.
- In Kazakhstan, the cities of Almaty, Astana, and Baikonur are administratively separate from the provinces in which they are enclaved.
- In Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek is an independent city within Chuy Province, although it is the province's capital.
- In Latvia, the cities of Daugavpils and Rēzekne are surrounded by and independent from the municipalities with the same names.
- In Lithuania, a few city municipalities are enclaved in the district municipalities of the same names, including Šiauliai, Panevėžys, and Alytus.
- In Malaysia, the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya are enclaves of the sultanate of Selangor.
- In Mali, the Bamako Capital District is enclaved in Koulikoro Region.
- In Mexico, in the state of Nuevo León, the municipality of Hualahuises is surrounded by the municipality of Linares.
- In Mongolia, Darkhan-Uul Province is surrounded by Selenge Province.
- In New Zealand, the Kawerau District territorial authority is completely surrounded by the Whakatane District.
- In Niger, the capital district of Niamey is surrounded by the department of Tillabéri.
- In North Korea: In South Pyongan province, Ch'ŏngnam district is an enclave in Mundŏk county.
- In the Republic of China:
- In Romania, Bucureşti-Ilfov development region is enclaved by the Sud (South) development region. The municipality of Bucharest is also an enclave of Ilfov County.
- In Russia, Adygea republic is an enclave in Krasnodar Krai.
- In South Korea, Gwangju city is an enclave of Jeollanam-do province. Seoul was an enclave of Gyeonggi Province until neighbouring Incheon was declared a special city in 1981.
- In Syria, the governorate of Damascus is surrounded by the governorate of Rif Dimashq.
- In Tajikistan, the Dushanbe RRS is enclaved by Karotegin province.
- In Togo: In Centrale Region, the prefecture of Blitta is surrounded by the prefecture of Sotouboua.
- In Trinidad and Tobago, the Borough of Arima is surrounded by the Tunapuna-Piarco Regional Corporation.
- In Ukraine, the city of Kiev is independent of surrounding Kiev Oblast, although it is the oblast's administrative center.
- In the United Kingdom:
- The English unitary authorities of Nottingham, Derby, Stoke-on-Trent, and Leicester are enclaves in the administrative counties of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Staffordshire, and Leicestershire, respectively.
- In Cambridgeshire: the City of Cambridge is a local government district completely surrounded by the district of South Cambridgeshire.
- In Cheshire: the unpopulated civil parish of Chester Castle is completely surrounded by the unparished area of Chester. Both form part of the borough of Cheshire West and Chester.
- The City of London is an enclave within the ceremonial county of Greater London. It forms its own ceremonial county. Also, the rest of Greater London consists of London boroughs, whilst the City is not a London borough.
- In the United States of America:
- In Arizona:
- In Arkansas, the City of Cammack Village is an enclave of Little Rock.
- In California:
- In 1956, Newark defected from the proposed incorporation of the communities of Washington Township as the city of Fremont. It is now an incorporated city surrounded by Fremont.
- Piedmont incorporated in 1907 to avoid annexation by Oakland, and is now surrounded by Oakland.
- The city of San Fernando is an enclave in the city of Los Angeles. Beverly Hills and West Hollywood together form another. Culver City and the unincorporated community of Ladera Heights form a third enclave. Santa Monica borders the Pacific Ocean on one side but it is otherwise completely surrounded by the City of Los Angeles
- The city of Signal Hill is entirely surrounded by the city of Long Beach.
- The city of Villa Park is an enclave of city of Orange.
- In Florida, the town of Baldwin is an enclave within the city of Jacksonville. The Village of Lazy Lake is contained entirely within the borders of the city of Wilton Manors.
- In Georgia, Payne City is an enclave within the city of Macon, similarly Remerton is an enclave of Valdosta.
- In Idaho, Garden City is an enclave in the city of Boise.
- In Illinois, Norridge and Harwood Heights together form an enclave in the city of Chicago.
- In Indiana, after the creation of Unigov (the merged government of Indianapolis and Marion County) in 1970, three of the four communities that did not fully merge with Indianapolis – Beech Grove, Southport, and Speedway – became enclaves of Indianapolis.
- In Iowa, the city of University Heights is entirely surrounded by Iowa City.
- In Kansas, the city of Eastborough is entirely surrounded by Wichita
- In Kentucky:
- When the governments of Louisville and Jefferson County merged in 2003, a bewildering array of enclaves was created, as all other incorporated cities in Jefferson County retained their status as separate cities. Note that the entire Ohio River between the northern and southern low-water marks is now part of Louisville Metro.
- The following enclaves existed in pre-merger Louisville: Audubon Park, Meadowview Estates, Parkway Village, Seneca Gardens, Wellington, and the combination of Kingsley, Strathmoor Manor, and Strathmoor Village.
- Three other cities were, and still are, enclaved in cities other than Louisville:
- The merger created many other enclaves within the portion of Louisville Metro that includes pre-merger Louisville but excludes all other pre-existing cities, an entity defined by the United States Census Bureau as the "Louisville-Jefferson County balance".
- These individual enclaves: Creekside, Fincastle, Glenview Hills, Hickory Hill, Hills and Dales, Hollow Creek, Hollyvilla, Lynnview, Minor Lane Heights, Shively, South Park View, Spring Mill, and Thornhill.
- The combination of Cambridge, Houston Acres, Lincolnshire, and St. Regis Park.
- The combination of Poplar Hills, Watterson Park, and West Buechel.
- The aforementioned cities of Middletown, Norbourne Estates, Richlawn, St. Matthews, and Woodland Hills are part of a large enclave within the "balance", which also includes Anchorage, Bancroft, Barbourmeade, Beechwood Village, Bellemeade, Bellewood, Blue Ridge Manor, Briarwood, Broeck Pointe, Brownsboro Farm, Brownsboro Village, Crossgate, Douglass Hills, Druid Hills, Forest Hills, Glenview, Glenview Manor, Goose Creek, Graymoor-Devondale, Jeffersontown, Hurstbourne, Hurstbourne Acres, Indian Hills, Langdon Place, Lyndon, Manor Creek, Maryhill Estates, Meadow Vale, Meadowbrook Farm, Mockingbird Valley, Moorland, Murray Hill, Northfield, Norwood, Old Brownsboro Place, Plantation, Riverwood, Rolling Fields, Rolling Hills, Spring Valley, Sycamore, Ten Broeck, Westwood, Wildwood, Windy Hills, and Woodlawn Park.
- When the governments of Louisville and Jefferson County merged in 2003, a bewildering array of enclaves was created, as all other incorporated cities in Jefferson County retained their status as separate cities. Note that the entire Ohio River between the northern and southern low-water marks is now part of Louisville Metro.
- In Michigan:
- In Minnesota:
- In Missouri, the cities of Gladstone and North Kansas City are separately surrounded by Kansas City.
- In Montana, when the governments of Butte and Silver Bow County merged in 1977, the town of Walkerville voted not to join the consolidated government, thus becoming an enclave.
- In New Jersey:
- In Burlington County:
- In Gloucester County, the borough of Swedesboro is surrounded by Woolwich Township.
- In Hunterdon County:
- In Mercer County:
- In Middlesex County:
- In Monmouth County:
- In Morris County:
- In Ocean County:
- In Salem County, the borough of Woodstown is surrounded by Pilesgrove Township.
- In Sussex County:
- In Warren County:
- In North Dakota, the city of Prairie Rose is an enclave of Fargo.
- In Ohio:
- In Montgomery County, there are several cities with enclaves and exclaves. Dayton has one exclave, while surrounding several enclaves that belong to the cities of Trotwood and Riverside. Riverside also has several exclaves that border more than one city as well as additional parcels that are connected to the city only by a roadway. Clayton contains several enclaves surrounded by Englewood and one that is completely surrounded by Union. Other than Dayton's exclave, the international airport, these enclaves and exclaves were formed by municipality-township mergers in the 1990s.
- The cities of Minerva Park, Bexley, Whitehall, and Valleyview are all enclaves of Columbus. The cities of Worthington and Riverlea together form another enclave of Columbus.
- The city of Norwood is an enclave of Cincinnati. The cities of Elmwood Place, to the north, and St. Bernard, to the south, together form another enclave of Cincinnati.
- In Stark County, the village of Hills & Dales is enclaved by Jackson Township.
- In Summit County, the village of Lakemore is surrounded by Springfield Township.
- In Oregon, the city of Maywood Park is surrounded by Portland, which annexed the surrounding lands after Maywood Park incorporated.
- In Pennsylvania, every county in the state other than the counties of Fulton, Philadelphia, Pike and Union contains at least one municipality in another municipality. Usually, the enclave takes the form of a borough that is surrounded by the township of which it was originally a part, but other scenarios are possible (e.g. the Borough of Mount Oliver is an enclave of Pittsburgh). While Pennsylvania's urban counties contain few enclaves due to widespread municipal fragmentation, rural areas feature numerous enclaved municipalities that are the result of a small town center separating from its rural surrounding area.
- In Tennessee, the cities of Red Bank and Ridgeside are enclaves in the city of Chattanooga.
- In Texas:
- The cities of Alamo Heights, Balcones Heights, Castle Hills, Hill Country Village, Hollywood Park, Kirby, Leon Valley, Olmos Park, Shavano Park, and Terrell Hills are all enclaves of San Antonio.
- The cities of Bellaire, West University Place, and Southside Place together form an enclave of Houston. The cities of Bunker Hill Village, Hedwig Village, Hilshire Village, Hunters Creek Village, Piney Point Village, and Spring Valley Village together form another enclave of Houston.
