List of endangered languages in Indonesia

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An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. UNESCO distinguishes four levels of endangerment in languages, based on intergenerational transfer:[1]

Vulnerable: Most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home).
Definitely endangered: Children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home.
Severely endangered: Language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves.
Critically endangered: The youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently.
Language Speakers Status Comments Ref
Alune language[2]   Vulnerable Alune people  
Amahai language[2]   Critically endangered    
Ampibabo Lauje language[2]   Vulnerable    
Andio language[2]   Vulnerable    
Anus language[2]   Severely endangered Korur language  
Aputai language[2]   Critically endangered Wetarese languages  
Arguni language[2]   Vulnerable    
As language[2]   Vulnerable Raja Ampat languages  
Auye language[2]   Vulnerable    
Awera language[2]   Vulnerable    
Awyi language[2]   Vulnerable    
Bahonsuai language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Baleasang language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Baras language[2]   Severely endangered    
Bedoanas language[2]   Vulnerable    
Benggoi language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Besoa language [2]   Vulnerable Badaic language  
Biak language[2]   Vulnerable    
Boano language[2]   Vulnerable    
Bonerif language[2]   Critically endangered Beneraf language  
Bonggo language[2]   Severely endangered    
Budong-Budong language[2]   Critically endangered    
Burate language[2]   Severely endangered    
Busoa language[2]   Vulnerable    
Dabra language[2]   Vulnerable    
Dakka language[2]   Vulnerable    
Damal language[2]   Vulnerable Amung language  
Dampelas language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Demisa language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Dondo language[2]   Vulnerable    
Doutai language[2]   Severely endangered    
Dubu language[2]   Vulnerable Tebi language  
Duriankere language[2]   Critically endangered    
Dusner language[2]   Critically endangered    
Emplawas language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Enggano language[2]   Vulnerable    
Erokwanas language[2]   Vulnerable    
Fayu language[2]   Vulnerable    
Foya language[2]   Critically endangered Foja Mountains  
Gebe language[2]   Vulnerable    
Gorap language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Helong language[1]   Severely endangered    
Hoti language[2]   Critically endangered    
Hulung language[2]   Critically endangered    
Ibu language[2]   Critically endangered    
Iresim language[2]   Severely endangered    
Isirawa language[1]   Vulnerable    
Itik language[2]   Vulnerable    
Javindo Creole language[2]   Critically endangered    
Kadai language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Kaibobo language[1]   Definitely endangered    
Kaiy language[2]   Vulnerable    
Kalao language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Kamarian language[2]   Critically endangered    
Kao language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Kapori language[2]   Critically endangered    
Karas language[2]   Severely endangered    
Kayupulau language[2]   Critically endangered    
Keder language[2]   Severely endangered    
Kembra language[2]   Critically endangered    
Kodeoha language[2]   Vulnerable    
Kofei language[2]   Severely endangered    
Koneraw language[2]   Vulnerable    
Koroni language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Kowiai language[2]   Vulnerable    
Kwansu language[2]   Vulnerable    
Kwerisa language[2]   Critically endangered    
Laiyolo language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Lauje language[2]   Vulnerable    
Legenyem language[2]   Vulnerable    
Lemolang language[2]   Vulnerable    
Lengilu language[2]   Critically endangered    
Liki language[2]   Critically endangered    
Lisela language[2]   Vulnerable    
Lola language[2]   Vulnerable    
Lolak language[2]   Critically endangered    
Lom language[2]   Critically endangered Bangka Malay  
Loun language[2]   Critically endangered    
Mander language[2]   Critically endangered    
Mansim language[2]   Critically endangered    
Maremgi language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Massep language[2]   Critically endangered    
Momuna language[2]   Vulnerable    
Mor language[2]   Severely endangered    
Moraori language[2]   Severely endangered Morori language  
Napu language[2]   Vulnerable Badaic language  
Narau language[2]   Severely endangered    
Nila language (Seram Island), Nila[2]   Definitely endangered    
Nusa Laut language[2]   Critically endangered    
Obokuitai language[2]   Vulnerable    
Oirata language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Onin language[2]   Vulnerable    
Ormu language[2]   Vulnerable    
Padoe language[2]   Vulnerable    
Palu'e language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Panasuan language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Paulohi language[2]   Critically endangered    
Pauwi language[2]   Vulnerable    
Peco' Creole language[2]   Critically endangered    
Pendau language[2]   Vulnerable    
Pyu language[2]   Severely endangered    
Rahambuu language[2]   Vulnerable    
Salas language[2]   Severely endangered    
Saluan language[2]   Vulnerable    
Saparua language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Saponi language[2]   Critically endangered    
Sause language[2]   Severely endangered    
Senggi language[2]   Vulnerable    
Serili language[2]   Vulnerable    
Sobei language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Taba language[2]   Vulnerable    
Taikat language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Taje language[2]   Critically endangered    
Tajio language[2]   Vulnerable    
Taloki language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Talondo language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Tarpia language[2]   Severely endangered    
Tause language[2]   Vulnerable    
Taworta language[2]   Vulnerable    
Te'un language (Seram Island), Te'un[2]   Definitely endangered    
Tialo language[2]   Vulnerable    
Tobati language[2]   Severely endangered    
Tofanma language[2]   Vulnerable    
Tomadino language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Tombelala language[2]   Vulnerable    
Toratán language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Totoli language[2]   Vulnerable    
Uhunduni language[2]   Vulnerable    
Ujir language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Usku language[2]   Critically endangered    
Wano language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Wari language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Waru language[2]   Definitely endangered    
Woria language[2]   Critically endangered    
Wotu language[2]   Vulnerable    
Yoki language[2]   Severely endangered    


  1. ^ a b c d Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Online version:
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Online version: