List of endangered languages in Russia

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According to UNESCO's 2010 edition of the Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, there are 148 endangered languages in the Russian Federation. The list does not include number of languages from bordering countries such as Belarusian and Ukrainian languages. An endangered language is a language that it is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language.

UNESCO distinguishes four levels of endangerment in languages, based on intergeneratinal transfer:[1]

Vulnerable: Most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home).
Definitely endangered: Children no longer learn the language as mother tongue in the home.
Severely endangered: Language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves.
Critically endangered: The youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently.
Language Countries Speakers Status Comments Ref
Abaza language[2] Russia, Turkey Definitely endangered
Abkhaz language[2] Abkhazia, Georgia, Russia, Turkey Vulnerable
Adyge language[2] Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Macedonia, Russia, Syria, Turkey Vulnerable
Agul language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Akhvakh language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Alabugat Tatar language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Aleut language (Western, Commander Islands)[2] Russia Critically endangered
Alutor language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Andi language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Archi language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Avar language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Bagvalal language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Baraba Tatar language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Bashkir language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Belarusian language[2] Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine Vulnerable
Bezhta language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Bohtan Neo-Aramaic language[2] Georgia, Russia Severely endangered
Botlikh language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Buryat language (Cis-Baikal)[2] Russia Severely endangered
Buryat language (Trans-Baikal)[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Central Selkup language[2] Russia Critically endangered Tym dialect (тымский диалект, tymsky dialekt).
Central Siberian Yupik language (Chukotka)[2] Russia Severely endangered
Chamalal language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Chechen language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Chukchi language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Chulym Turk language[2] Russia Critically endangered Chulym language
Chuvash language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Copper Island Aleut language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Dargwa language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Dolgan language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
East Cape Yupik language[2] Russia Critically endangered Naukan Yupik language
Eastern Khanty language[2] Russia Definitely endangered Khanty language
Eastern Mansi language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Eastern Mari language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Erzya language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Even language (Kamtchatka)[2] Russia Severely endangered
Even language (Siberia)[2] Russia Severely endangered
Evenki language (Northern Siberia)[2] Russia Severely endangered
Evenki language (Sakhalin)[2] Russia Severely endangered
Evenki language (Southern Siberia)[2] Mongolia, Russia Severely endangered
Forest Enets language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Forest Nenets language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Forest Yukagir language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Godoberi language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Hinukh language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Homshetsma dialect (Caucasus)[2] Georgia, Russia Severely endangered Homshetsi dialect
Hunzib language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Ingrian language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Ingush language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Inkhokvari dialect[2] Russia Definitely endangered Khwarshi language
Itelmen language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Juhuri language(Judeo-Tat) (Caucasus)[2] Azerbaijan, Israel, Russia Definitely endangered
Kabard-Cherkes language[2] Russia, Turkey Vulnerable
Kalmyk language[2] Russia Definitely endangered Kalmyk Oirat
Karachay-Balkar language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Karagash language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Karata language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Karelian language (Karelia)[2] Finland, Russia Definitely endangered
Karelian language (Tikhvin)[2] Russia Severely endangered
Karelian language (Tver)[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Ket language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Khakas language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Khamnigan Mongol language[2] China, Mongolia, Russia Definitely endangered
Khvarshi language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Kildin Saami language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Kilen language[2] China, Russia Critically endangered Nanai language. Alternate names in China: Qileng (Qile’en, Kili, Kilen, Kirin).
Kili language[2] Russia Severely endangered Nanai language. Alternate names in Russia: Gold, Goldi, Heche, Hezhe, Hezhen, Nanaj.
Komi language[2] Russia Definitely endangered Komi-Zyrian language
Koryak language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Kumyk language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Lak language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Latgalian language[2] Latvia, Russia Vulnerable
Lezgian language[2] Azerbaijan, Russia Vulnerable
Low Saxon language[2] Germany, Denmark, Netherlands, Poland, Russia Vulnerable West Low German language
Lude language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Moksha language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Nanay language[2] China, Russia Severely endangered
Negidal language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Nganasan language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Nivkh language (Amur)[2] Russia Critically endangered
Nivkh language (Sakhalin)[2] Russia Severely endangered
Nogay language (Caucasus)[2] Russia Definitely endangered
North Saami language[2] Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Definitely endangered
Northern Altay language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Northern Khanty language[2] Russia Definitely endangered Khanty language
Northern Mansi language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Northern Selkup language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Olonetsian language[2] Finland, Russia Definitely endangered Livvi-Karelian language
Oroch language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Orok language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Ossete language[2] Georgia, Russia Vulnerable
Permyak language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Pontic Greek language[2] Armenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine Definitely endangered
Romani language[2] Albania, Germany, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Serbia, Montenegro Definitely endangered
Rutul language[2] Azerbaijan, Russia Definitely endangered
Shor language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Siberian Tatar language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Skolt Saami language[2] Finland, Norway, Russia Severely endangered
Southern Altay language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Southern Selkup language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Tabasaran language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Tazy language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Ter Saami language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Tindi language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Tofa language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Trukhmen language[2] Russia, Turkmenistan Definitely endangered
Tsakhur language[2] Azerbaijan, Russia Definitely endangered
Tsez language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Tundra Enets language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Tundra Nenets language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Tundra Yukagir language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Tuvan language[2] China, Mongolia, Russia Vulnerable
Udege language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Udmurt language[2] Russia Definitely endangered
Ulcha language[2] Russia Critically endangered Ulch language
Urum language[2] Georgia, Russia, Ukraine Definitely endangered
Veps language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Vôru-Seto language[2] Estonia, Russia Definitely endangered Vôru (Werro), Seto (Setu)
Vote language[2] Russia Critically endangered
Western Mari language[2] Russia Severely endangered
Yakut language[2] Russia Vulnerable
Yazva Komi language[2] Russia Severely endangered dialect about 80% intelligible with Komi-Permyak language
Yiddish language (Europe)[2] Germany, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Ukraine Definitely endangered
Yurt Tatar language[2] Russia Definitely endangered

References[edit]

  1. ^ Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Online version: http://www.unesco.org/culture/en/endangeredlanguages/atlas
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt Moseley, Christopher (ed.). 2010. Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger, 3rd edn. Paris, UNESCO Publishing. Online version: http://www.unesco.org/culture/languages-atlas/index.php