List of endemic mammals of Sri Lanka

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Main island of Sri Lanka is home to 16 endemic mammals.[1] Number of terrestrial mammals that have been recorded from the country is 91.[2] Additionally there are 28 marine mammals in the oceans surrounding the island. Being an island Sri Lanka lacks land area to supports large animals.[3] However fossil evidence of large archaic species of Rhinoceroses, Hippopotamuses, and Lions have been discovered. The flora and fauna of Sri Lanka is mostly understudied.[4] Therefore number of endemics is could be underestimated. All three endemic genera Solisorex, Feroculus and Srilankamys, of Sri Lanka are monotypic.[5]

The endemic status of two Sri Lankan shrews has undergone changes as they have been reported in India recently.[1] The Kelaart's Long-clawed Shrew Feroculus feroculus and the Sri Lanka Highland Shrew Suncus montanus were recorded from Southern India. At the same time taxonomic revisions have indicated that the Flame Stripped Jungle Squirrel Funambulus layardi, the Red Slender Loris Loris tardigradus and two species of mouse deer, Moschiola meminna and M. kathygre are endemic to Sri Lanka. That leaves the number of endemic mammals in Sri Lanka at 16. Meanwhile a group of researchers have described a new shrew species Crocidura hikmiya from the Sinharaja Forest Reserve in 2007.[6] The discovery leads to increase the ultimate number of endemics to 17 at present.

For Sri Lanka, small mammals are of special importance as they constitute a notable portion of the mammalian fauna of the country.[7] Of the 91 species of mammals. recorded in the country, 31 are rodents and shrews. Furthermore, they are also of significant importance in biological point of view, as they make up largely to the country's endemic faunal component. The endemic small mammals include six rodents and four shrews. Many of these endemic species harbours in fragmented rainforests in southweste Sri Lanka and therefore highly vulnerable to habitat destruction. As a result many of these species have been categorised as threatened or endangered at national level.[7]

Endemic mammals[edit]

Most endemic mammals are small nocturnal mammals that are seen rarely.[8]

Low Vulnerability Threatened
Fl mammals lc.svg
Least Concern
Fl mammals nt.svg
Near Threatened
Fl mammals vu.svg
Vulnerable
Fl mammals en.svg
Endangered

Order Primate: Primates[edit]

Name Species Authority Red List
Family Lorisidae: Lorises
Red Slender Loris Loris tardigradus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Fl mammals en.svg
[9]
Family Cercopithecidae: Old world monkeys
Toque Macaque

Toque Macaques.jpg

Macaca sinica
(Linnaeus, 1771)
Fl mammals en.svg
[10]
Purple-faced Langur Trachypithecus vetulus
(Erxleben, 1777)
Fl mammals en.svg
[11]

Order Rodentia: Rodents[edit]

Name Species Authority Red List
Family Sciuridae: Squirrels
Layard's Palm Squirrel Funambulus layardi
(Blyth, 1849)
Fl mammals vu.svg
[12]
Family Muridae: Old world rats and mice
Mayor's Mouse Mus mayori
(Thomas, 1915)
Fl mammals vu.svg
[13]
Ceylon Spiny Mouse Mus fernandoni
(Phillips, 1932)
Fl mammals en.svg
[14]
Nillu Rat Rattus montanus
Phillips, 1932
Fl mammals en.svg
[15]
Ohiya Rat Srilankamys ohiensis
(Phillips, 1929)
Fl mammals vu.svg
[16]
Nolthenius's Long-tailed Climbing Mouse Vandeleuria nolthenii
Phillips, 1929
Fl mammals en.svg
[17]

Order Soricomorpha: Shrews and moles[edit]

Name Species Authority Red List
Family Soricidae: Shrews
Sri Lankan Long-tailed Shrew Crocidura miya
Phillips, 1929
Fl mammals en.svg
[18]
Sinharaja Shrew Crocidura hikmiya
Meegaskumbura, Meegaskumbura, Manamendra-Arachchi, Pethiyagoda, & Schneider, 2007
Fl mammals en.svg
[19]
Pearson's Long-clawed Shrew Solisorex pearsoni
Thomas, 1924
Fl mammals en.svg
[20]
Jungle Shrew Suncus zeylanicus
Phillips, 1928
Fl mammals en.svg
[21]
Sri Lankan Shrew Suncus fellowesgordoni
Phillips, 1932
Fl mammals en.svg
[22]

