Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. Essential oils are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. Essential oils are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques such as distillation (including steam distillation), cold pressing, or extraction ( maceration). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.
Agar oil or oodh, distilled from Agarwood ( ). Highly prized for its fragrance. Aquilaria malaccensis [1 ]
Ajwain oil, distilled from the leaves of Bishop's weed ( ). Oil contains 35-65% Carum copticum thymol. [2 ]
Angelica root oil, distilled from the . Angelica archangelica [3 ]
Anise oil, from the , rich odor of licorice, used medicinally. Pimpinella anisum [4 ]
Asafoetida, used medicinally and to flavor food.
Balsam of Peru, from the , used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for fragrance, and in medicine and pharmaceutical items for healing properties. Myroxylon [5 ]
Basil oil is used in making perfumes, as well as in aromatherapy
Bay oil is used in perfumery; Aromatherapeutic for sprains, colds, flu, insomnia, rheumatism.
Bergamot oil, used in aromatherapy and in perfumes.
Black Pepper essential oil is distilled from the berries of . The warm, soothing effect makes it ideal for treating muscle aches, pains and strains and promoting healthy digestion. Piper nigrum
Buchu oil, made from the buchu shrub. Considered toxic and no longer widely used. Formerly used medicinally. Birch is aromatheapeutic for gout, Rheumatism, Eczema, Ulcers.
Camphor is used for cold, cough, fever, rheumatism, and arthritis
Cannabis flower essential oil, used as a flavoring in foods, primarily candy and beverages. Also used as a scent in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps, and candles. [6 ]
Caraway oil, used a flavoring in foods. Also used in mouthwashes, toothpastes, etc. as a flavoring agent. [7 ]
Cardamom seed oil, used in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications. Extracted from seeds of subspecies of Zingiberaceae (ginger). Also used as a fragrance in soaps, perfumes, etc. [8 ]
Carrot seed oil (essential oil), used in aromatherapy.
Cedarwood oil, primarily used in perfumes and fragrances. [9 ]
Chamomile oil, There are many varieties of chamomile but only two are used in aromatherapy- Roman and German. Both have similar healing properties but German chamomile contains a higher level of azulin (an anti-inflammatory agent).
Calamus Root, used medicinally
Cinnamon oil, used for flavoring and medicinally.
Citronella oil, from a plant related to lemon grass is used as an insect repellent, as well as medicinally.
Clove leaf oil, used as a topical anesthetic to relieve dental pain.
Coffee, used to flavor food.
Costmary oil (bible leaf oil), from the Tanacetum balsamita [10 ] [11 ]
Costus Root, used medicinally
Cranberry seed oil, equally high in omega-3 omega-6 fatty acids, primarily used in the cosmetic industry.
Cubeb, used medicinally and to flavor foods.
Cumin oil/Black seed oil, used as a flavor, particularly in meat products. Also used in veterinary medicine.
Curry leaf, used medicinally and to flavor food.
Davana oil, from the , used as a Artemisia pallens perfume ingredient and as a germicide. [12 ]
Dill oil, chemically almost identical to caraway seed oil. High carvone content.
Elecampane, used medicinally.
Eucalyptus oil, historically used as a germicide. Commonly used in cough medicine, among other medicinal uses. [13 ]
Fennel seed oil, used medicinally, particularly for treating colic in infants.
Fenugreek oil, used medicinally and for cosmetics from ancient times.
Frankincense oil, used for aromatherapy and in perfumes.
Galangal, used medicinally and to flavor food.
Geranium oil, used medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy, used for hormonal imbalance, for this reason geranium is often considered to be "female" oil.
Ginger oil, used medicinally in many cultures.
Grapefruit oil, extracted from the peel of the fruit. Used in aromatherapy. Contains 90% limonene. [14 ]
Henna oil, used medicinally. [15 ]
Hickory nut oil
Jasmine oil, used for its flowery fragrance.
Juniper berry oil, used as a flavor. Also used medicinally, including traditional medicine.
Lavender oil, used primarily as a fragrance. Also used medicinally. [16 ]
Lemon oil, similar in fragrance to the fruit. Unlike other essential oils, lemon oil is usually cold pressed. Used medicinally, as an antiseptic, and in cosmetics. [17 ]
Lemongrass. Lemongrass is a highy fragrant grass from India. In India, it is used to help treat fevers and infections. The oil is very useful for insect repellent.
Lime, anti septic, anti viral, astringent, aperitif, bactericidal, disinfectant, febrifuge, haemostatic, restorative and tonic. [18 ]
Litsea cubeba oil, lemon-like scent, often used in perfumes and aromatherapy.
Melaleuca See Tea tree oil
Melissa oil (Lemon balm), sweet smelling oil used primarily medicinally, particularly in aromatherapy.
Mentha arvensis oil/Mint oil, used in flavoring toothpastes, mouthwashes and pharmaceuticals, as well as in aromatherapy and other medicinal applications. [19 ]
Mugwort oil, used in ancient times for medicinal and magical purposes. Currently considered to be a neurotoxin. [20 ]
Mustard oil (essential oil), containing a high percentage of allyl isothiocyanate or other isothiocyanates, depending on the species of mustard
Myrrh oil, warm, slightly musty smell. Used medicinally.
Neem oil or Neem Tree Oil
Neroli is produced from the blossom of the bitter orange tree.
Orange oil, like lemon oil, cold pressed rather than distilled. Consists of 90% d- Limonene. Used as a fragrance, in cleaning products and in flavoring foods. [21 ]
Oregano oil, contains thymol and carvacrol, making it a useful fungicide. Also used to treat digestive problems. [22 ]
Orris oil is extracted from the roots of the Florentine iris ( ) and used as a flavouring agent, in perfume, and medicinally. Iris florentina [23 ]
Parsley oil, used in soaps, detergents, colognes, cosmetics and perfumes, especially men's fragrances. [24 ]
Patchouli oil, very common ingredient in perfumes.
