List of endangered languages in Europe

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An endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. A language may be endangered in one area but show signs of revitalisation in another, as with the Irish language.

UNESCO defines four levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct":[1]

  • Vulnerable
  • Definitely endangered
  • Severely endangered
  • Critically endangered

Albania[edit]

Main article: Languages of Albania
Albania
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Aromanian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Bulgaria, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Serbia rup
Judezmo language
Judaeo-Spanish
Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkey, Serbia lad
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Torlakian dialect Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Bulgaria, The Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia bos, hrv, srp

Armenia[edit]

Main article: Languages of Armenia
Armenia
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Pontic Greek language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine pnt
Suret language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Iran , Iraq, Syria, Turkey aii, cld

Austria[edit]

Main article: Languages of Austria
Austria
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Alemannic language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Bavarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Czech Republic bar
Burgenland Croatian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Slovakia bos, hrv, srp
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Azerbaijan[edit]

Azerbaijan
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Budukh language Severely endangered[1]   bdk
Juhuri language Definitely endangered[1] Caucasus. Also spoken in: Russia jdt
Khinalug language Severely endangered[1]   kjj
Kryz language
Kryts language
Severely endangered[1]   kry
Lezgian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia lez
Rutul language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia rut
Talysh language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Iran tly
Tat language Severely endangered[1]   ttt
Tsakhur language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia tkr
Udi language Severely endangered[1] (Azerbaijan)   udi

Belarus[edit]

Main article: Languages of Belarus
Belarus
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Belarusian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine bel
Polesian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Poland, Ukraine  
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Belgium[edit]

Main article: Languages of Belgium
Belgium
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Champenois dialect Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France fra
Limburgian-Ripuarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Netherlands ksh, lim
Lorrain language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France fra
Moselle Franconian dialects Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, France, Luxembourg ltz
Picard language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France pcd
Walloon language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Luxembourg wln
West Flemish language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: France, Netherlands vls, zea
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Judezmo language
Judaeo-Spanish
Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkey, Serbia lad
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy

Bulgaria[edit]

Main article: Languages of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Aromanian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Serbia rup
Crimean Tatar language Severely endangered[1] (Dobruja). Also spoken in: Russia, Romania, Ukraine crh, jct
Gagauz language Critically endangered[1] (Deli Orman)   bgx, gag
Gagauz language Severely endangered[1] (Maritime). Also spoken in: Romania bgx, gag
Judezmo language
Judaeo-Spanish
Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkey, Serbia lad
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Torlakian dialect Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Albania, The Republic of Macedonia, Romania, Serbia bos, hrv, srp

Croatia[edit]

Main article: Languages of Croatia
Croatia
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Arbanasi language Severely endangered[1]    
Istriot language Severely endangered[1]   ist
Istro-Romanian language Severely endangered[1]   ruo
Judezmo language
Judaeo-Spanish
Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkey, Serbia lad
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Venetian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Italy, Slovenia vec
Vojvodina Rusyn language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Serbia  

Cyprus[edit]

Main article: Languages of Cyprus
Cyprus
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Cypriot Arabic language Severely endangered[1]   acy

Czech Republic[edit]

Czech Republic
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Bavarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland bar
East Franconian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany vmf
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine ydd

Denmark[edit]

Main article: Languages of Denmark
Denmark
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Low Saxon language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Russia act, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Scanian dialect Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Sweden swe
South Jutish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany jut
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Estonia[edit]

Main article: Languages of Estonia
Estonia
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Võro-Seto language
South Estonian language
Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia est
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Faroe Islands[edit]

Faroe Islands
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Faroese language Vulnerable[1]   fao

Finland[edit]

Main article: Languages of Finland
Finland
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Inari Saami language Severely endangered[1]   smn
Karelian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia krl
North Saami language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway, Russia, Sweden sme
Olonetsian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia olo
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Skolt Saami language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway, Russia sms
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

France[edit]

