List of ethnic slurs by ethnicity

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This list of ethnic slurs by ethnicity compiles ethnic slurs that are, or have been, used in the English language. For the purposes of this list, ethnicity can be defined by either race, nationality or ethnicity.

Broader ethnic categories

African

Af 
(Rhodesia) African to a white Rhodesian (Rhodie).[1]
Ape 
(U.S.) a black person.[2]
Béni-oui-oui
Mostly used during the French colonization of Algeria as a derogatory term to describe Algerian Muslims.[3]
Bluegum 
An offensive slur used by some United States white Southerners for an African-American perceived as being lazy and who refuses to work.[4]
Boogie 
a black person (film noire) "The boogies lowered the boom on Beaver Canal".[5]
Buck 
a black person, also used to describe Native Americans.
Buffie 
a black person.[6]
Burrhead / Burr-head / Burr head 
(U.S.) a black person (referencing stereotypical hair type).[7]
Colored 
(U.S.) a Black person. Once generally accepted as inoffensive, this word is now considered disrespectful by some. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People continues to use its full name unapologetically. Some black Americans have reclaimed this word and softened it in the expression "a person of color."
Coon 
(U.S. & U.K) a black person. Possibly from Portuguese barracoos, a building constructed to hold slaves for sale. (1837).[8]
Crow 
a black person,[9] spec. a black woman.
Eggplant 
(U.S.) A black person. In the 1979 film, "The Jerk", the leading character played by Steve Martin is advised by his associates to keep the "eggplants" out of his planned housing development. "Eggplants?" Steve asks. "Yeah, the Jungle Bunnies.", says the other guy. "Of course. Bunnies will eat the eggplants", says Steve. "No, I mean the niggers", says the other guy. "What!", says Steve Martin, "I am a nigger."[10]
Fuzzies 
(U.K.) A black person. In the 1964 film classic, "Zulu", the British officer played by Michael Caine refers to the Zulus as "fuzzies".[11]
Gable 
a black person.[6]
Golliwogg 
(UK Commonwealth) a dark-skinned person, after Florence Kate Upton's children's book character [12]
Jigaboo, jiggabo, jijjiboo, zigabo, jig, jigg, jiggy, jigga 
(U.S. & UK) a black person (JB) with stereotypical black features (dark skin, wide nose, etc.) Used to refer to mannerisms that resemble dancing.
Jim Crow 
(U.S.) a black person; also the name for the segregation laws prevalent in much of the United States until the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.[13]
Jim Fish 
(South Africa) a black person[14]
Kaffir, kaffer, kaffir, kafir, kaffre 
(South Africa) a. a black person. Considered very offensive.
Macaca 
Epithet used to describe a Negro (originally) or a person of North-African origin (more recently).
Mammy 
Domestic servant of African descent, generally good-natured, often overweight, and loud.[15]
Mosshead 
a black person.[6]
Munt 
(among whites in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia) a black person from muntu, the singular of Bantu[16]
Nig-nog 
(UK & U.S.) a black person.[17]
Nigger / nigra / nigga / niggah / nigguh
(U.S., UK) An offensive term for a black person. From the word negro which means the color black in numerous languages. Diminutive appellations include "Nigg" and "Nigz." Over time, the terms "Nigga" and "Niggaz" (plural) have come to be frequently used between some African-Americans without the negative associations of "Nigger."
Niglet / nigglet 
a black child
Nigra / negra / niggra / nigrah / nigruh 
(U.S.) offensive for a black person [first used in the early 1900s][18]
Pickaninny 
a term – generally considered derogatory – that in English usage refers to black children, or a caricature of them which is widely considered racist.
Porch monkey 
a black person,[19]
Powder burn 
a black person.[6]
Quashie 
a black person.[6]
Sambo 
(U.S.) a derogatory term for an African American, Black, or sometimes a South Asian person.[15][20]
Smoked Irish / smoked Irishman 
(U.S.) 19th century term for Blacks (intended to insult both Blacks and Irish).[6]
Sooty 
a black person [originated in the U.S. in the 1950s][21]
Spade 
A black person.[22] recorded since 1928 (OED), from the playing cards suit.
Spook 
a black person.
Tar baby
(UK; U.S.; and N.Z.) a black child.[23]
Teapot 
(British) a black person. [1800s][24]
Thicklips 
a black person.[6]