- The cities of Highland Park and University Park, collectively known locally as the "Park Cities", together form an enclave of Dallas. In addition, the city of Cockrell Hill is also an enclave of Dallas.
- The city of Beverly Hills is an enclave of Waco.
- The cities of Dalworthington Gardens and Pantego together form an enclave of Arlington.
- In Vermont:
- In Virginia:
- Under Virginia law, all municipalities that are incorporated as cities are legally independent of any county. Fifteen such enclaves—thirteen individual cities, plus two pairs of adjoining cities—exist within the state; some of the cities that form these enclaves serve as county seat of the surrounding county:
- Bedford, enclaved within and the county seat of Bedford County
- Buena Vista, enclaved within Rockbridge County
- Charlottesville, enclaved within and the county seat of Albemarle County
- Covington, enclaved within and the county seat of Alleghany County
- Emporia, enclaved within and the county seat of Greensville County
- Fairfax, enclaved within and the county seat of Fairfax County. As noted above, the county courthouse is located in an unincorporated portion of Fairfax County that is completely surrounded by the city.
- Harrisonburg, enclaved within and the county seat of Rockingham County
- Lexington, enclaved within and the county seat of Rockbridge County
- Manassas and Manassas Park together form an enclave within Prince William County. Manassas is the county seat; as noted above, the county courthouse is located in an unincorporated portion of Prince William County that is completely surrounded by the city.
- Martinsville, enclaved within and the county seat of Henry County
- Norton, enclaved within Wise County
- Roanoke and Salem together form an enclave within Roanoke County. The Roanoke County Courthouse is located in Salem, but the rest of the county government is located in the unincorporated community of Cave Spring.
- Staunton, enclaved within and the county seat of Augusta County
- Waynesboro, enclaved within Augusta County
- Winchester, enclaved within and the county seat of Frederick County
- Under Virginia law, all municipalities that are incorporated as cities are legally independent of any county. Fifteen such enclaves—thirteen individual cities, plus two pairs of adjoining cities—exist within the state; some of the cities that form these enclaves serve as county seat of the surrounding county:
- In Wisconsin, the village of Thiensville is an enclave of the city of Mequon in Ozaukee County.
- In Uzbekistan, Tashkent is separate from surrounding Toshkent Province, although it serves as its capital.
- In Yemen, Amanat Al Asimah Governorate (Sana'a municipality) is surrounded by San‘a’ Governorate.
- In Zimbabwe, Harare is an enclave in the province of Mashonaland East.
Exclaves which are not enclaves 
National Level 
To be a true exclave, it must be necessary, in order to go from the exclave to the main region, for one to travel across land (water for maritime exclave) through a different region (e.g., of another country).
- Azerbaijan: The exclave of Nakhichivan is bounded by Armenia, Iran, and Turkey.
- Honduras: The larger and more westerly of two areas of juridical condominium (that are shared with El Salvador and Nicaragua in the Gulf of Fonseca), comprises about 20 sq nm of actually detached internal waters of Honduras; this area abuts about 160 sq nm of territorial seas of Honduras in the adjacent Pacific Ocean, just beyond the closing line of the gulf.[clarification needed]
- High Seas: There are 15 exclaves upon the high seas that consist of areas of international waters that are surrounded by the 200-nautical mile Exclusive Economic Zones of various countries. Four are also enclaves (see above), and 11 are exclaves only. These 11 exclaves exist because, in their particular cases, the EEZs of several neighboring countries border on each other in a way that encloses an area of international waters, such that one cannot travel to the enclosed region except by passing through the waters of one of these EEZs. These 11 exclaves are created by the EEZs of the following countries:
- Russia and United States (Alaska) ( )
- Norway (including Svalbard), Faeroe Islands, Greenland, Jan Mayen (Norway) and Iceland ( )
- Mexico (EEZ defined by Scorpion Reef and Cayo Arenas in the Gulf of Mexico) and United States (EEZ along the Gulf of Mexico coast) ( )
- Mexico (EEZ defined by Cape Catoche and Scorpion Reef in the Gulf of Mexico), USA (EEZ defined by Loggerhead Key and the Gulf coast) and Cuba (EEZ extends northwest from Cayo Ines de Soto) ( )
- Mauritius (Agalega Islands), Tromelin Island (France), Madagascar and Seychelles (Farquhar Atoll) ( )
- In the South China Sea, the EEZs that are defined by Taiwan (Pratas Reef), the Philippines (Luzon Island and Cabra I.), the Spratly Islands of Dao Dinh Ba and Flat Island, and the Paracel Island of Dao Hoang Sa enclose an exclave centered at . National sovereignty over many of the Spratly and Paracel Islands in the South China Sea is disputed. Hence, depending upon the claims involved, this exclave may be considered as being created by the EEZs of Taiwan and the Philippines, or by the EEZs of Taiwan, the Philippines and Viet Nam, or by the EEzs of Taiwan and mainland China, or by the EEZ of mainland China alone.
- French Polynesia, Cook Islands and Kiribati ( )
- Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Fiji ( )
- Palau, Micronesia, Indonesia and Papua-New Guinea ( )
- Japan (outer islands, including Okino-tori-shima), Palau, the Philippines, Northern Marianas Islands and Micronesia ( )
- Nauru, Tuvalu, Micronesia, Northern Marianas Islands, Papua-New Guinea, Fiji, Kiribati and the Solomon Islands ( )
Subnational exclaves which are not enclaves 
- In Australia, the state of Victoria's Murrindindi Shire has an exclave along the border with Shire of Yarra Ranges. It is separated from the rest of Murrindindi Shire by the Lake Mountain unincorporated area, which was originally a part of the shire.
- In Austria, the transfer of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol to Italy after World War I left the county of Tyrol in two parts.
- In Belgium:
- The province of Limburg (and the Flemish Region) has an exclave, the municipality of Voeren (Fourons).
- The province of Hainaut, in the Wallonia (French-speaking community) region, has an exclave, the municipality of Comines-Warneton (Komen-Waasten).
- The territory of the German-speaking Community of Belgium is also composed of two parts, separated by a part of the French Community.
- Apart from Baarle-Hertog, there are two municipalities consisting of non-contiguous parts: Ixelles/Elsene in the Brussels Capital Region and Mesen in West-Flanders.
- The nation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of two "halves" – Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and Republika Srpska – that share and administer the Brčko District as a condominium. Brčko District borders Orašje to its north, one of the three municipalities that form Posavina Canton, which comprises two non-contiguous areas that belong to the FBiH. One of the areas, Odžak, is sandwiched between Republika Srpska and Croatia and therefore is an exclave of the FBiH. The other area contains the neighboring municipalities of Domaljevac and Orašje, which combined form a "semi-exclave" of the FBiH by virtue of bordering the Brčko District, as well as Republika Srpska and Croatia.
- In Brazil:
- In Canada:
- In China:
- In Hebei province, Xianghe County, Sanhe City, and Dachang Hui Autonomous County, lodged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin, together make up an exclave of the prefecture-level city of Langfang.
- In Qinghai province, Tanggulashan town is an exclave of the city of Golmud and the Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture which Golmud is part of, separated from the rest of the prefecture by a "panhandle" of Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture.
- In Estonia:
- In Harju County, Harku small borough is an exclave of Harku Parish.
- In Ida-Viru County:
- In Finland: In Ostrobothnia, the former municipality of Vähäkyrö is now an exclave of the city of Vaasa.
- In France, the commune of Ménessaire is an exclave of the department of Côte-d'Or between Nièvre and Saône-et-Loire.
- In Germany:
- The North Sea island of Neuwerk in front of the Lower Saxon coast is a pene-exclave of the federal state of Hamburg during low tide, when it can be reached on foot or by horse carriages.
- The Samtgemeinde Baddeckenstedt is separated from the greater part of the district Wolfenbüttel by the urban district of Salzgitter.
- Ober-Laudenbach, a town on the outskirts of the city of Heppenheim in southern Hesse on the boundary with Baden-Württemberg, surrounds two enclaves belonging to Baden-Württemberg. One of them contains a counter-enclave belonging to Hesse.
- In Hong Kong:
- Tsing Chau Tsai Peninsula, which is located in northeastern part of Lantau Island is not a part of Island District but rather Tsuen Wan District.
- Shenzhen Bay Control Point is a Hong Kong immigration check point that is surrounded by China; except for the Hong Kong–Shenzhen Western Corridor, it is not contiguous with the rest of Hong Kong.
- In Iceland:
- The municipality of Grímsnes- og Grafningshreppur has three sections. One section is connected to the main part at a quadripoint, and another is effectively separate, although administrative boundaries are undetermined. If this section is in fact connected, then the municipality of Bláskógabyggð would be divided in two (although still connected at the aforementioned quadripoint).[dead link]
- The municipality of Ásahreppur has one exclave.
- The municipality of Kópavogur is divided into three parts.
- In Italy:
- In Japan, Kitayama Village and Kumanogawa Town of Wakayama prefecture are located in the border between Mie and Nara prefectures.
- In South Korea, Dalseong in Daegu and Wanju in North Jeolla Province both have exclaves.
- In Latvia, Olaine and Rauna municipalities are divided into two sections apiece.
- In Liechtenstein, seven of the eleven municipalities are in two or more pieces. In addition to the enclaves mentioned above, Vaduz has four exclaves; Schaan has three; Planken, Balzers, and Eschen each have two; and Triesenberg and Gamprin both have one.