Main article: Languages of France
France
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Alemannic language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Alpine Provençal Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy oci
Auvergnat dialect Severely endangered[1]   oci
Basque language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Spain eus
Breton language Severely endangered[1]   bre
Burgundian language Severely endangered[1]   fra
Champenois dialect Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium fra
Corsican language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy cos
Franc-Comtois language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Switzerland fra
Francoprovençal language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy, Switzerland frp
Gallo language Severely endangered[1]   fra
Gascon language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Spain oci
Languedocian dialect Severely endangered[1]   oci
Ligurian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy, Monaco lij
Limousin language Severely endangered[1]   oci
Lorrain language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium fra
Moselle Franconian dialects Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg ltz
Norman language Severely endangered[1]   nrn
Picard language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium pcd
Poitevin-Saintongeais language Severely endangered[1]   fra
Provençal language Severely endangered[1]   oci
Rhenish Franconian dialects Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany pfl
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Walloon language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, Luxembourg wln
West Flemish language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, Netherlands vls, zea
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Georgia[edit]

Main article: Languages of Georgia
Georgia
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Abkhaz language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia, Turkey abk
Bats language Severely endangered[1]   bbl
Bohtan Neo-Aramaic language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia bhn
Homshetsma language Severely endangered[1] (Caucasus). Also spoken in: Russia hye
Laz language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Turkey lzz
Mingrelian language Definitely endangered[1]   xmf
Ossete language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia oss
Pontic Greek language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine pnt
Svan language Definitely endangered[1]   sva
Udi language Severely endangered[1] (Georgia) .   udi
Urum language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia, Ukraine uum

Germany[edit]

Main article: Languages of Germany
Germany
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Alemannic language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Austria, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Bavarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland, Czech Republic bar
East Franconian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Czech Republic vmf
Limburgian-Ripuarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, Netherlands ksh, lim
Low Saxon language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Denmark, Netherlands, Poland, Russia act, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Moselle Franconian dialects Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, France, Luxembourg ltz
North Frisian language Severely endangered[1]   frr
Rhenish Franconian dialects Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: France pfl
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Saterland Frisian Severely endangered[1]   stq
Sorbian languages Definitely endangered[1]   dsb, hsb
South Jutish Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Denmark jut
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Greece[edit]

Main article: Languages of Greece
Greece
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Aromanian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, The Republic of Macedonia, Serbia rup
Arvanitika language Severely endangered[1]   aat
Cappadocian Greek language Critically endangered[1]   cpg
Corfiot Italkian Critically endangered[1]    
Gagauz language Severely endangered[1] (South Balkans) . Also spoken in: The Republic of Macedonia, Turkey bgx, gag
Judezmo language
Judaeo-Spanish
Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, The Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkey, Serbia lad
Megleno-Romanian language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Republic of Macedonia ruq
Pontic Greek language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine pnt
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Tsakonian language Critically endangered[1]   tsd

Hungary[edit]

Main article: Languages of Hungary
Hungary
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Bavarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Czech Republic bar
Burgenland Croatian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Slovakia bos, hrv, srp
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine rue
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Ireland[edit]

Main article: Languages of Ireland
Ireland
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Irish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland gle

Italy[edit]

