List of enclaves in Pennsylvania

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In political geography, an enclave is a piece of land entirely surrounded by the territory of another equivalent-level entity (and only that entity).[1] An exclave is a piece of land that is politically connected to a larger piece but not physically conterminous with it because the territory of other equivalent-level entity or entities entirely surround it.[2] Many entities are both enclaves and exclaves.

In Pennsylvania, every county in the state, other than the counties of Fulton, Philadelphia, Pike and Union, contains at least one municipality surrounded completely by another municipality. While Pennsylvania's urban counties contain few enclaves due to municipal fragmentation, rural areas feature numerous enclaved municipalities. Many resulted from small town centers separating from their rural surrounding areas.

There are at least 338 enclaves (that are not exclaves) in Pennsylvania comprising incorporated places and census-designated places (CDP) within other county subdivisions.[3][4] Of these, 260 are boroughs (out of 957 in the state), 75 are CDPs (out of 749), two are townships (out of 1547) and one is a city (out of 57). Although each CDP is technically a part of the township(s) in which it is located, these two types of subdivision are considered to be distinct entities.

Usually, the enclave (that is not an exclave) takes the form of a borough that is surrounded by the township of which it was originally a part, but other scenarios are possible, e.g.,

Pennsylvania enclaves that are not exclaves[edit]

Adams County[edit]

Allegheny County[edit]

Armstrong County[edit]

Beaver County[edit]

Bedford County[edit]

Berks County[edit]

Blair County[edit]

Bradford County[edit]

Bucks County[edit]

Butler County[edit]

Cambria County[edit]

  • Portage, borough - appears to touch Spring Hill CDP at a single point[5]
  • Spring Hill, CDP - appears to touch Portage borough at a single point[5]

Cameron County[edit]

Carbon County[edit]

Centre County[edit]

Chester County[edit]

Clarion County[edit]

Clearfield County[edit]

Clinton County[edit]

Columbia County[edit]

Crawford County[edit]

Cumberland County[edit]

Dauphin County[edit]

Delaware County[edit]

Elk County[edit]

Erie County[edit]

Fayette County[edit]

Forest County[edit]

Franklin County[edit]

Greene County[edit]

Huntingdon County[edit]

Indiana County[edit]

Jefferson County[edit]

Juniata County[edit]

Lackawanna County[edit]

Lancaster County[edit]

Lawrence County[edit]

Lebanon County[edit]

Lehigh County[edit]

Luzerne County[edit]

Lycoming County[edit]

McKean County[edit]

Mercer County[edit]

Mifflin County[edit]

Monroe County[edit]

Montgomery County[edit]

Montour County[edit]

Northampton County[edit]

Northumberland County[edit]

Perry County[edit]

Schuylkill County[edit]

Snyder County[edit]

Somerset County[edit]

Sullivan County[edit]

Susquehanna County[edit]

Tioga County[edit]

Venango County[edit]

Warren County[edit]

Washington County[edit]

Wayne County[edit]

Westmoreland County[edit]

Wyoming County[edit]

York County[edit]

Pennsylvania exclaves that are not enclaves[edit]

To be a true exclave, all potential paths of travel from the exclave to the main region must entirely cross over the territory of a different region or regions having the equivalent governmental administrative level.

Pennsylvania pene-enclaves/exclaves[edit]

Like enclaves and exclaves, pene-enclaves and pene-exclaves are regions that are not contiguous with the main land region and have land access only through another region or regions having the equivalent governmental administrative level. Unlike enclaves and exclaves, they are not entirely surrounded by outside territory. Hence, they are enclaves or exclaves for practical purposes, without meeting the strict definition.

  • In Cambria County:
    • Portage borough appears to touch Spring Hill CDP at a single point.[5] If so, it is a pene-enclave.
    • Spring Hill CDP appears to touch Portage borough at a single point.[5] If so, it is a pene-enclave.
    • In addition, Portage itself consists of two sections that are connected at a single point (a quadripoint).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "6 results for: enclave". Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  2. ^ "4 results for: exclave". Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  3. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (2000). "Pennsylvania County Subdivision Outline Maps". 
  4. ^ U.S. Census Bureau (2010). "Pennsylvania County Subdivision Outline Maps". 
  5. ^ a b c d "USGS National Map Viewer". Retrieved 2014-02-25. 
  6. ^ a b "USGS National Map Viewer". Retrieved 2014-02-25. 
  7. ^ "USGS National Map Viewer". Retrieved 2013-08-19.