- In Moldova:
- In the Netherlands, Amsterdam Zuidoost is cut from other parts of the municipality of Amsterdam by land that belongs to the municipalities of Ouder-Amstel and Diemen.
- In the Philippines:
- In Poland, Sławków is an exclave of Będzin County on the border between Lesser Poland Voivodeship and Silesian Voivodeship, to which it administratively belongs.
- In Portugal, as a consequence of administrative reforms during the 19th century (in the 1830s, then again in the 1850s, and to a much lesser extent in the 1890s), as well as more recent legislation forbidding the creation of territorial discontinuities, there are almost no subnational exclaves or enclaves, and the few that persist are on the municipal or civil parish level:
- Municipalities with exclave civil parishes (at least one civil parish is separated from the main body): Montijo, Oliveira de Frades, Vila Real de Santo António.
- Municipalities with sub-civil parish level exclaves (at least one civil parish is itself territorially discontinuous, creating an exclave also at the municipal level): Soure.
- In Spain:
- Rincón de Ademuz is an exclave of Valencia province in Valencia autonomous community, between the provinces of Teruel in Aragon and Cuenca in Castile-La Mancha.
- In Castile-La Mancha, Anchuras is an exclave of the Ciudad Real province between Toledo province and the Extremaduran province of Badajoz.
- Between the provinces of Zamora and León there is an exclave with the cities of Roales de Campos and Quintanilla del Molar belonging to the province of Valladolid.
- The province of Palencia possesses an exclave Berzosilla between the provinces of Cantabria and Burgos.
- Orduña is an exclave of the province of Biscay located between the provinces of Álava and Burgos.
- In Switzerland:
- Appenzell Innerrhoden has four exclaves, two of which are parts of the district of Oberegg and are bounded by Appenzell Ausserrhoden and St. Gallen.
- Bern — Clavaleyres is an exclave of Bern surrounded by Fribourg and Vaud's exclave. (The secession of the new canton of Jura in 1979 left Bern temporarily with another exclave, Laufental, bounded by Jura, Solothurn, Basel-Landschaft and France. Laufental joined Basel-Landschaft in 1994.)
- Obwalden — Engelberg is a large piece of this canton and is separated by Nidwalden and Bern.
- Schaffhausen, the only canton lying mostly on the north bank of the Rhine, is cut into three parts by German corridors to the Rhine. The middle part is the largest and embraces the German enclave of Büsingen. The upper and middle parts border on Thurgau, the middle and lower parts on Zürich.
- Solothurn has two exclaves, Dorneck and Thierstein, both bounded on the south by Basel-Landschaft and on the north by France.
- Vaud — Avenches district is separated from Vaud by the canton of Fribourg.
- In Turkey, İstanbul Maslak is an exclave of Şişli county.
- In the United Arab Emirates
- In the United States of America:
- In Alaska, the Unorganized Borough is separated into multiple sections; however, the only true exclave that is not an enclave is the town of Hyder, which belongs to Prince of Wales – Hyder Census Area.
- Kentucky — The westernmost part of Fulton County is a piece of land known as the Kentucky Bend, located inside a loop of the Mississippi River, detached from its mother state. The only road in the area goes south into Tennessee. This exclave exists because the Mississippi, which forms the boundary between Missouri (right bank) and Kentucky/Tennessee (left bank), crosses latitude 36°30', which defines part of the border between Kentucky and Tennessee, three times.
- In Louisiana, a portion of St. Martin Parish is separated by Iberia Parish. A portion of West Feliciana Parish is separated by Concordia Parish. A portion of Madison Parish is separated by Warren County, Mississippi.
- In Massachusetts, Norfolk County has two exclaves: Brookline between Middlesex and Suffolk counties, and Cohasset on the coast of Plymouth County.
- In Michigan:
- In Houghton County: The city of Houghton divides Portage and Adams townships into two sections apiece, and the city of Hancock divides Quincy Township in two as well.
- Brownstown Township, Wayne County is separated into three parts. The two smaller parts are separated from the main portion of the township by Woodhaven. Both smaller parts are further separated by Rockwood and Gibraltar.
- In New Jersey:
- In Atlantic County, Egg Harbor Township is split into three parts.
- In Bergen County, the township of South Hackensack is divided into three separate parts as a result of other municipalities having seceded from it.
- In Burlington County, the borough of Wrightstown has two sections.
- In Camden County, Haddon Township is split into three parts, two of which are joined at a quadripoint.
- In Monmouth County, Aberdeen Township is divided into two pieces.
- In Morris County, the township of Randolph has a tiny exclave, and Rockaway Township has a small portion that is joined by only a quadripoint.
- In New Mexico, Sandoval County has an exclave. During World War II, Los Alamos County was created out of parts of Sandoval and Santa Fe Counties, for the convenience of the Manhattan Project. That portion of Sandoval County which is within the San Ildefonso Indian Reservation, about 3 km², became an exclave bounded by Los Alamos County on the southwest, Santa Fe County on the east and Rio Arriba County on the north.
- In Pennsylvania:
- Numerous municipalities in the southeastern part of Delaware County have exclaves. For example, Springfield Township has an exclave separated from the main body of the township by the village of Swarthmore; Darby Township consists of two separate non-contiguous areas; and part of Upper Darby is separated from the main body of the township by Aldan and Lansdowne.
- In Lackawanna County, South Abington Township has an isolated section along Glenburn Road surrounded by Clarks Summit borough and Waverly Township. The township also has several virtual exclaves as it is oddly shaped and surrounds Clarks Summit, Clarks Green, and Waverly Township collectively on three sides.
Pene-enclaves/exclaves and inaccessible districts 
Pene-enclaves and pene-exclaves are regions that are not contiguous with the main land region, that are not entirely surrounded by either alien land or alien territorial waters, and that have land access only through a second country (or the equivalent level of subnational governmental district). Hence, they are enclaves or exclaves for practical purposes, without meeting the strict definition.
Inaccessible districts are regions that are contiguous with the main land region but that are only easily accessible by going through a second country.
National Level 
- Angola: Cabinda is bounded by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, and the Atlantic Ocean.
- Argentina: The eastern part of Tierra del Fuego island, which is part of Tierra del Fuego province, is bounded by Chile, the Beagle Channel and the Atlantic Ocean.
- The municipality of Jungholz is surrounded by German territory everywhere except at one point, a so-called quadripoint at the top of a mountain. Road access is only via German land.
- The Kleinwalsertal, a valley part of Vorarlberg, can only be reached by road from Oberstdorf, Germany.
- Hinterriß and Eng (parts of the communes of Vomp and Eben am Achensee in Tyrol, Austria) are functional exclaves accessible by road only from Germany.
- Belarus/Lithuania: Adutiškis railway station straddles the Lithuania/Belarus border. Trains pass through Lithuanian territory while traveling to and from Belarus, and platforms are in both Belarus and Lithuania. The station is now mainly used for freight.
- Bolivia: Copacabana and the surrounding promontory are separated from the rest of Bolivia by Lake Titicaca, only joining by land to Peruvian territory. Access to Bolivia is only available via ferry.
- Brunei: Temburong District is bounded by Malaysia and Brunei Bay. Territorial waters are contiguous, however.
- Cambodia: Prasat Preah Vihear can only be reached by traveling through Thailand.
- St. Regis, Quebec: Part of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, it is attached by land to the St. Regis Mohawk Reservation in New York State; road access to the rest of Canada is only available through New York State.
- Campobello Island, New Brunswick can be reached by road only by driving through the United States, across the border bridge to Maine. Connection with the rest of Canada is by ferry.
- The Haskell Free Library and Opera House is located on the line between the United States and Canada; the library is physically located in Stanstead, Quebec in Canada, but the front door to the building exits onto Caswell Avenue in Derby Line, Vermont in the United States. A special exception allows Canadians and Americans to cross the border in order to use the building's facilities, but they must return back to their home country (or see the Customs office) to avoid being charged with illegally entering the other country.
- Chile - The southernmost tip of the Chile / Argentina border has a lighthouse on the Chile side, which is cut off from the rest of Chile by a river or inlet which appears to cross the border into Argentina at Punta Dungeness.
- Croatia: The southern portion of Dubrovnik-Neretva County, including the historic city of Dubrovnik, is bounded by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and the Adriatic Sea. Territorial waters are contiguous, however. Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina's only sea access, is sandwiched between the two portions of this county.
- Cyprus (de facto): In addition to the enclaves mentioned above, Strovilia is an exclave of the Greek Republic of Cyprus that borders the British Sovereign Base Area (SBA) of Dhekelia and the de facto independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which is unrecognized internationally. The TRNC has occupied and controlled the exclave; on 30 June 2000 the TRNC unilaterally absorbed it, despite United Nations condemnation and lack of recognition. The TRNC also has an exclave in the island's Northwest, Kokkina/Erenköy, which is bounded by the U.N. buffer zone and the Mediterranean Sea.
- Denmark/Germany: Several farms on the border.[further explanation needed]
- East Timor: Oecussi-Ambeno is bounded by Indonesia and the Savu Sea.
- Equatorial Guinea: continental Rio Muni is surrounded by Gabon, Cameroon and the Atlantic Ocean and can only be accessed from the capital by boat or plane.
- The Finnish municipality of Tornio has one pene-enclave unreachable directly by land from Finnish territory, although connected to the rest of the city by a pair of bridges. The neighbouring Swedish municipality of Haparanda has two similar pene-enclaves unreachable directly from Swedish territory.