Aboriginal Australians

Abo/Abbo
(AUS) Australian Aboriginal person. Originally, this was simply an informal term for Aborigine, and was in fact used by Aboriginal people themselves until it started to be considered offensive in the 1950s. In remoter areas, Aboriginal people still often refer to themselves (quite neutrally) as Blackfellas (and whites as Whitefellas). Although Abo is still considered quite offensive by many, the pejorative boong is now more commonly used when the intent is deliberately to offend, as that word's status as an insult is unequivocal.[25]
Boong / bong / bung
(Aus) Australian aboriginal.[26] Boong, pronounced with ʊ (like the vowel in bull), is related to the Australian English slang word bung, meaning dead; infected; or dysfunctional. From bung, to go bung "Originally to die, then to break down, go bankrupt, cease to function [Ab. bong dead]".[27] Highly offensive. [First used in 1847 by JD Lang, Cooksland, 430][28]
Gin
(AUS) an Aboriginal woman.[29]
Lubra
an Australian Aboriginal woman.[30]

Arabian

Brownie 
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[31]
Lebo 
Someone of Lebanese descent, usually a Lebanese Australian.
Sand nigger 
person who dwells in deserts of Saudi Arabia or African continent. Derogative term used to cause offence.

East Asian

Celestial 
(Aust.) In the late 1900s Chinese people in Australia were often referred to as "Celestials",[citation needed] a reference to their coming from the "Celestial Empire" (i.e. China).[32]
Charlie 
(U.S.) A term used by American troops during the Vietnam War as a shorthand term for communist guerrillas: it was shortened from "Victor Charlie," the radio code designation for Viet Cong, or VC.[33]
Chinaman 
(U.S. and English) Chinese person, used in old American west when discrimination against Chinese was common.[34] Possibly coined by early Chinese Americans from a translation of "Zhong Guo Ren" which is literally "China" and "Person." In contrast to "Frenchman" or "Irishman" which are generally considered neutral, non-insulting terms, "Chinaman" is considered offensive especially in the U.S. due to the virulent anti-Asian racism of the period in which the term came into popular usage (mid-1800s) and tends to generate objections in contemporary usage. Can be comparable to referring to a Black person as "a Negro", today. In 20th century Chicago politics, "Chinaman" had a specific, unintentionally insulting meaning. A junior politician or government worker's political patron was referred to as their "Chinaman" (or "chinaman" without the initial capital) regardless of their actual ethnic heritage or gender.[35] The term "chinaman", without the initial capital, is also regularly used in cricket in a non-ethnic sense to refer to a left-handed bowler who uses a wrist spin action.
Chink 
(U.S.) a derogatory term used towards people of perceived Asian descent. Until the 1980s a U.S. school used the term as a sports mascot.[36]
Jap 
(Predominantly U.S.) Offensive. Shortened from the word "Japanese", used derogatorily towards the group.[citation needed]
Gook 
a derogatory term for Asians, used especially for enemy soldiers.[37] Its use as an ethnic slur has been traced to U.S. Marines serving in the Philippines in the early 20th century.[37] The earliest recorded use is dated 1920.[38] Widely popularized by the Korean war and Vietnam War (1965–73).
Oriental 
(Predominantly U.S., used elsewhere) Refers to an East Asian person (of the Orient) and/or their ethnicity; sometimes considered offensive.[39][40][41]
Yellow, Yellowman, or Yellowwoman
designating or pertaining to an Asian person, in reference to those who have a yellowish skin color.[42]
Nip 
Offensive word for a Japanese person.[43] From "Nippon", first used in World War II[citation needed]

Latin American/Hispanic

Spic, spick, spik, spig, or spigotty 
A person of Hispanic descent. First recorded use in 1915. Theories include from "no spik English" (and spiggoty from the Chicano no speak-o t'e English), but common belief is that it is an abbreviation of "Hispanic". Also used for someone who speaks the Spanish language.
Brownie 
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[31]
Wetback 
A Latino person. Originally applied specifically to Mexican migrant workers who had crossed the Rio Grande border river illegally to find work in the United States, its meaning has since broadened.
Greaseball
(U.S.) Can be used to describe a person of Italian or Hispanic descent.[44]
Beaner 
Term for Mexican, but can be used for Hispanics in general because of the idea that all Hispanics are the same.
Greaser
(U.S.) Can be used to describe a person of Italian or Hispanic descent. Can also be used to describe members of the 1950s subculture which Italians were stereotyped to be a part of.

South Asian/Indian

American-Born Confused Desi, or ABCD
(East Indians in U.S.): used for American-born South Asians including Indian/ Pakistani/ Bangladeshi (mainly Indians as Indians are the largest number of "South Asians") who are confused about their cultural identity. This is often used humorously without any derogatory meaning.
Chee-chee 
a Eurasian half-caste, probably from Hindi chi-chi fie!, literally, dirt.[45]
Paki 
A racist term that is often applied to people of Pakistani or South Asian descent. Its origins are commonly traced back to about 30 years ago, when British hooligans used the term Paki-bashing to refer to the gang beating of ethnic minorities.[citation needed]
Curry Muncher 
used in Australia, Africa, New Zealand, and North America, it is a person of East Indian origin.[46]
Hajji, Hadji, Haji 
Used to refer to Iraqis, Arabs, Afghans, or Middle Eastern and South Asian people in general. Derived from the honorific Al-Hajji, the title given to a Muslim who has completed the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Malaun 
Term for Hindus used in Bangladesh.
Brownie 
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[31]

European/White

Bule 
(Indonesia) White people; literally, "albino", but used in the same way that "colored" might be used to refer to a black person to mean any white person.[47]
Charlie 
Mildly derogatory term used by African Americans, mainly in the 1960s and 1970s, to refer to a white person (from James Baldwin's play, Blues For Mister Charlie).[48]
Coonass or coon-ass 
(U.S.) a Cajun; may be derived from the French conasse. May be used among Cajuns themselves. Not considered to be derogatory in most circumstances.
Cracker 
(U.S.) Derogatory term for whites, particularly from the American South.[49]
Gringo 
(The Americas) Non-Hispanic U.S. national. Hence Gringolandia, the United States; not always a pejorative term, unless used with intent to offend.[50]
Gubba 
(AUS) Aboriginal (Koori) term for white people[51] – derived from Governor / Gubbanah
Gweilo, gwailo, or kwai lo (鬼佬) 
(Hong Kong and South China) A White man. Gwei means "ghost." The color white is associated with ghosts in China. A lo is a regular guy (i.e. a fellow, a chap, or a bloke). Once a mark of xenophobia, the word was promoted by Maoists and is now in general, informal use.[52]
Honky (U.S.) 
Offensive term for a white person.
Haole (Hawaii) 
Usually not offensive, can be derogatory if intended to offend. Used by modern-day Native Hawaiians to refer to anyone of European descent whether native born or not. Use has spread to many other islands of the Pacific and is known in modern pop culture.[53]
Mangia cake / cake (Canada)
A derogatory term used by Italians to disdainfully describe those of Anglo-Saxon descent (from Italian, literally 'cake eater'). One suggestion is that this term originated from the perception of Italian immigrants that Canadian bread is sweet as cake in comparison to the rustic bread eaten by Italians.[54]
Ofay 
(US) a white person, unknown etymology.[7][55]
Arkie
A person from the State of Arkansas, used during the great depression to describe farmers from Arkansas looking for work else where.
Okie
A person from the State of Oklahoma, used during the great depression to describe farmers from Oklahoma looking for work else where.
Peckerwood 
(U.S.) a white person (southerner). This word was coined in the 19th century by Southern blacks to describe poor whites. They[56]

Native American

Timber Nigger 
a Native American person, term used by whites in the U.S.[57]
Redskin 
a Native American person, originated by Natives to describe themselves as different from the "white man" and sometimes used now as an offensive term[58]
Indian 
only considered offensive by few, termed by Columbus due to the fact he thought he arrived in India, and met their natives.
Prairie Nigger 
used to describe Native Americans in the Great Plains.[59]
Injun 
a corrupted version of the word "Indian".
Brownie 
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[31]
Chug
(Canada) refers to an individual of aboriginal descent.[60] See Chugach for the native people.
Squaw
(US and CAN) a female Native American.[61] Derived from lower East Coast Algonquian (Massachuset: ussqua),[62] which originally meant "young woman", but which took on strong negative connotations in the late 20th century. (The equivalent derisive for a male is "buck", and for a child, "papoose".)

Pacific Islanders

Boonga / boong / bunga / boonie
(New Zealand) a Pacific Islander [alteration of boong].[63]
Brownie 
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[31]
Hori
(New Zealand), an offensive term for a Māori (from the formerly common Maorified version of the English name George).[64]

Individual ethnicities

Americans

Merkin
Internet slang for inhabitant of the United States of America.[65]
Yankee and Yank
First applied by the Dutch colonists of New Amsterdam to Connecticuters and other residents of New England, possibly from Dutch Janke ("Johnny") or from Jan Kees ("John Cheese").[66] Uncontracted, "Yankee" remains in use in the American South in reference to Northerners; contracted, "Yank" is employed internationally by speakers of British English in informal reference to all Americans (first recorded 1778[66]).
Seppo and Septic
From Cockney rhyming slang, using the unrhymed word of "septic tank" in reference to "Yank" above.

Northerners (America)

Yankee and Yank
First applied by the Dutch colonists of New Amsterdam to Connecticuters and other residents of New England, possibly from Dutch Janke ("Johnny") or from Jan Kees ("John Cheese").[66] Uncontracted, "Yankee" remains in use in the American South in reference to Northerners; contracted, "Yank" is employed internationally by speakers of British English in informal reference to all Americans (first recorded 1778[66]).

Southerners (America)

Cracker 
(U.S.) Derogatory term for whites, particularly from the American South.[49]
Rebel
A reference to the Souths recession or "rebellion" from the rest of the American Union.
Reb
A corruption of the word ethnic slur "Rebel". "Rebel" is a reference to the Souths recession or "rebellion" from the rest of the American Union.
Redneck
Usually an insult to rural people or Southerners.
Hillbilly
Usually used to describe rural people or Southerners. It originated as a term for farmers living in The Appalachian Mountains.
White Trash
An insult to describe the mainly white population of people who share a rural or southern lifestyle.
Trailer Trash
An insult to describe a mainly white southern population, stereotyped to live in trailer parks.
Hick
An insult to describe the mainly white population of people who share a rural or southern lifestyle.
Bumpkin, Country Bumpkin, and Hillbilly Bumpkin
An insult to describe the mainly white population of people who share a rural or southern lifestyle.
Good Ol' Boy
A term used to describe Southerners, typically white supremacist southerners.
Peckerwood
In the 1940s, the abbreviated version "wood" entered California prison slang, originally meaning an Okie mainly from the San Joaquin Valley. This has caused the symbol of the woodpecker to be used by white power skinheads and other pro-white groups. It is used as a slur against southerners today.

Britons

Limey
A predominantly North American and Australian slang nickname for Britons, especially those from England.