Perilla essential oil, extracted from the leaves of the perilla plant. Contains about 50-60% perillaldehyde.
Pennyroyal oil, highly toxic. It is abortifacient and can even in small quantities cause acute liver and lung damage. [25 ]
Peppermint oil, used in a wide variety of medicinal applications.
Pine oil, used as a disinfectant, and in aromatherapy.
Rose oil, distilled from rose petals, Used primarily as a fragrance.
Rosehip oil, distilled from the seeds of the or Rosa rubiginosa . Used medicinally. Rosa mosqueta
Rosemary oil, distilled from the flowers of . Used in aromatherapy, topically to sooth muscles, and medicinal for its antibacterial and antifungal properties. Rosmarinus officinalis [26 ]
Rosewood oil, used primarily for skin care applications. Also used medicinally.
Sage oil, used medicinally.
Sandalwood oil, used primarily as a fragrance, for its pleasant, woody fragrance. [27 ]
Sassafras oil, from sassafras root bark. Used in aromatherapy, soap-making, perfumes, and the like. Formerly used as a spice, and as the primary flavoring of root beer, inter alia.
Savory oil, from Satureja species. Used in aromatherapy, cosmetic and soap-making applications.
Schisandra oil, from , used medicinally. Schisandra chinensis
Spearmint oil, often used in flavoring mouthwash and chewing gum, among other applications.
Spikenard, used medicinally.
Spruce has calming and elevating properties. It can be used as a topical application for muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, and rheumatism. Spruce Oil has also been used to improve breathing conditions of asthma, bronchitis, coughs, and general weakness. [28 ]
Star anise oil, highly fragrant oil using in cooking. Also used in perfumery and soaps, has been used in toothpastes, mouthwashes, and skin creams. 90% of the world's [29 ] star anise crop is used in the manufacture of Tamiflu, a drug used to treat influenza, and is hoped to be useful for avian flu
Tarragon oil, distilled from Artemisia dracunculus, used medicinally.
Tea tree oil, extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia; promoted for medicinal use, but with limited evidence of effectiveness.
Thyme oil, used medicinally.
Tsuga belongs to the pine tree family. It is used as analgesic, antirheumatic, blood cleanser, and stimulant. It treats cough, respiratory conditions, kidney ailments, urinary infections. [30 ]
Turmeric, used medicinally and to flavor food
Valerian is used for insomnia, migraines, nervous dyspepsia, and dandruff.
Vetiver oil (khus oil) a thick, amber oil, primarily from India. Used as a fixative in perfumery, and in aromatherapy
Western red cedar
Wintergreen can be used as an analgesic, anodyne, anti rheumatic & anti arthritic, anti spasmodic, anti septic, aromatic, astringent, carminative, diuretic, emenagogue and stimulant [31 ]
Yarrow oil is used medicinally, to relieve joint pain
Ylang-ylang is used for calming, antiseptic, and aphrodisiac purposes, as well as hypertension and skin diseases. [32 ]
Zedoary, used medicinally and to flavor food
The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils: The Complete Guide to the Use of Oils in Aromatherapy and Herbalism ( ISBN 1852307218) 1995
The Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aromatherapy
References [ edit ]
^ "Agar". Nagaon. Archived from the original on 2006-09-20 . Retrieved 2006-11-17.
^ Ajwain Essential Oil, from the EssentialOil.in Web site, which sells essential oils.
^ "Angelica Root". Hippylife . Retrieved 2006-08-17.
^ "Anise". Hippylife . Retrieved 2006-08-17.
^ "Balsam, Peru". Hippylife . Retrieved 2006-08-17.
^ Hemp: A New Crop with New Uses for North America, from the Purdue University NewCROP Web site.
^ Caraway oil, from the Victoria, Australia Department of Primary Industries Web site.
^ Cardamom Oleoresin, from the EssentialOil.in Web site, which sells essential oils.
^ Common Uses of Cedarwood Oil from the Texarome Web site. Texarome manufactures essential oils from cedarwood, sandalwood, vetiver and lime.
^ "Costmary: A Historical and Useful herb" . Retrieved 2006-08-05.
^ "Costmary Oil" . Retrieved 2006-08-05.
^ "Davana oil". The Good Scents Company . Retrieved 2006-11-17.
^ Eucalyptus oil
^ About Grapefruit Essential Oil, from the FrontierCoop Web site
^ Shamana Fragrances, from the EssentialOil.in Web site. Description of henna, and their henna oil product (branded Shamana Perfume Oil).
^ Julia Lawless (1994). . HarperCollins. Lavendar oil
^ Lemon Essential Oil, from the FrontierCoop Web site
^ , from the Web page of the Mentha arvensis Oil Nepalese company Natural Resources Industry
^ Mugwort oil (, from the Artemisia vulgaris) EssentialOils Web site (which sells essential oils).
^ Orange Oil Applications from the Florida Chemical Web site. Florida Chemical sells citrus oils.
^ Oregano oil
^ "Orris oil". Encyclopaedia Britannica . Retrieved 2006-11-20.
^ Parsley Herb, from the Essential 7 Web site. (Essential 7 sells essential oils).
^ Pennyroyal oil (Mentha pulegium), from the EssentialOils Web site
^ FAO. "Sandalwood oil". Flavours and fragances of plant origin . Retrieved 2006-07-25.
^ J.E. Simon, A.F. Chadwick and L.E. Craker (1984). "Anise". Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography. , cited on the Purdue Center for New Crops Web site