- Märket is a small 3.3-hectare (8.2-acre) uninhabited island in the Baltic Sea, which has been divided between the two nations since the Treaty of Fredrikshamn of 1809. The unusual border consists of eight line segments and takes the form of an inverted 'S', with the island's lighthouse connected to the rest of Finland only by a short stretch of land.
- French Guiana (an Overseas Department), in South America, is bounded by Suriname, Brazil, and the Atlantic Ocean.
- The territorial water of Canada completely surrounds that of the French territorial collectivity of St Pierre and Miquelon except for a corridor 10.5 NM (19.4 km) wide stretching 200 NM (370 km) south to open sea.
- Ireland/United Kingdom: The western-most region of County Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland contains a pene-enclave jutting into County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), known as the Drummully Polyp or Coleman's Island. There are two inaccessible districts: Drumard in the 'polyp' itself, belongs to the Republic of Ireland and is inaccessible directly by road from any other part of the Republic; the village of Summerhill, County Fermanagh in Northern Ireland is similarly inaccessible from the rest of Northern Ireland. The A3 (Northern Ireland) and N54 (Republic of Ireland) road, known as the Concession Road, crosses the border here 4 times in a short distance.
- The Livigno valley near the Swiss border was at one time accessible only from Switzerland and was exempt from Italian customs, an exemption that continues today even though road access to the rest of Italy has been established. It is therefore excluded from EU VAT area.
- The village of Bagni di Craveggia can only be reached by travelling through the Canton of Ticino in Switzerland. The village never became part of Switzerland, as the pastures surrounding it were owned by the people of Vigezzo Valley, rather than the people of the Swiss Onsernone Valley, at the end of which the village is situated. Consequently, the Swiss franc is commonly used.
- On the San Marino/Italy border, there is Italian land east of the river San Marino that does not join to any other part of 'dry' Italian territory. This area is only a few metres wide, and follows the river's course for around 500 metres, and is close to the Strada del Lavoro.
- Laos: Many places, usually restaurants or markets, can only be accessed from Thailand by boat and does not need passport to enter.
- The Malay Peninsula part of Malaysia and the combined states of Sarawak and Sabah on the island of Borneo are pene-exclaves of each other.
- In the state of Sarawak, the Limbang Division is completely cut off from the rest of the state's road network. The Limbang District in the division is only accessible by road through Brunei, as it is located between Brunei's main portion and the Temburong District. The Lawas District, on the other hand, lies between Temburong and the state of Sabah. As Sabah and Sarawak have autonomy in immigration affairs, immigration checks are required when travelling into or out of the Limbang Division by road.
- Mexico/United States of America: Shifts in the meandering course of the lower Rio Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) have created numerous pene-exclaves. Under the Boundary Treaty of 1970 and earlier treaties, the two nations have maintained the actual course of the river as the international boundary, but both must approve proposed changes. From 1989 to 2009, there were 128 locations where the river changed course, causing land that had been on one side of the river to then occupy the opposite bank. Until the boundary is officially changed, there are 60 small pene-exclaves of the state of Texas now lying on the southern side of the river, as well as 68 such pene-exclaves of Mexico on the northern side of the river. The last such exchange (of pre-1989 river cuts) occurred in 2009, after languishing as a proposal for 20 years.
- Myanmar: The town of Payathonzu can be accessed from Kanchanaburi, Thailand by road. It cannot be reached by road from other locations in the country.
- Namibia: Mpalila Island can only be reached from the rest of the country by travelling through Botswana.
- Netherlands: Part of the province of Zeeland, namely Zeeuws Vlaanderen is accessible by land only through the country of Belgium, although it is accessible by sea from the rest of the province of Zeeland. There is a tunnel, the Westerscheldetunnel, which also links Zeeuws Vlaanderen to the rest of the province.
- Properties 79/3 and 79/4 at Trosterud in the Norwegian municipality of Rømskog are only accessible by a road that follows the Norwegian–Swedish boundary.
- Close to Narvik, a road enters Swedish territory. It does not connect with any other Swedish road before it enters Norwegian land once more.
- Oman: Musandam is bounded by the United Arab Emirates and the Strait of Hormuz.
- Portugal: An area north of Tourém is cut off from the rest of Portuguese territory by the lake Encoro de Salas, being surrounded by Spanish territory. It is accessible by a road bridge, but otherwise does not border the rest of Portugal.
- Kaliningrad Oblast is bounded by Lithuania, Poland, and the Baltic Sea.
- Dubki area is bounded by Estonia and Lake Peipsi-Pihkva.
- The settlement of Maloje Kulisko is separated from the rest of the country by the Kuuleski River; the village is otherwise surrounded by Estonian territory.
- There are three pene-exclaves of Russian territory which can be accessed only via the Lithuanian town of Vištytis. The border is officially undemarcated, and there are proposals to change the boundaries around this area.[further explanation needed]
- St. Martin/Sint Maarten in the Caribbean Sea are pene-exclaves of France, and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, respectively.
- Senegal: An area of marshy land, approximately 1-mile (1.6 km) south of Tiong, Mauritania is owned by Senegal, but is inaccessible from any other part of Senegal. Coastal waters, however, are contiguous.
- The European section of Turkey is bounded by Greece and Bulgaria. Note that despite the fact that the European section and the Asian sections of Turkey are not geographically contiguous and are separated by international waters, there are two connecting bridges in Istanbul.
- The valley of Macahel, which includes five villages in northeastern Turkey, can only be reached by vehicle via Batumi in Georgia. In winter, as the snow shuts the paths that are completely within the borders of Turkey, the road via Batumi is the only way to travel there.
- Uganda: The extreme tip of the Tanzania’s Kanyiragwa peninsula is a very small pene-exclave of Uganda on the shore of Lake Victoria, created by the parallel of latitude that defines most of the border between Uganda and Tanzania.
- United Kingdom:
- United States:
- Alaska is bounded by Canada, the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Sea, and the Pacific Ocean. Alaska is the world's largest pene-exclave.
- Although Alaska is itself a pene-exclave (road access is primarily via the Alaska Highway), the town of Hyder, Alaska, can only be reached by road from Stewart, British Columbia. There is no road from Hyder to any other point in Alaska. Additionally, much of the Alaska Panhandle consists of mountainous peninsulas; many communities along the coast lack road connection to other parts of Alaska directly, such as the state capital, Juneau.
- Point Roberts, Washington, is bounded by Canada, the Strait of Georgia, and Boundary Bay. It can be reached from the rest of Washington State only via road through two border crossings.
- The Northwest Angle – the northernmost part of Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota, and the northernmost part of the contiguous 48 states – is bounded by Canada and Lake of the Woods. Access to the rest of Minnesota is only via boat or by a pair of vehicular border crossings.
- Elm Point, Minnesota, and a small piece of uninhabited land just to its west are also bounded by Canada and Lake of the Woods.
- Alburgh, Vermont, is bounded by Canada and Lake Champlain. The community can be reached via road bridges from Vermont or New York.
- Province Point, the small end of a peninsula east of Alburgh, Vermont, is bounded by Canada and Lake Champlain.
- Estcourt Station, Maine, does not have public road access to the rest of Maine. Instead, Estcourt Station's houses, store and gas station access Rue Frontiere, a street on the Canadian side of the border in Pohenegamook, Quebec.
Subnational pene-enclaves/exclaves and inaccessible districts 
- In Canada:
- The village of Atlin, British Columbia is only accessible by road through the Yukon.
- The village of Tungsten, Northwest Territories is only accessible by road through the Yukon.
- Cold Lake, a large C-shaped lake, straddles the border between Alberta and Saskatchewan in such a way that a peninsula in Alberta territory can only be reached overland by passing through Saskatchewan's Meadow Lake Provincial Park.
- In Hong Kong:
- In Iceland:
- Akureyri municipality controls the islands of Hrísey (as of 2004) and Grímsey (as of 2009), although these two islands are roughly 35 km and 95 km from the city, respectively.
- Similarly, other divisions of Iceland control the islands of Heimaey, Hjörsey, Brokey, Flatey in Skjálfandi, Flatey in Breiðafjörður, Æðey, Málmey, Papey, Viðey, Surtsey, Vigur, Elliðaey, Bjarnarey, Engey, Álsey, Langey, Suðurey, Drangey, Eldey, Hellisey, Kolbeinsey, Geirfuglasker, Hvalbakur, Lundey, Brandur, Súlnasker, Geldungur, Hani, Hæna, Hrauney and Grasleysa, although these islands are away from the main divisions.
- Hafnarfjörður municipality is divided into two sections, on opposite sides of a peninsula.
- Skagabyggð municipality has two noncontiguous pieces with sea access.
- In India, the Union Territory of Daman and Diu consists of two coastal enclaves in the state of Gujarat.
- In Indonesia, the province of Yogyakarta is a coastal enclave of Central Java province with access to Indian Ocean in the south.
- In Italy, the southern part of the Province of Venice, Veneto, can be reached by land only by traveling through the Province of Padua.
- In Malaysia:
- In Mexico: Calica and Xel-Há in the municipality of Cozumel in Quintana Roo State have two polygons of land bounded by the Solidaridad Municipality but with a coast.
- In the Netherlands, the province of Overijssel has two exclaves on the Gelderland bank of the IJssel river opposite the towns of Olst and Wijhe, in which the villages of Marle (north exclave), Welsum and Welsumerveld (south exclave) are situated. There are cable ferries between Olst and Welsum and between Wijhe and Vorchten in the municipality of Heerde (there is no direct connection between Marle and the rest of Overijssel).