Germans

Kraut
Since World War II, Kraut has, in the English language, come to be used as a derogatory term for a German. This is probably based on sauerkraut, which is popular in various South-German cuisines but traditionally not prepared in North Germany.
Piefke
The Austrian ethnic slur for a German is Piefke. Like its Bavarian counterpart Saupreiß (literally: sow-Prussian) the term Piefke historically characterized the people of Prussia only[citation needed]
Marmeladinger
The term Marmeladinger (from Southern German/Austrian "Marmelade" = jam [cook.]) has its origin in the trenches of World War I. While Austrian infantry rations included butter and lard as spread German troops had to make do with cheaper "Marmelade" as ersatz which they disdainfully called "Heldenbutter" (Hero's butter) or "Hindenburgfett".[citation needed]
Boches
Apheresis of the word alboche, which in turn is a blend of allemand (French for German) and caboche (slang for head). Used mainly during the First and Second World Wars, and directed especially at German soldiers.[citation needed]
Chleuh
From the name of the Chleuh, a North African ethnicity — a term with racial connotations. It also denotes the absence of words beginning in Schl- in French. It was used mainly in World War II, but is also used now in a less offensive way.
Mof
In Dutch the most common term for the German people, after the regular/official one, is "mof". It is regarded as a derogative term, used exclusively for Germans and reflected Dutch resentment of the German occupation of the Netherlands during the Second World War.[citation needed]

Irish

Mick
Derogatory term for an Irishman in the U.S. and U.K. It is derived from Mickey and Mikey, nicknames for Mícheál, a common Irish name for males after St. Michael.
Paddy
Derogatory term for an Irish man, derived from a nickname for Pádraig, a common Irish name for males after St. Patrick.
Pogue
Epithet derived from the Irish phrase, "Pog mo Thoin", meaning kiss my arse. It is generally not considered offensive.[citation needed]
Taig
Extremely offensive term, deriving from the Irish Gaelic forename Tadhg, often used to describe Catholics in Northern Ireland. It often has implications of Republican sympathy.
Snout
Offensive term used in Northern Ireland to describe Protestants of British descent living in Northern Ireland.[citation needed]
Hun
Offensive term used in Northern Ireland to describe Protestants of British descent living in Northern Ireland.[citation needed]

Italians

Dago
(U.S.) A person of Italian descent.
Ginzo
(U.S.) an Italian-American.[67]
Goombah
An Italian male, especially an Italian thug or mafioso.
Greaseball
(U.S.) Can be used to describe a person of Italian or Hispanic descent.[68]
Greaser
(U.S.) Can be used to describe a person of Italian or Hispanic descent. Can also be used to describe members of the 1950s subculture which Italians were stereotyped to be a part of.
Guido
(US) An Italian-American male. Usually offensive. Derives from the Italian given name, Guido. Used mostly in the Northeastern United States as a stereotype for working-class urban Italian-Americans.[69]
Guinea
(U.S.) someone of Italian descent. (Derives from "Guinea Negro," was called because of some Italians who had dark complexions)[70]
Wog
(Aus) Australian slur for the first wave of European immigrants and their descendants that contrasted with the dominant Anglo-Saxon colonial stock. Used mostly for Mediterraneans and Central Europeans, such as the Spanish, Italians, Greeks, Macedonians, Croatians and Serbians. Does not extend towards the later immigrants of Middle Eastern or Arab descent, such as Lebanese, Persians, Iraqis etc.
Wop
(U.S.) A racial term for anyone of Italian descent, derived from the Italian dialectism, "guappo," close to "dude, swaggerer" and other informal appellations, a greeting among male Neapolitans.[71][72] With Out Passport/Papers or Working On Pavement are popular alternative etymologies for the slur, supposedly derived from Italians that arrived to North America as immigrants without papers and worked in construction and blue collar work. These acronyms are dismissed as folk etymology or backronyms by etymologists.

Macedonians

Bulgaroskopian
(Greece) Used by Greeks when referring to the Macedonians in an attempt to deny self-identification [73][74]
Macedonist
(Bulgaria) A derogatory term used by Bulgarians to identify Macedonians [75]
Pseudomacedonian
(Greece) Used by Greeks to refer to the Macedonians in an attempt to deny self-identification [76]
Skopjan or Skopjian, Skopiana or Skopianika
(Greece) A term used by Greeks to refer to Macedonians in an attempt to deny self-identification[74][77][78][79][80][81][82][83]

Russians

Russki, Russkie 
Sometimes disparaging when used by foreigners for "Russian",[84] although in the Russian language, it is a neutral term which simply means an ethnic Russian as opposed to a citizen of the Russian Federation.
Comrade, Commie 
Terms used for Communists are sometimes used for Russians, since Russians are stereotyped as Communists, because Russia was once a Communist state.

Canadians

Canucks 
A term used for Canadians, not considered very insulting.

Crossed Ethnicities

African-European

Mulatto 
(Origin Americas) Mulatto is a term used to refer to a person who is born from one white parent. The term is generally considered archaic by some and inadvertently derogatory, especially in the African-American community. The term is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean usually without suggesting any insult. Historically in the American South, the term mulatto was applied also at times to persons with an admixture of Native Americans, and African Americans in general. In early American history, the term mulatto was also used to refer to persons of Native American and European ancestry.
Uncle Tom 
(U.S. minorities) term for an African-American, Latino, or Asian who panders to white people; a "sellout" (from the title character of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin.)
Oreo
Africans that practice white culture, called this because they are "black on the outside, white on the inside" according to users of the term.
Aunt Jemima / Aunt Jane / Aunt Mary / Aunt Sally / Aunt Thomasina 
(U.S. Blacks) a black woman who "kisses up" to whites, a "sellout," female counterpart of Uncle Tom.[85] Taken from the popular syrup of the same name, where "Aunt Jemima" is represented as a black woman.[86]
Afro-Saxon 
(North America) A young white male devotee of black pop culture.[87]
Ann 
A white woman to a black person, or a black woman who acts too much like a white one. While Miss Ann, also just plain Ann, is a derisive reference to the white woman, by extension it is applied to any black woman who puts on airs and tries to act like Miss Ann.[88]
Wigger, Wegro 
is a slang term for a white person who allophilically emulates mannerisms, slangs and fashions stereotypically associated with urban African Americans; especially in relation to hip hop culture.
Rhineland Bastard 
was a derogatory term used in the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany to describe Afro-German children of mixed German and African parentage, who were fathered by Africans serving as French colonial troops occupying the Rhineland after World War I.

Native American-African

Mulatto 
(Origin Americas) Mulatto is a term used to refer to a person who is born from one white parent. The term is generally considered archaic by some and inadvertently derogatory, especially in the African-American community. The term is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean usually without suggesting any insult. Historically in the American South, the term mulatto was applied also at times to persons with an admixture of Native Americans, and African Americans in general. In early American history, the term mulatto was also used to refer to persons of Native American and European ancestry.
Zambo 
are racial terms used in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires and occasionally today to identify individuals in the Americas who are of mixed African and Amerindian ancestry (the analogous English term, considered a slur, is sambo).
Lobos 
In Mexico, Black Native Americans are known as lobos (literally meaning wolves), they formed a sizeable minority in the past.

Native American-European

Mulatto 
(Origin Americas) Mulatto is a term used to refer to a person who is born from one white parent. The term is generally considered archaic by some and inadvertently derogatory, especially in the African-American community. The term is widely used in Latin America and Caribbean usually without suggesting any insult. Historically in the American South, the term mulatto was applied also at times to persons with an admixture of Native Americans, and African Americans in general. In early American history, the term mulatto was also used to refer to persons of Native American and European ancestry.
Apple
(North America) an American Indian (Native American) who is "red on the outside, white on the inside." Used primarily by other American Indians to indicate someone who has lost touch with their cultural identity. First used in the 1970s.[89]

South Asian-European

American-Born Confused Desi, or ABCD
(East Indians in U.S.): used for American-born South Asians including Indian/ Pakistani/ Bangladeshi (mainly Indians as Indians are the largest number of "South Asians") who are confused about their cultural identity. This is often used humorously without any derogatory meaning.ean

