List of endangered languages in Brazil

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An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO distinguishes four levels of endangerment in languages, based on intergeneratinal transfer:[1]

Vulnerable: Most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home).
Definitely endangered: Children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home.
Severely endangered: Language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves.
Critically endangered: The youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently.
Language Countries Speakers Status Comments Ref
Aikana language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Ajuru language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Akawaio language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Akuntsu language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Akwáwa language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Anambé language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Apalai language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Apiaká language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Apinajé language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Apurinã language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Arara do Pará language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Arára Shawãdáwa language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Araweté language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Arikapu language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Aruá language (Aruáshi language)[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Ashaninka language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Asurini do Xingu language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Aurê-Aurá language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Ava-Canoeiro language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Aweti language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Bakairi language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Banawá Yafi language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Baníwa do Içana language[1] Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela   Vulnerable    
Bara language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Barasana language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Baré language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Bororo language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Carapana language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Cashinahua language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Chamacoco language[1] Brazil, Paraguay   Critically endangered    
Chiquitano language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Cinta Larga language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Cocama-Cocamilla language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Cubeo language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Culina language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Dâw language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Dení language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Desano language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Diahói language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Djeoromitxi language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Enawenê-Nawê language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Galibi Marworno language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Gavião de Rondônia language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Gavião do Pará language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Guajá language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Guajajara language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Guarasu language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Guató language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Hixkaryána language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Hupda language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Ikpeng language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Iranxe language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Jamamadí language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Jarawára language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Javaé language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Juma language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Ka'apór language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kadiwéu language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Kaingang language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Kaiowá Guarani language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kaixána language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Kalapalo language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kamaiurá language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kanela Apaniekra language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kanela Rankokamekra language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kanoê language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Karajá language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kari'ña language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Karipuna language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Karipuna do Amapá language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Karitiana language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Karo language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Katawixi language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Katukina do Acre language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Katukína-Kanamarí language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Katxuyana-Xikuyána language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kaxarari language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Kayabi language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kinikinau language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Kisêdjê language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Korúbo language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Krahô language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Krenak language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Krikati language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kuikuro language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kujubim language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Kulina Páno language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Kurripako language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Kuruáya language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Kwazá language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Machineri language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Macuna language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Macushi language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Makurap language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Marúbo language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Matipu language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Matís language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Mawayana language[1] Brazil, Suriname   Critically endangered    
Mawé language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Maxakali language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Mayoruna language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Mbya Guarani language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Mebengokre language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Mehináku language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Miraña language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Mirití Tapuia language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Mundurukú language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Myky language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Nadëb language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Nahukwa language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Nambiquara do Norte language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Nambiquara do Sul language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Ñandeva Guarani language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Nheengatu / Yeral language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Ninam language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Ofayé language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Omagua language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Oro Win language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Paiter language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Palikur language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Panará language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Pareci language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Parintintin language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Patamona language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Paumarí language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Pemon language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Pirahã language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Piratapuya language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Poyanawa language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Pukobyê language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Puruborá language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Rikbaktsa language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Riograndenser Hunsrückisch language [2] Brazil (small populations in Argentina, Paraguay)   Endangered    
Sabanê language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Sakurabiat language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Salamãy language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Sanema language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Shanenawa language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Siriano language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Suruahá language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Tapayuna language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Tapirapé language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Tariana language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Tembé language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Tenharim language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Terena language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Ticuna language[1] Brazil, Colombia, Peru   Definitely endangered    
Trio language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Trumai language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Tucano language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Tupari language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Tuyuca language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Uru-eu-au-au language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Waimiri-Atroarí language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Waiwai language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Wajãpi language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Wanano / Kotiria language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Wapishana language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Warekena language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Wari language[1] Brazil   Definitely endangered    
Wauja language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Wayana language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Xambioá language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Xavante language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Xerente language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Xetá language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Xipáya language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Xokleng language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Yaminahua language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Yanomám language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Yanomami language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Yatê language[1] Brazil   Severely endangered    
Yawalapiti language[1] Brazil   Critically endangered    
Yawanawá language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Yecuana language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Yudja language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Yuhup language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Zo'é language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    
Zoró language[1] Brazil   Vulnerable    

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Online version: http://www.unesco.org/culture/en/endangeredlanguages/atlas
  2. ^ Ethnologue