- In Norway, the municipalities Asker and Bærum are separated from the rest of the county of Akershus by land that belongs to the counties of Oslo, Oppland and Buskerud and Oslofjorden. However, these municipalities border on the bay of Oslofjord.
- In the People's Republic of China: Most of Chongming Island at the mouth of the Yangtze is administered as Chongming County of the Shanghai municipality, which is connected to the rest of Shanghai by a tunnel. However, two small villages on the north side, Haiyong (海永乡) and Qilong (启隆乡), are administered by Haimen and Qidong county-level cities, respectively, both of which are part of the Nantong prefecture-level city of the Jiangsu province. There is no road connection between these villages and the rest of Jiangsu.
- In the Philippines:
- Cotabato City is an exclave of Region XII SOCCSKSARGEN found within the boundaries of Maguindanao province of ARMM (Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao). It is however the regional center of ARMM.
- In SoCCSKSarGen, Sarangani province is divided by General Santos City and Sarangani Bay.
- In Zamboanga Peninsula:
- In Portugal, Vila Real de Santo António is divided into 3 freguesias, one of which is a few kilometers west of the other two. The "main," eastern part of its territory (where the municipal seat stands and where most of its inhabitants live) is more than three times smaller than the "secondary" part. To go from the eastern part to the western, one must pass through territory belonging to the municipality of Castro Marim, or go by sea, as all 3 freguesias face the Atlantic Ocean to the South.
- In the Republic of China (Taiwan), Keelung City (part of Taiwan Province) faces East China Sea on one side and borders New Taipei City (a special municipality not a part of Taiwan Province) on all other sides.
- In Romania, the village of Nămoloasa (Galaţi county) can be accessed only through Vrancea County (where there is a bridge over the Siret River) because it is separated by the Siret River from the rest of Galaţi county.
- In Russia:
- St. Petersburg, the administrative center of Leningrad Oblast, is a pene-enclave of it, as it has a shoreline on the Baltic Sea.
- Adjacent to the northwestern boundary of Moscow, there is a small exclave of the Krasnogorsk administrative district located at the 65-km mark outside of the 137-km Moscow Ring Road (Moskovskaya Koltsevaya Avtomobilnaya Doroga or MKAD), within which the administrative center and regional court are located. This area lacks access to the nearby Moscow River.
- In Samoa, A'ana, Palauli, Satupa'itea, and Va'a-o-Fonoti districts each have one exclave, and Gaga'emauga district has two. All parts of each district have sea access.
- In South Korea:
- Incheon Metropolitan City: Ganghwa Island is administered by Incheon, but is connected by bridges to Gyeonggi Province.
- Yeongjong Island, where Incheon International Airport is located, is administered by Jung-gu, but is connected by bridge to Seo-gu. (A "gu" is a geo-political subdivision of S. Korea's metropolitan cities).
- In Switzerland:
- Lucerne has two pieces separated from the main territory by Lake Lucerne; one borders Schwyz, the other Nidwalden.
- Nidwalden's district of Hergiswil is separated by an arm of Lake Lucerne.
- One of the pieces of Fribourg is a large exclave bounded by Vaud and Lake Neuchâtel.
- Vaud has one exclave, Avenches, bordered by Lake Neuchâtel, Fribourg and the tiny Bernese exclave of Clavaleyres. The coast of Lake Neuchâtel is thus in seven pieces belonging to four cantons: clockwise from the north they are Neuchâtel, Bern (main), Vaud (Avenches exclave), Fribourg (main), Vaud (main), Fribourg (exclave), Vaud (main).
- In the United Kingdom:
- The village of Pentreheyling in Shropshire, near the Welsh border and south-east of Montgomery, is disconnected from the rest of England by road. (see map).
- The hamlet/township of Newtown in Theale in Somerset forms a postal pene-exclave of post code area BA5 1, being accessible by road only through post code are BS28 4.
- On the English side of the English/Scottish border, the hamlet of High Cocklaw is not accessible directly from any other part of England except via footpath.
- Scotland: There are two parts inaccessible from anywhere else other than travelling through England; these are Edrington Castle and the village of Cawderstanes, which is accessible to the rest of Scotland by footbridge only. Also a small area of land adjacent to a weir on the River Tweed, north of the B6350 road, due south of Coldstream and due south west of Cornhill on Tweed which can only reach the rest of Scotland directly by crossing the weir.
- In Flintshire, on the Dee estuary, there are several bits of marshland that are separated from other bits of Wales.
- There is also a small area of land south of Wyastone Leys which is inaccessible from any other area of Wales directly by road, being separated by land and the River Wye.
- There are several small areas north of the village of Part-Y-Seal are inaccessible from Wales directly, these include one farm, two river banks and a small island in the River Wye.
- National rail services connecting north and south Wales must pass through England.
- In the United States of America:
- Shifts in the meandering course of the lower Mississippi River have created numerous pene-exclaves.
- In California:
- The City and County of San Francisco has an exclave on Alameda Island, across San Francisco Bay and adjoining Alameda County. The exclave came into being as artificial fill on the border between the two counties to build the Naval Air Station Alameda, now decommissioned. This small piece of open space cannot be reached from San Francisco (except by boat) without passing through Oakland and Alameda.
- Coast Guard Island in the Oakland estuary is part of the city of Alameda but is accessible only via a bridge from Oakland.
- Also in San Francisco Bay, there are two small (5.37 acres) pieces of land on the eastern end of Angel Island (Quarry Point and the tip of Point Blunt) that belong to the City and County of San Francisco. The rest (99.3%) of Angel Island lies in the town of Tiburon, which is in Marin County. In addition, San Francisco and Contra Costa County share Red Rock Island.
- The port community of San Pedro is part of the city of Los Angeles but is connected to the rest of the city only by a narrow strip of land known as the Harbor Gateway, four city blocks wide and several miles long.
- The City of San Diego has a significantly large exclave. It Includes the communities of San Ysidro, Otay Mesa, Palm, and other neighborhoods considered a part of San Diego. This piece of San Diego is separated from the main portion of San Diego by 7 miles, divided by the cities of National City and Chula Vista. Technically, it is connected to the rest of San Diego by a 7 mile, 2 inch wide strip of land below San Diego Bay. But it is essentially an exclave. It is commonly referred to as "South San Diego".
- The city of Coronado, nearly encircled by San Diego Bay, can be reached by land only via a narrow isthmus connected to Imperial Beach. A bridge also connects it to San Diego. Four other small pene-exclaves occupy the same peninsula. Coastal lands that are north of Wright Ave., at the northern end of First St., part of Coronado Ferry Landing Park and that surround most of Naval Air Station North Island (island before 1945) are part of the city of San Diego and are accessible on land only through the city of Coronado. A large portion of the famous Coronado beach is in the City of San Diego.
- Redwood Shores on the San Francisco Peninsula is part of Redwood City, California, but is only connected with the rest of the city by an area of wetland in San Francisco Bay. It is accessible only via the cities of San Carlos and Belmont.
- Devils Postpile National Monument in eastern Madera County, California, is inaccessible from the remainder of the county due to wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada mountain range. It can be reached only via Mono County near Mammoth Lakes.
- General Grant Grove is an isolated, non contiguous section of Kings Canyon National Park.
- Some privately owned land within Mariposa County is surrounded by Yosemite National Park in the area of Wawona, as it was grandfathered at the park's formation to remain private.
- Delaware — At least two parcels of land on the east (New Jersey) side of the Delaware River belong to the state of Delaware (the bulk of which is west of the river) and not to New Jersey. This is because within the "Twelve Mile Circle", the entire Delaware River, to the low water mark, is the territory of Delaware and not New Jersey (unlike many other river borders where the border is at some intermediate point in the river itself). As a result, certain areas (including the Killcohook National Wildlife Refuge and a portion of the Salem Nuclear Power Plant) on the New Jersey side of the river that have been expanded by adding fill into areas that were historically below the low water mark are considered part of New Castle County, Delaware, and not Salem County, New Jersey. Both of these areas are accessible by land only by traveling through New Jersey.
- Kentucky — Ellis Park Racecourse, a Thoroughbred horse racing track in Henderson, Kentucky, actually lies to the north of the Ohio River that forms the border between Kentucky and Indiana. The border is based on the river's course when Kentucky achieved statehood in 1792; a change in course to the south left the land that would later house Ellis Park cut off from the rest of Kentucky by the river. A pair of bridges across the Ohio connect the track to the rest of Kentucky.
- Iowa — The town of Carter Lake, Iowa, occupied a meander on the left bank of the Missouri River, until 1877 when flooding caused the river to jump its banks, shortening the main stream. The meander became an oxbow lake and Carter Lake now found itself on the right bank, attached to Nebraska. A lengthy court case ensued; the Supreme Court of the United States held that the sudden change in the river's course did not change the original boundary, and Carter Lake was still part of Iowa. (Nebraska v. Iowa, 143 U.S. 359 (1892)). The Court delayed a final decree to allow Nebraska and Iowa to reach an agreement consistent with its holding, which they did. (145 U.S. 519 (1892)). All roads into Carter Lake run through Omaha, Nebraska. For similar geographic reasons there are many slices of Mississippi River states that are now on the "wrong" side of the waterway.
- Louisiana — The island of Grand Isle is part of Jefferson Parish but can be reached on land only via a bridge from Lafourche Parish.