Main article: Languages of Italy
Italy
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Alemannic language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, France, Liechtenstein, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae
Algherese (Catalan language) Definitely endangered[1]   cat
Alpine Provençal Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France oci
Arbëresh language Definitely endangered[1]   aae
Bavarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic bar
Campidanese (Sardinian language) Definitely endangered[1]   sro
Cimbrian language Definitely endangered[1]   cim
Corsican language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France cos
Emilian-Romagnol language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: San Marino eml
Faetar dialect Definitely endangered[1]   frp
Francoprovençal language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Switzerland frp
Friulian language Definitely endangered[1]   fur
Gallo-Italic of Sicily Definitely endangered[1]   lmo
Gallurese language Definitely endangered[1]   sdn
Gardiol language Severely endangered[1]    
Griko language Severely endangered[1] (Calabria).   ell
Griko language Severely endangered[1] (Salento).   ell
Ladin language Definitely endangered[1]   lld
Ligurian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Monaco lij
Logudorese (Sardinian language) Definitely endangered[1]   src
Lombard language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Switzerland lmo
Mòcheno language Definitely endangered[1]   mhn
Molise Croatian dialect Severely endangered[1]   bos, hrv, srp
Piedmontese language Definitely endangered[1]   pms
Resian dialect Definitely endangered[1]   slv
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Sassarese language Definitely endangered[1]   sdc
Sicilian language Vulnerable[1]   scn
South Italian language Vulnerable[1]   nap
Töitschu language Severely endangered[1]   gsw, swg, wae
Venetian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Croatia, Slovenia vec
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Kazakhstan[edit]

Kazakhstan
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Dungan language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Kyrgyzstan dng

Latvia[edit]

Main article: Languages of Latvia
Latvia
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Belarusian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine bel
Latgalian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia lav
Livonian language Critically endangered[1]   liv
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Liechtenstein[edit]

Liechtenstein
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Alemannic language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland gsw, swg, wae

Lithuania[edit]

Lithuania
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Belarusian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Poland, Russia, Ukraine bel
Karaim language Severely endangered[1] (Lithuania).   kdr
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Luxembourg[edit]

Luxembourg
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Moselle Franconian dialects Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Belgium, France ltz
Walloon language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, France wln
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Monaco[edit]

Main article: Languages of Monaco
Monaco
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Ligurian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Italy lij

Montenegro[edit]

Montenegro
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy

Netherlands[edit]

Netherlands
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Limburgian-Ripuarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Belgium ksh, lim
Low Saxon language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Denmark, Poland, Russia act, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
West Flemish language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belgium, France vls, zea
West Frisian language Vulnerable[1]   fry
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Norway[edit]

Main article: Languages of Norway
Norway
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Lule Saami language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Sweden smj
North Saami language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Finland, Russia, Sweden sme
Pite Saami language Critically endangered[1] Also spoken in: Sweden sje
Skolt Saami language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Finland, Russia sms
South Saami language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Sweden sma
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Poland[edit]

Main article: Languages of Poland
Poland
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Belarusian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine bel
Kashubian language Severely endangered[1]   csb
Low Saxon language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Russia act, drt, frs, gos, nds, sdz, stl, twd, vel, wep
Polesian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Ukraine  
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine rue
Vilamovian language
Wymysorys language
Severely endangered[1]   wym
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Portugal[edit]

Main article: Languages of Portugal
Portugal
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Asturian-Leonese language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Spain ast, ext, mwl

Romania[edit]

Main article: Languages of Romania
Romania
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Banat Bulgarian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Serbia bul
Crimean Tatar language Severely endangered[1] (Dobruja) . Also spoken in: Russia, Bulgaria, Ukraine crh, jct
Csángó dialect Severely endangered.[1] Dialect of Hungarian language   hun
Gagauz language Severely endangered[1] (Maritime) . Also spoken in: Bulgaria bgx, gag
Judezmo language
Judaeo-Spanish
Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Turkey, Serbia lad
Nogay language Severely endangered[1] (Dobruja) .   nog
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Ukraine rue
Torlakian dialect Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia bos, hrv, srp
Transylvanian Saxon language Severely endangered[1]    
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Russia[edit]

San Marino[edit]

San Marino
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Emilian-Romagnol language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy eml

Serbia[edit]

Main article: Languages of Serbia
Serbia
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Aromanian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia rup
Banat Bulgarian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Romania bul
Judezmo language
Judaeo-Spanish
Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Turkey lad
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Torlakian dialect Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Bulgaria, The Republic of Macedonia, Romania bos, hrv, srp
Vojvodina Rusyn language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Croatia  