East Asian-European

Banana
(North America; UK; Malaysia) an Asian person living in a Western country (e.g., an Asian American) who is yellow on the outside, white on the inside. Used primarily by Asians to indicate someone who has lost touch with the cultural identity of his or her parents.[90]

Pacific Islander/Latin American/South Asian/African-European

Coconut
(US) a person of Hispanic descent who is accused of acting 'white'.[91]
(US/SA) a black person who is accused of "trying to be white".[92][93]
(UK) a brown person of South Asian descent who has assimilated into Western culture.[94][95][96]
(New Zealand/Australia) a Pacific Islander. Named after the coconut, the nut from the coconut palm; in the American sense, it derives from the fact that a coconut is brown on the outside and white on the inside (see also "Oreo" above).[97]

See also

Literature

  • Geoffrey Hughes, An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, And Ethnic Slurs in the English-speaking World, (M.E. Sharpe: 2006)
  • The New Oxford American Dictionary, second edition. Ed. Erin McKean. (Oxford University Press: 2005).
  • The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. (Oxford University Press: 2004)
  • Bruce Moore (editor), The Australian Oxford Dictionary, (2004)
  • Eric Partridge, A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, (2002)
  • Richard A. Spears, Slang and Euphemism, (2001)
  • Jonathon Green, The Cassell Dictionary of Slang (1998)
  • Grand dictionnaire (Larousse: 1993)
  • John A. Simpson, Oxford Dictionary Of Modern Slang ISBN 0-19-861052-1
  • John A. Simpson, Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series ISBN 0-19-861299-0

References

  1. ^ Douglas Livingstone Drums Along Balmoral Drive(1986)
  2. ^ Spears, loc. cit. p. 10.; also, Zoo Ape or Jungle Ape
  3. ^ Dominelli, Lena (1986). Love and wages: the impact of imperialism, State intervention and women's domestic labour on workers' control in Algeria 1962-1972. Novata. p. 123. 
  4. ^ "Operation Blue Gum" for Barack Obama Gets the Chainsaw—"The Australian" Hedley Thomas--20 March 2010:
  5. ^ No Way Out (film) 1950 Sidney Poitier and Richard Widmark
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Spears, loc. cit. p. 118
  7. ^ a b "Saturday Night Live transcript, Season 1, Episode 7"
  8. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary: Coon
  9. ^ "crow." Webster's [Accessed 12 March 2006].
  10. ^ The Jerk 1979
  11. ^ Zulu 1964
  12. ^ "'Controversial' golly to be shelved" BBC News 23 August 2001
  13. ^ Jim Crow Laws: Arkansas
  14. ^ "Jim Fish." Ibid. [Accessed 12 March 2006].
  15. ^ a b Goings, Kenneth (1994) Mammy and Uncle Mose: Black Collectibles and American Stereotyping, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-32592-7
  16. ^ Simpson. "munt." loc. cit.
  17. ^ "nig-nog" Webster's
  18. ^ Simpson. "nigra," loc. cit.
  19. ^ Who Are The Bush People? by Sean Gonsalves
  20. ^ Boskin, Joseph (1986) Sambo, New York: Oxford University Press
  21. ^ Simpson, "sooty." loc. cit.
  22. ^ American Heritage Dictionary
  23. ^ Simpson, "tar," op. cit.
  24. ^ Green, loc. cit. p. 1185.
  25. ^ Bruce Moore (editor), The Australian Oxford Dictionary, (2004) p. 3.
  26. ^ Moore, op. cit. [Accessed 6 May 2006].
  27. ^ Wilkes, G.A. A Dictionary of Australian Colloquialisms (Sydney: Fontana/Collins, 1978, p. 62)
  28. ^ Wilkes, ibid., p. 62
  29. ^ "gin", Moore, op. cit. [Accessed 7 May 2006].
  30. ^ Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2004), p. 850.
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This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.