- In Massachusetts:
- Humarock, legally part of Scituate, was separated from the rest of the town in the Blizzard of 1898, in which the mouth of the North River shifted. The village is only accessible via a bridge which connects it to Marshfield, but has a peninsular connection to the mainland to the south at the old mouth of the North River, now Rexhame Beach.
- Long Island, situated in Boston Harbor, is part of the City of Boston (Suffolk County) yet remains accessible by road only from Quincy (Norfolk County).
- The town of Sandwich is partially separated in its northern portion by the Cape Cod Canal and is only accessible by road through the neighboring town of Bourne.
- Michigan —
- Missouri — St. Joseph Rosecrans Memorial Airport is separated from St. Joseph and Buchanan County by the Missouri River; the airport lies on the west bank of the river, with the remainder of the city and county on the east bank. The only land access to the airport from Missouri is via Kansas Route 238 through Elwood.
- In New Jersey: In Ocean County, Long Beach Township is split into four parts, each with sea access.
- In New York:
- The construction in 1895 of the Harlem River Ship Canal isolated Marble Hill, a small portion of the northern tip of Manhattan (New York County). Initially an island, it was later physically connected to the Bronx by the filling of Spuyten Duyvil Creek. It remains politically part of Manhattan, to which it is connected by the Broadway Bridge. Thus, it is part of the Borough of Manhattan and New York County, but not the island of Manhattan.
- Rockaway Peninsula, part of Queens, is connected to the rest of New York City only by two causeways across Jamaica Bay, or through Nassau County.
- Riker's Island, the jail complex of the City of New York, is considered to be in the borough of The Bronx, but is only accessible via the Riker's Island Bridge, which terminates in the Borough of Queens.
- Manhattan's borders often extend to the shorelines of the other boroughs so that, for example, certain piers extending from the Brooklyn waterfront are part of Manhattan but accessible only from Brooklyn. Manhattan (New York County) claims the entire East River bed.
- North Carolina — Knotts Island in Currituck County is only accessible by road through Virginia Beach, Virginia via a narrow strip of land from the west. A 45-minute ferry connects the island to the rest of Currituck.
- In Rhode Island, the city of Warwick has an exclave called Potowomut separated from the main body of the city by Greenwich Bay on the north and the town of East Greenwich on the west.
- In Tennessee, over a period of about 24 hours on March 7, 1876, the Mississippi River abandoned its former channel that defined the Tennessee-Arkansas border, and established a new channel east of the town of Reverie, Tennessee. This places Reverie on the Arkansas side, while most of the area of Tipton County is located east of the Mississippi River, the Tennessee side. The direct distance between Reverie and the county seat, Covington, Tennessee, is only 18 miles (29 km), but the road trip to Covington requires the driver to cross the Mississippi River at Memphis, and is longer than 83 miles (134 km).
- Virginia — The Eastern Shore, comprising Accomack County and Northampton County, is located at the southern tip of the Delmarva Peninsula, contiguous only to Maryland on its north. It is connected to the rest of Virginia by the 23-mile-long (37 km) Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel.
- Washington, D.C. — Theodore Roosevelt Island in the Potomac River is part of Washington, D.C., but only accessible by a footbridge from Virginia. Although the Theodore Roosevelt Bridge from Washington to Virginia passes over the island, one cannot exit from the bridge onto the island.
Historic enclaves/exclaves 
National Level 
- Altona was a Danish exclave within Germany from 1640 to 1864.
- Bhutan - Tarchen, Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar and Zuthulphuk were exclaves of Bhutan within Tibet from the 1640s until 1959.
- Bophuthatswana was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1977 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It consisted of a scattered patchwork of individual enclaves, five that were true enclaves within South Africa and one that bordered Botswana.
- Cheikh Saïd is a rocky peninsula in present-day Yemen between the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea. Although as late as 1970, the Petit Larousse described it as having been a "French colony from 1868 to 1936," France never claimed formal jurisdiction or sovereignty over it.
- within China -
- Forbidden City - The last emperor of the Qing Dynasty of China, Emperor Henry Puyi, acceded to the throne in 1909. In 1911, revolution broke out, and the Qing army was defeated. According to the treaty signed between the Qing court and the government of the newly formed Republic of China (ROC), Puyi preserved the emperor title and along with other rights, maintained certain government organs in the Forbidden City, mainly for management of the Forbidden City, other palaces, imperial families, etc. The Dragon Flag of the Qing Dynasty remained hoisted inside the Forbidden City. In 1924, the 1911 treaty was revised unilaterally by the ROC government, abolishing Puyi's title of Emperor, his right to live in the Forbidden City and other related arrangements.
- Unlike Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula and the New Territories that were added later comprised a pene-exclave of Great Britain from 1860 until 1997.
- Kowloon Walled City was a counter-enclave belonging to China on the Kowloon Peninsula of Hong Kong from 1898 to 1993. The question of jurisdiction led to a hands-off approach by Chinese and British authorities over the years until the quality of life became intolerable. A mutual decision to demolish the 2.6 hectares of structures was announced in 1987 and completed in 1994.
- Kwang-Chou-Wan was a pene-exclave of France on the south coast of China from 1898, upon its lease to France by Qing China, until its return by France in 1946; its territory included the islands in the bay and land on both banks of the Maxie River, covering 1300 km² of land.
- Kwantung was a pene-exclave of Russia and later Japan in the southern part of the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria that existed from 1898 to 1945 and included the ports of Port Arthur (or Ryojun) and Dal'niy (or Dairen), the latter founded in 1899. It was leased to Russia from 1898 until 1905, when Japan replaced Russia as leaseholder. After World War II, the Soviet Union occupied the territory in 1945, jointly administering it with the Chinese before turning it over to the People's Republic of China in 1955.
- Macao was a pene-exclave of Portugal on the coast of the South China Sea from 1557 until 1999.
- Qingdao, with an area of 552 km², was a pene-exclave of Germany (also known as the Kiautschou Bay concession), and later Japan, from 1898 to 1922, adjacent to Jiaozhou Bay on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in East China. The village of Qingdao became the German colony of Tsingtau. In 1914, with the outbreak of World War I, the Republic of China canceled the lease with Germany. Japan then occupied the city and province until December, 1922, when it reverted to Chinese rule.
- Shanghai was the location of British (from 1846) and American (from 1848) Concessions (later Shanghai International Settlement from 1863 - 1943) and the Shanghai French Concession from 1849 - 1946. Unlike the British sovereign colonies of Hong Kong Island and Wei-hai-wei, these foreign concessions always remained Chinese sovereign territory.
- Wei-hai-wei was a pene-exclave of Great Britain that bordered the Yellow Sea in eastern Shandong province of China. The city was a British colony, known also as the Weihai Garrison and sometimes as Port Edward, from 1898 to 1 October 1930, when it was returned to China. Its current name is Weihai.
- Comtat Venaissin was an exclave of Papal territory within France from 1348 - 1791. It contained an enclave of another Papal territory, the city of Avignon and had a small exclave around the nearby town of Valréas.
- Dobta and Chumbi were exclaves of Sikkim within Tibet until 1959.
- Despotate of the Morea on the Peloponnesos peninsula of present-day Greece was a geographically detached province of the Byzantine Empire from 1349 - 1460; during much of that time, in addition to the Mediterranean Sea, it was surrounded by "states under Latin rule."
- East Pakistan (1947 – 1971), now Bangladesh, was a pene-exclave of Pakistan (if one considers West Pakistan, site of the capital, Islamabad, as the main land) that bordered the Bay of Bengal, India and French Indochina. East Pakistan, with a distance of 1600 km separating it from West Pakistan, accounted for 70% of the country's exports and was more populous than West Pakistan.
- Fort of São João Baptista de Ajudá was a Portuguese exclave (initially around 1 km² in area and reduced to only 2 ha by 1961) within Dahomey/Benin from 1680 until 1961 (de facto annexation by Dahomay) or 1975 (Portuguese recognition).
- Germany –
- East Prussia (1919 – 1939), a German pene-exclave during the Weimar Republic, was separated from Germany after World War I, when Poland regained access to the Baltic Sea (Polish corridor). The territory of East Prussia (essentially the old Duchy of Prussia) is now divided into Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship in Poland, and Klaipėda County in Lithuania.
- Hemmeres, (1922 – 1949), surrounded by Belgian territory, was the sixth and southernmost of the Vennbahn enclaves created in 1922; it contained five households. The railway suffered severe damage during World War II and was not rebuilt. It ceased being an enclave when Belgium annexed the entirety in 1949. Hemmeres was reintegrated into West Germany on August 28, 1958, by an agreement with Belgium.
- Jestetten is a German town in the district of Waldshut in Baden-Württemberg that was inaccessible except by traveling through Switzerland, until a connecting road was constructed.
- Roetgener Wald - From 1922 to 1958, the center portion of this Vennbahn enclave (between Grenzweg and a boundary with three turning points west of the Schleebach creek) was Belgian territory. Because the road connecting the two outer German portions (Highways 258/399) was German territory until 1949, the German land formed one enclave. The intersecting north-south road from Fringhaus to Konzen (now Highway B258, which has no connection to the rest of the Belgian road network) was also part of the strangely shaped enclave. In 1949 Belgium annexed these roads, thus separating the enclave into two enclaves for the next nine years. In 1958 Belgium ceded the center section of territory to West Germany, in addition to returning the adjacent east-west connecting road.  This created one larger enclave in its present-day form.