Slovakia[edit]

Main article: Languages of Slovakia
Slovakia
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Burgenland Croatian language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Austria, Hungary bos, hrv, srp
Eastern Slovak dialects Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Ukraine slk
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Romania, Ukraine rue
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Slovenia[edit]

Main article: Languages of Slovenia
Slovenia
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Gottscheerish Critically endangered[1]    
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Venetian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Croatia, Italy vec

Spain[edit]

Main article: Languages of Spain
Spain
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Aragonese language Definitely endangered[1]   arg
Asturian-Leonese language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Portugal ast, ext, mwl
Basque language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: France eus
Gascon language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France oci

Sweden[edit]

Main article: Languages of Sweden
Sweden
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Dalecarlian dialects Definitely endangered[1]   swe
Modern Gutnish Definitely endangered[1]   swe
Lule Saami language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway smj
North Saami language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Finland, Norway, Russia sme
Pite Saami language Critically endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway sje
Scanian dialect Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Denmark swe
South Saami language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Norway sma
Ume Saami language Critically endangered[1]   sju
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Switzerland[edit]

Switzerland
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Alemannic language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Liechtenstein gsw, swg, wae
Bavarian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Czech Republic bar
Franc-Comtois language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France fra
Francoprovençal language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: France, Italy frp
Lombard language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Italy lmo
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Romansh language Definitely endangered[1]   roh
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Czech Republic, Ukraine ydd

Turkey[edit]

Main article: Languages of Turkey
Turkey
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Abaza language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Russia abq
Abkhaz language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Georgia, Russia abk
Adyge language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Iraq, Israel, Jordan, The Republic of Macedonia, Russia, Syria ady
Gagauz language Severely endangered[1] (South Balkans) Also spoken in: Greece, The Republic of Macedonia bgx, gag
Hértevin language Critically endangered[1]   hrt
Homshetsma language Definitely endangered[1]   hye
Judezmo language
Judaeo-Spanish
Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, The Republic of Macedonia, Morocco, Romania, Serbia lad
Kabard-Cherkes language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Russia kbd
Laz language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Georgia lzz
Pontic Greek language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Ukraine pnt
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Suret language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Iran , Iraq, Syria aii, cld
Turoyo language Severely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Syria tru
Western Armenian language Definitely endangered[1]   hye
Zazaki language Vulnerable[1]   zza

Ukraine[edit]

Main article: Languages of Ukraine
Ukraine
Language Status Comments ISO 639-3
Belarusian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia bel
Crimean Tatar language Severely endangered[1] (Crimea). Also spoken in Rusiia, Bulgaria, Romania. crh, jct
Crimean Turkish language Severely endangered[1]    
Eastern Slovak dialects Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Slovakia slk
Gagauz language Definitely endangered[1] (Bessarabia). Also spoken in: Republic of Moldova bgx, gag
Karaim language Critically endangered[1] (Western Ukraine)   kdr
Mariupolitan Greek language Severely endangered[1]   ell
Nogay language Severely endangered[1] (Crimea)   nog
Plautdietsch language Definitely endangered[1]   pdt
Polesian language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Belarus, Poland  
Pontic Greek language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey pnt
Romani language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, The Republic of Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro rmc, rmf, rml, rmn, rmo, rmw, rmy
Rusyn language Vulnerable[1] Also spoken in: Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia rue
Urum language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Georgia, Russia uum
Yiddish language Definitely endangered[1] Also spoken in: Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Republic of Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic ydd

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv hw hx hy hz ia ib ic id ie if ig ih ii ij ik il im in io ip iq ir is it iu iv iw ix iy iz ja jb jc jd je jf jg jh ji jj jk jl jm jn jo jp jq jr js jt ju jv Moseley, Christopher, ed. (2010). Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. Memory of Peoples (3rd ed.). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN 978-92-3-104096-2. Retrieved 2015-04-11.