List of endangered languages in China

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An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO distinguishes four levels of endangerment in languages, based on intergenerational transfer:[1]

Vulnerable: Most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home).
Definitely endangered: Children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home.
Severely endangered: Language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves.
Critically endangered: The youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently.
Language Countries Speakers Status Comments Ref
Adi language[1] China, India   Vulnerable    
Aluo language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Amis language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Amok language[1] China, Laos, Burma, Thailand   Critically endangered    
Anung language (China)[1] China   Critically endangered    
Aqaw Gelao language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Ayizi language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Baheng language (China)[1] China   Vulnerable    
Baima language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Bokar language[1] China, India   Vulnerable    
Bola language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Bonan language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Bori language[1] China, India   Definitely endangered    
Bunun language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Buryat language (Manchuria)[1] China, Mongolia   Definitely endangered    
Buyang language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Chesu language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Chintaw language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Choyi language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Cosung language (China)[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Dagur language (Amur)[1] China   Critically endangered    
Dagur language (Hailar)[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Dagur language (Nonni)[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Ersu language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Evenki language (Manchuria)[1] China   Severely endangered    
Gangou language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Gazhuo language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Green Gelao language (China)[1] China   Critically endangered    
Guichong language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Hlersu language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Hu language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Huzhu Monguor language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Idu language[1] China, India   Definitely endangered    
Ili Turk language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Jinuo language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Jiongnai Bunu language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Jone language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Kanakanabu language[1] Taiwan   Critically endangered Formosan languages  
Kanto language (China, India)[1] China, India   Critically endangered    
Kangjia language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Kathu language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Kavalan language[1] Taiwan   Critically endangered Formosan languages  
Khamba language[1] China, India   Definitely endangered Khamba people  
Khamnigan Mongol language[1] China, Mongolia, Russia   Definitely endangered    
Khmin language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Kilen language[1] China, Russia   Critically endangered    
Ladakhi language[1] China, India   Vulnerable    
Laemae language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Lai language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Laji language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Lajia language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Lalo language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Lamu language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Laomian language (China)[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Mak language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Manchu language (Amur)[1] China   Critically endangered    
Manchu language (Nonni)[1] China   Critically endangered    
Manchurian Kirghiz language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Manchurian Ölöt language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Mang language (China)[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Maonan language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Miju language[1] China, India   Vulnerable    
Minhe Monguor language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Miqie language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Mo'ang language (China)[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Mok language (China)[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Motuo Menba language[1] China, India   Definitely endangered    
Mra language[1] China, India   Critically endangered    
Muda language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Muji language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Mulam language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Mulao language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Muya language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Na language[1] China, India   Critically endangered    
Naluo language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Namuyi language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Nanay language[1] China, Russia   Severely endangered    
Nataoran language[1] Taiwan   Critically endangered Formosan languages  
Northern Tujia language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Numao Bunu language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Ordos language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Oyrat language[1] China, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia   Definitely endangered    
Paiwan language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Pakan language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Patua language[1] Macau   Critically endangered    
Pazeh language[1] Taiwan   Critically endangered Formosan languages  
Phula language (China)[1] China   Vulnerable    
Pupeo language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Southern Qiang language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Pyuma language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Rao language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Red Gelao language (China)[1] China   Critically endangered    
Rukai language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Saaroa language[1] Taiwan   Critically endangered Formosan languages  
Saisiyat language[1] Taiwan   Severely endangered Formosan languages  
Salar language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Samatao language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Samatu language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Samei language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Sangkong language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Santa language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Sanyi language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Sarikoli language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Saryg Yugur language[1] China   Severely endangered    
She language[1] China   Critically endangered    
Sherpa language[1] China, India, Nepal   Vulnerable    
Shingsaba language[1] China, Nepal   Vulnerable    
Shira Yugur language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Shixing language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Xibe language[1] China   Severely endangered Sibe language  
Sinkiang Dagur language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Solon language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Southern Tujia language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Sulung language[1] China, India   Definitely endangered    
Talu language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Tanglang language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Tangwang language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Taroko language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Taruang language[1] China, India, Burma   Vulnerable    
Tayal language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Thao language[1] Taiwan   Critically endangered Formosan languages  
Tinan language[1] China, India   Definitely endangered    
Tsou language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Tuvan language[1] China, Mongolia, Russia   Vulnerable    
U language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Utsat language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Wakhi language[1] China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan   Definitely endangered    
Waxiang language[1] China   Vulnerable    
White Gelao language (China)[1] China   Severely endangered    
Wunai Bunu language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Wuse language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Wutun language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Yami language[1] Taiwan   Vulnerable Formosan languages  
Yerong language[1] China   Severely endangered    
Younuo Bunu language[1] China   Definitely endangered    
Zaiwa language[1] China, India   Definitely endangered    
Zaozou language[1] China   Vulnerable    
Zhaba language[1] China   Vulnerable    

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Online version: http://www.unesco.org/culture/en/endangeredlanguages/atlas