Order Carnivora: Carnivorans[edit]

Name Species Authority Red List
Family Viverridae: Civets
Golden Palm Civet Paradoxurus zeylonensis
(Pallas, 1778)
Fl mammals vu.svg
[23]
Golden Wet Zone Palm Civet Paradoxurus aureus
Cuvier, 1822
Fl mammals en.svg
[24]
Golden Dry Zone Palm Civet Paradoxurus stenocephalus
groves et.al, 2009
Fl mammals en.svg
[25]
Sri Lanka Brown Palm Civet Paradoxurus montanus
Kelaart, 1852
Fl mammals en.svg
[26]

Order Artiodactyla: Even-toed Ungulates[edit]

Name Species Authority Red List
Family Tragulidae: Chevrotains
Sri Lankan Spotted Chevrotain Moschiola meminna
Erxleben, 1777
Fl mammals lc.svg
[27]
Yellow-striped Chevrotain Moschiola kathygre
Groves & Meijaard, 2005
Fl mammals lc.svg
[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Weerakoon, D. K.; de A. Goonatilake, W. L. D. P. T. S. (2006). "Taxonomic Status of the Mammals of Sri Lanka" (PDF). In Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of Taxonomy, Research and Conservation. The World Conservation Union, Colombo, Sri Lanka & Government of Sri Lanka. pp. 216–231. ISBN 955-8177-51-2. 
  2. ^ The 2007 Red List of Threatened Fauna and Flora of Sri Lanka (PDF). Colombo, Sri Lanka: IUCN Sri Lanka and Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources. 2007. ISBN 978-955-8177-63-1. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  3. ^ "Sri Lanka lowland rain forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  4. ^ "Conservation action and protected areas". biodiversityhotspots.org. Conservation International. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  5. ^ "Unique and threatened biodiversity". biodiversityhotspots.org. Conservation International. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  6. ^ Meegaskumbura, Suyama; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Manamendra-Arachchi, Kelum & Schneider, Christopher J. (2007). "Crocidura hikmiya, a new shrew (Mammalia: Soricomorpha: Soricidae) from Sri Lanka" (PDF). Zootaxa 1665: 19–30. 
  7. ^ a b Wijesinghe, Mayuri R. (2006). "Ecological Traits of Endemic Small Mammals in Rainforests of Sri Lanka, and Their Implications for Conservation" (PDF). In Bambaradeniya, C.N.B. Fauna of Sri Lanka: Status of Taxonomy, Research and Conservation. The World Conservation Union, Colombo, Sri Lanka & Government of Sri Lanka. pp. 232–234. ISBN 955-8177-51-2. 
  8. ^ Wijeyeratne, Gehan de Silva (2008). "Endemic mammals". A photographic guide to Mammals of Sri Lanka (1st ed.). London: New Holland Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-84773-142-5. 
  9. ^ Nekaris, A. (2008). "Loris tardigradus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  10. ^ Dittus, W., Watson, A. & Molur, S. (2008). "Macaca sinica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  11. ^ Dittus, W., Molur, S. & Nekaris, A. (2008). "Trachypithecus vetulus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  12. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Funambulus layardi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  13. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Mus mayori". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  14. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Mus fernandoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  15. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S. & Molur, S. (2008). "Rattus montanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  16. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Srilankamys ohiensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  17. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Vandeleuria nolthenii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  18. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S. & Molur, S. (2008). "Crocidura miya". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  19. ^ Meegaskumbura, S. & Meegaskumbura, M. (2008). "Crocidura hikmiya". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  20. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Solisorex pearsoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  21. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Suncus zeylanicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  22. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Suncus fellowesgordoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  23. ^ Muddappa, D., Wozencraft, C., Yonzon, P., Jennings, A. & Veron, G. (2008). "Paradoxurus zeylonensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  24. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Paradoxurus aureus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  25. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Paradoxurus stenocephalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  26. ^ de A. Goonatilake, W.I.L.D.P.T.S., Nameer, P.O. & Molur, S. (2008). "Paradoxurus montanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  27. ^ Duckworth, J.W. & Timmins, R.J. (2008). "Moschiola meminna". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  28. ^ Duckworth, J.W. & Timmins, R.J. (2008). "Moschiola kathygre". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved October 22, 2009.