List of endangered languages in Canada

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An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger distinguishes four levels of endangerment in languages, based on intergenerational transfer:[1]

Vulnerable: Most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home).
Definitely endangered: Children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home.
Severely endangered: Language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves.
Critically endangered: The youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently.
Language Speakers Status Comments Ref
Aivilingmiutut language[1]   Vulnerable Inuktitut  
Assiniboine language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Atikamekw language[1]   Vulnerable    
Beaver language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Bella Coola language[1]   Critically endangered    
Blackfoot language (Canada)[1]   Definitely endangered    
Bungee language[1]   Critically endangered    
Carrier language[1]   Severely endangered    
Cayuga language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Central Ojibwe language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Chilcotin language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Comox-Sliammon language[1]   Critically endangered    
Dakota language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Dene language[1]   Vulnerable    
Dogrib language[1]   Vulnerable    
Eastern Montagnais language[1]   Vulnerable Innu language  
Eastern Ojibwe language[1]   Severely endangered    
Gitksan language[1]   Severely endangered    
Gwich'in language (Canada)[1]   Severely endangered    
Haisla language[1]   Critically endangered    
Halkomelem language[1]   Severely endangered Also in the United States  
Han language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Heiltsuk language[1]   Critically endangered    
Huron-Wyandot language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Inuinnaqtun language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Kaska language[1]   Severely endangered    
Kivallirmiutut language[1]   Vulnerable Inuktitut  
Kutenai language[1]   Severely endangered Also in the United States  
Kwak'wala language[1]   Critically endangered Also in the United States  
Lakota language[1]   Critically endangered    
Lillooet language[1]   Severely endangered    
Malecite-Passamaquoddy language[1]   Definitely endangered Also in the United States  
Maniwaki Algonquin language[1]   Severely endangered    
Michif language[1]   Critically endangered    
Micmac language (Canada)[1]   Vulnerable    
Mohawk language (Kahnawake)[1]   Definitely endangered    
Mohawk language (Kanesatake)[1]   Definitely endangered    
Mohawk language (Six nations)[1]   Definitely endangered    
Mohawk language (Tyendinega)[1]   Definitely endangered    
Mohawk language (Wahta)[1]   Definitely endangered    
Moose Cree language[1]   Vulnerable    
Munsee language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Naskapi language[1]   Vulnerable    
Natsilingmiutut[1]   Vulnerable Netsilik dialect  
Nisga'a language[1]   Severely endangered    
Nootka language[1]   Severely endangered    
North Alaskan Inupiaq language (Canada)[1]   Severely endangered    
North Slavey language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Northern Algonquin language[1]   Vulnerable    
Northern East Cree language[1]   Vulnerable    
Northern Haida language[1]   Critically endangered Also in the United States  
Northern Tutchone language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Northwestern Ojibwe language[1]   Vulnerable    
Nunatsiavummiutut[1]   Definitely endangered Nunavimmiutitut, Inuktitut  
Nunatsiavummiut dialect[1]   Vulnerable Inuktitut  
Oji-Cree language[1]   Vulnerable    
Okanagan language[1]   Definitely endangered Also in the United States  
Oneida language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered Also in the United States
Onondaga language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered Also in the United States  
Ottawa language (Canada)[1]   Severely endangered Also in the United States  
Ottawa language (Walpole Island)[1]   Severely endangered Also in the United States  
Plains Cree language[1]   Vulnerable    
Potawatomi language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Qikiqtaaluk nigiani language[1]   Vulnerable Inuktitut  
Qikiqtaaluk uannangani language[1]   Vulnerable Inuktitut  
Rigolet Inuktitut language[1]   Critically endangered Inuktitut  
Sarcee language[1]   Critically endangered    
Saulteau language[1]   Vulnerable    
Sechelt language[1]   Critically endangered    
Sekani language[1]   Critically endangered    
Seneca language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Shuswap language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Siglit dialect[1]   Severely endangered Siglitun  
South Slavey language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Southern East Cree language[1]   Vulnerable    
Southern Haida language[1]   Critically endangered    
Southern Tutchone language[1]   Critically endangered    
Squamish language[1]   Critically endangered    
Stoney language[1]   Vulnerable    
Straits Salish language[1]   Severely endangered Also in the United States  
Swampy Cree language[1]   Vulnerable    
Tagish language[1]   Critically endangered    
Tahltan language[1]   Critically endangered    
Thompson language[1]   Severely endangered    
Tlingit language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Tsimshian language[1]   Critically endangered    
Tuscarora language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Upper Tanana language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Western Abenaki language (Canada)[1]   Critically endangered    
Western Montagnais language[1]   Vulnerable Innu language  
Woods Cree language[1]   Vulnerable    

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Online version: http://www.unesco.org/culture/en/endangeredlanguages/atlas