- Losheim in Hellenthal municipality, including Prüme Straße (Highway 265) to its west, was annexed by Belgium in 1949. Apparently excluded from annexation were two narrow strips of land (approximately 2000 m and 200 m in length) west of the highway and east of the pre-annexation Belgian border. These two enclaves of German land were dis-enclaved in 1958 upon Belgium's return of the Losheim territory.
- Verenahof was a German exclave within Switzerland until 1967, when it was re-attached to Germany by treaty through a land swap of a total of just under 1.06 km² in equal shares.
- West Berlin, upon the division of Berlin after World War II and before the reunification of Germany in 1990, was de facto a West German exclave within East Germany. Twelve small West Berlin land areas, such as Steinstücken, were in turn separated from the main body of West Berlin, some by only a few meters. In addition, there were several small areas of East Berlin that were surrounded by West Berlin. All of Berlin was ruled "de jure" by the four Allied powers; this meant that West Berlin could not send voting members to the German Parliament and that its citizens were exempt from conscription.
- West Berlin exclaves:
- Böttcherberg (N) (1949 - 1971) to East Germany
- Böttcherberg (SE) (1949 - 1971) to East Germany
- Böttcherberg (SW) (1949 - 1971) to East Germany
- Erlengrund (1949 - 1988) land connection to West Berlin established
- Falkenhagener Wiese (1949 - 1971) to East Germany
- Fichtewiese (1949 - 1988) land connection to West Berlin established
- Finkenkrug (1949 - 1971) inhabited, to East Germany
- Große Kuhlake (1949 - 1971) to East Germany
- Laßzins-Wiesen (1949 - 1988) to East Germany
- Nuthewiesen (1949 - 1971) to East Germany
- Steinstücken (1949 - 1971) inhabited, land connection to West Berlin established
- Wüste Mark (1949 - 1988) to East Germany
- East Berlin exclaves:
- Eiskeller (E) (1949 - 1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
- Eiskeller (N) (1949 - 1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
- Eiskeller (S) (1949 - 1990) dis-enclaved at re-unification
- West-Staaken - de jure part of Soviet sector but de facto administered by Spandau Borough in the British sector; seized by East Germany in 1951 and made an exclave of East Berlin's Borough of Mitte, which it remained officially until being incorporated in 1961 by the neighboring town of Falkensee in non-Berlin East Germany.
- Gwadar was an Omani pene-exclave on the Arabian Sea coast of present-day Pakistan from 1784 until 1958.
- Ifni was a pene-exclave of Spain on the Atlantic coast of Morocco from 1859 to 1969.
- within India -
- Dadra and Nagar Haveli were enclaves inland from the Arabian Sea coast covering an area of 487 km². After invasion by pro-Indian Union forces in 1954, they achieved de facto independence from Portugal. They and three Portuguese pene-exclaves, the city of Goa and the two small coastal exclaves of Daman and Diu, comprised the last remnants of Portuguese India, which existed from 1505 until military conquest by India on 19 December 1961. (A 1956 map also shows a counter-enclave within Nagar Haveli belonging to Bombay.)
- French India - Pondicherry and the other exclaves of Karaikal, Mahé and Yanaon were absorbed into India de facto in 1954 and de jure in 1962 after the Algerian War. In 1761 the British captured all of them from the French (and also Chandannagar), but the Treaty of Paris (1763) returned them to France. Those possessions passed again to British control before finally being handed over to the French in 1816/1817 under the 1814 Treaty of Paris. Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanaon came to be administered as the Union Territory of Puducherry in 1963. These are now sub-national exclaves within India.
- Pondicherry, was the site of a trading center set up by the French East India Company in 1674, which eventually became the chief French settlement in India, after passing several times between Dutch, British and French control. It comprised 12 non-contiguous parts: three pene-exclaves on the Bay of Bengal and nine nearby true enclaves. Inside the main Pondicherry exclave was a small counter-enclave belonging to India straddling the Chunnambar River.
- Mahé (or Mayyazhi), a small (9 km²) town, was a pene-exclave on the Malabar Coast of the Arabian Sea from 1721. Mahé was composed of three non-contiguous parts, including Mahé town and Naluthara, one of two true enclaves nearby.
- Yanaon (or Yanam), a 30 km² pene-exclave in the delta of Godavari River, nine kilometers from the Coromandel Coast and Bay of Bengal. It was a Dutch colony before French overtook it in 1723 and made it a French colony.
- Karikal was a small coastal pene-exclave on the Bay of Bengal acquired by France in 1739 from the regime of Raja Pratap Singh of Tanjore. By 1760 it included 81 villages around Karaikal town.
- Chandannagar was a small true enclave established as a French colony in 1673, located on the right bank of the Hooghly River 30 kilometers north of Kolkata. Bengal was then a province of the Mughal Empire. The British returned the city in 1816, along with a 7.8 km² nearby enclave. In May, 1950, with French approval, India assumed de facto control, with the de jure transfer in June, 1952. In 1955 it was integrated into West Bengal state.
- Trincomalee was in present-day Sri Lanka (then a part of India) located on the Indian Ocean east coast of the island. By September, 1782, it was occupied by the French after the Battle of Trincomalee with the British, only to be ceded back to the British in 1783.
- The Lado Enclave was a 39,000 km² exclave of the Congo Free State and later of Belgian Congo that existed from 1894 until 1910, situated on the west bank of the Upper Nile in present-day South Sudan and northwest Uganda.
- Mount Scopus (in Jerusalem) was an Israeli exclave in Jordan between 1948 and 1967, before being reunited with West Jerusalem following the Six Day War. It is still an exclave on a political level, as Israel's annexation of the connecting territory is unrecognized internationally.
- Panama -
- Colón, a pene-exclave of Panama from 1903 to 1950, was surrounded by the U.S. Panama Canal Zone and the Caribbean Sea.
- Panama City, from 1903 - circa 1923, was a pene-exclave surrounded by the U.S. Panama Canal Zone and the Pacific Ocean. Maps of the Canal Zone dated before 1923 clearly show these borders. Maps dated 1924 and later show a changed border that re-connected Panama City with eastern Panama.
- Pogiriai (Pogiry) was a Lithuanian exclave of 1.7 km² that was ceded to Belarus in 1996.
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon, a French territorial collectivity, was completely surrounded by the territorial waters of Canada from 1763 until 1992, when an EEZ corridor 10.5 NM (19.4 km) wide was created, stretching 200 NM (370 km) south to open sea.
- Schirgiswalde - In accordance with terms of the 1635 Peace Treaty of Prague, Austria transferred land (Ober- and Niederlausitz) to Saxony. However, because of religious affiliation with Austria, Schirgiswalde and five other towns (Güntersdorf, Gerlachsheim, Winkel, Taubentränke and Neuleutersdorf) within the transferred land remained with Austria, becoming Austrian enclaves within Saxony. 174 years later, to address problems as states began to consolidate, the 1809 Peace Treaty of Vienna mandated the transfer of these six enclaves from Austria to Saxony. However, the transfer did not occur until 1845 because of the need to correct mistakes in the names of the villages stated in the treaty and subsequent neglect. During that time, Schirgiswalde was de facto independent until economic reasons compelled the final transfer of the enclaves, thus extinguishing them.
- Sweden - The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 granted certain possessions of the Holy Roman Empire to the Swedish Empire (extant 1611 - 1721) to be held as fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire:
- Bremen-Verden - states of the Holy Roman Empire bordering the North Sea; in "personal union with Sweden" until 1712, when they fell under Danish occupation in wartime.
- Swedish Pomerania - a state on the Baltic coast in present-day Germany and Poland; a small part was ceded to Prussia following war in 1720 and the entirety in 1815 during the Congress of Vienna.
- town of Wismar - town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea; transferred to Germany in 1903 when Sweden renounced its claim.
- Syria was a pene-exclave of the United Arab Republic from 1958 - 1961 (if one considers Egypt as the UAR main land), bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey, Iraq, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.
- Transkei was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1976 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It had two exclaves within South Africa that were true enclaves.
- Turkey - The tomb of Suleyman Shah (b. ca. 1178 – d. 1236) was located in or near Qal'at Ja'bar in modern-day Syria; in accordance with the 1921 Treaty of Ankara, the tomb "shall remain, with its appurtenances, the property of Turkey, who may appoint guardians for it and may hoist the Turkish flag there." The treaty is silent regarding sovereignty of the 6.3 hectares of land on which the tomb rests. The tomb was relocated in 1973 prior to the creation of Lake Assad.
- United States -
- Horseshoe Reef (1850 - 1908) in Lake Erie consisted of underwater ledges of sunken rock near Buffalo, New York. Great Britain ceded a fraction of an acre of underwater land that was entirely surrounded by Canadian waters to the United States to construct a lighthouse. The boundary was shifted in 1908 to include it in U.S. waters.
- The Captain Cook Monument at Kealakekua Bay and about 25 square feet (2.3 m2) of land around it in Hawaii, United States, the place where James Cook was killed in 1779, is owned by the United Kingdom. An historian on the occasion of the 50th anniversary recorded in 1928 that the white stone "obelisk monument [was] erected to the memory of Captain Cook, about 1876, and on land deeded outright to the British Government by Princess Likelike, sister of King Kalakaua, about the same year, so that that square is absolute British Territory." Hawaii was a sovereign nation at the time. According to a recent writer, "The land under the monument was deeded to the United Kingdom in 1877 and is considered as sovereign non-embassy land owned by the British Embassy in Washington DC. ... the Hawaiian State Parks agency maintained that as sovereign British territory it was the responsibility of the UK to maintain the site."
- Lake of the Woods - the American border with present-day Canada as defined under the 1783 Treaty of Paris and the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 inadvertently created two small maritime exclaves of the U.S. in Angle Inlet. The border depended on determining the northwesternmost point of the Lake of the Woods. Johann Tiarks' survey in 1825 placed its location at the edge of a pond on the Angle Inlet. (A 1940 academic study documented the location of Tiarks' point, which is in the immediate vicinity of .) In accordance with the 1818 treaty, the border ran south from this point to the 49th parallel. However, this line was "intersected at five points by the winding course of the boundary in the channel of the Northwest Angle Inlet; thus there were anomalously left two small areas of waters totaling two and a half acres belonging to the United States, yet entirely surrounded by Canadian waters." They were centered at and . By treaty in 1925, the southernmost of these five intersecting points, 4785 ft. farther south than Tiarks' point, was adopted instead, which eliminated these exclaves.
- Panama Canal Zone, surrounded by Panama, the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, was an American pene-exclave from 1903 to 1979, when it was transferred to Panama.
- The Val d'Aran is a valley in the Pyrenees mountains and a comarca in northwestern Catalonia, northern Spain. Most of it comprises the only part of Catalonia that is on the northern side of the Pyrenees. The Val d'Aran used to be without direct access to the south side of the mountains, until the Vielha tunnel was opened in 1948.
- Venda was a bantustan or "black homeland" that was granted nominal independence by apartheid South Africa from 1979 until being re-absorbed in April 1994, but it remained unrecognized internationally. It was an enclave that was not an exclave, bordering only South Africa and separated narrowly from Zimbabwe by the Madimbo corridor to the north. Venda itself also had a small exclave that was a true enclave in South Africa.
- Walvis Bay was a South African pene-exclave bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and Namibia, before being incorporated with Namibia in 1994, four years after that country's independence.
- Zadar (Zara) was a 104 km² pene-exclave of Italy, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia, from 1920 to 1944 (de facto due to abandonment by the Italian civilian administration) or 1947 (de jure under treaty).
- Various other historical foreign concessions
- Innumerable medieval enclaves within Europe
Subnational historic enclaves/exclaves 
- Cumbernauld and Kirkintilloch formed an exclave at county level, as a part of the Scottish county of Dunbartonshire sandwiched between Stirlingshire and Lanarkshire. The exclave was dissolved after the municipal reforms of 1975.
- Dudley in the West Midlands, England, was an exclave at municipal level, being in a part of the county of Worcestershire surrounded by Staffordshire. Upon the local government reforms of 1974, the exclave was dissolved.
- Furness in England was an exclave of the county of Lancashire, known as "Lancashire-beyond-the-Sands" until 1974, when it became part of Cumbria.
- Maelor Rural District was an exclave of the Welsh county of Flintshire, bounded on three sides by England and on the west by the Welsh county of Denbighshire, until 1974 when the local administrative system was altered. It is now part of Wrexham.
- The counties of Scotland before reorganisation in 1889 included dozens of exclaves. This was especially notable in the case of Cromartyshire, which was split into at least nine parts spread across Ross-shire.
- Before 1974, and especially before 1844, there were many exclaves of counties in England and Wales.
- Germany -
- The former municipality of Hinterhermsdorf in Saxony was an exclave of the town of Sebnitz, being separated from it by the municipality of Kirnitzschtal, until Kirnitzschtal also became a part of Sebnitz..
- Königsberg, located in the Lower Franconia region of present-day Bavaria, Germany, was an enclave within Bavaria, along with two small nearby enclaves, belonging to the Ernestine Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (which after 1825 also had five exclaves in Thuringia). In 1918 the post-monarchy duchy was split into two states, making Königsberg an exclave of the Free State of Saxe-Coburg. In 1920, the residents of that state voted to merge with the Free State of Bavaria, thus eliminating the three Bavarian enclaves.
- Innumerable medieval enclaves
- Korea -
- Siheung County, South Korea, was an enclave within Gyeonggi Province. In 1986, the incorporated cities of Anyang, Gwacheon, and Ansan were formed from Hwaseong County. In 1989, the old county of Siheung was divided into the cities of Gunpo, Uiwang, and Siheung, thereby dissolving the enclave.
- The southwest coast of South Jeolla Province in Korea was an exclave of Taebong, Goryeo, between 903 to 936.
- The former municipality of Säynätsalo in Central Finland was an exclave of Jyväskylä municipality from 1993 to 2009.
- Switzerland -
- The village of Samnaun could initially only be reached by road from Austria. Thus, in 1892 the village was excluded from the Swiss customs territory. The exemption was maintained even when a road was built to the Engadin valley in 1907-1912.
- Before 1597, the two present-day cantons of Appenzell Ausserrhoden and Appenzell Innerrhoden were one canton, Appenzell, which was an enclave completely surrounded by the Canton of St. Gallen.
- United States -
- Maine was a pene-exclave of Massachusetts between 1652 and 1820.
- The Western Reserve in present-day Ohio was a pene-exclave of Connecticut from 13 September 1786 to 1800, when it reverted to the Northwest Territory.
- District of Columbia - Washington National Airport was built on reclaimed land on the south side of the Potomac River, at which the river's high-water line marked the District's boundary with Virginia. Therefore, until 1945, the site was a pene-exclave of the District. Since then, the airport has been officially deemed a part of Arlington County, Virginia, but it is under exclusive federal jurisdiction and is administered as if still part of the District.
- Princeton Township surrounded the Borough of Princeton, home of Princeton University, until the two municipalities merged in 2013 to form Princeton, New Jersey.
- Town Line, New York voted 85 to 40 to secede from the United States in 1861, with no legal effect and no well-defined borders, to become a colloquial exclave of the Confederate States of America, unrecognized by either side (there are no written records); ceremonially voted to "rejoin" the Union in 1946.
Temporary enclaves or exclaves 
Sometimes land is ceded temporarily to another country as a form of legal fiction.
- Suite 212 at Claridges Hotel in London was ceded by the United Kingdom to Yugoslavia on June 17, 1945 to allow Crown Prince Alexander, whose parents were in exile, to be born on Yugoslav soil.
- Camp Zeist, a former United States Air Force base in the Netherlands, was, in 2000, temporarily declared sovereign territory of the United Kingdom, in order to allow the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial to take place.
- In 1943, the maternity ward at the Ottawa Civic Hospital in Canada was temporarily extraterritorial so that Princess Juliana's daughter Princess Margriet would only have Dutch (by parents' nationality) and not dual nationality, because of having been born on Canadian soil. Dual nationality would have excluded her from the royal succession.
- In 1979, at Sender Zehlendorf, East Germany, an area of 300 meters in radius around a radio tower construction site was made an exclave of the Soviet Union. After a Soviet fighter plane had earlier collided with a radio transmission mast at the facility, causing it to collapse, the Soviet Union agreed to rebuild the mast. So that the stricter German safety regulations would not slow the construction progress, the area was declared a Soviet exclave for the duration of the work.
Potential exclaves pending international resolution 
- Hans Island - possible pene-exclave with land border between Canada and Denmark (on behalf of Greenland): Negotiations in 2012 between Canada and Denmark, not yet finalized, call for either a condominium or splitting the disputed island's sovereignty in half. If the island were to be split by a boundary, it would create both Canada's and Denmark's second land border. 
- Palanca Marshes - potential Vennbahn-type enclave of Moldova surrounded by Ukraine: Under a 2001 treaty between the two nations, Moldova is to transfer to Ukraine not only the asphalt (as it has already done), but also the real property under 7.7 kilometers of road (which is a portion of the 300 km road between Odessa and Reni), and to clarify the sovereignty of that land, which under that treaty is to be transferred to Ukraine.
- Croatian maritime exclave within Adriatic Sea waters of Italy and Slovenia: The Drnovšek-Račan agreement of 20 July 2001 defined the entire border between the countries, including the maritime border. According to this agreement, Croatia would get approximately one third of the Gulf of Piran and a maritime border with Italy, while Slovenia would get a corridor to international waters. This solution included a Croatian maritime exclave. However, such a solution could run afoul of the Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, which prohibits sovereignty over parts of the sea unconnected to land. Article 4 states, "... the sea areas lying within the lines must be sufficiently closely linked to the land domain to be subject to the regime of internal waters," and "... baselines may not be applied by a State in such a manner as to cut off from the high seas the territorial sea of another State."
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- Art. 4, № 5 of Law № 142/85, from 18 November (law on the creation of municipalities)
- Art. 6, № 1 of Law № 8/93, from 5 March (law on the creation of civil parishes)
- Bibb-Monroe County Line dispute
- Hudson County New Jersey Street Map. Hagstrom Map Company, Inc. 2008. ISBN 0-88097-763-9.
- "Ellis Island - Structural Development".
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- Jan S. Krogh's Geosite on the Trosterud farms[unreliable source?]
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- Contract between the Swiss Confederation and the Federal Republic of Germany
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- William E. Lass (1980). Minnesota's Boundary with Canada: Its Evolution Since 1783. Minnesota Historical Society Press. p. 48. ISBN 0-87351-153-0. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
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- Warum die Baustelle eines Sendemasten exterritoriales Gebiet wurde.
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- Moldova-Ukraine relations, interview with Andrei Popov
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- Jan S. Krogh's Geosite
- Puducherry Map