List of ethnic slurs by ethnicity

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This list of ethnic slurs by ethnicity compiles ethnic slurs that are, or have been, used in the English language. For the purposes of this list, ethnicity can be defined by either race, nationality or ethnicity.

Broader ethnic categories

African

Af 
(Rhodesia) African to a white Rhodesian (Rhodie).[1]
Ann 
A white woman to a black person – or a black woman who acts too much like a white one. While Miss Ann, also just plain Ann, is a derisive reference to the white woman, by extension it is applied to any black woman who puts on airs and tries to act like Miss Ann.[2]
Ape 
(U.S.) a black person.[3]
Aunt Jemima / Aunt Jane / Aunt Mary / Aunt Sally / Aunt Thomasina 
(U.S. Blacks) a black woman who "kisses up" to whites, a "sellout," female counterpart of Uncle Tom.[4] Taken from the popular syrup of the same name, where "Aunt Jemima" is represented as a black woman.[5]
Bluegum 
An offensive slur used by some United States white Southerners for an African-American perceived as being lazy and who refuses to work.[6]
Boogie 
a black person (film noire) "The boogies lowered the boom on Beaver Canal".[7]
Buck 
a black person, also used to describe Native Americans.
Buffie 
a black person.[8]
Burrhead / Burr-head / Burr head 
(U.S.) a black person (referencing stereotypical hair type).[9]
Colored 
(U.S.) a Black person. Once generally accepted as inoffensive, this word is now considered disrespectful by some. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People continues to use its full name unapologetically. Some black Americans have reclaimed this word and softened it in the expression "a person of color."
Coon 
(U.S. & U.K) a black person. Possibly from Portuguese barracoos, a building constructed to hold slaves for sale. (1837).[10]
Crow 
a black person,[11] spec. a black woman.
Eggplant 
(U.S.) A black person. In the 1979 classic film, "The Jerk", the leading character played by Steve Martin is advised by his associates to keep the "eggplants" out of his planned housing development. "Eggplants?" Steve asks. "Yeah, the Jungle Bunnies.", says the other guy. "Of course. Bunnies will eat the eggplants", says Steve. "No, I mean the niggers", says the other guy. "What!", says Steve Martin, "I am a nigger."[12]
Fuzzies 
(U.K.) A black person. In the 1964 film classic, "Zulu", the British officer played by Michael Caine refers to the Zulus as "fuzzies".[13]
Gable 
a black person.[8]
Golliwogg 
(UK Commonwealth) a dark-skinned person, after Florence Kate Upton's children's book character [14]
Jigaboo, jiggabo, jijjiboo, zigabo, jig, jigg, jiggy, jigga 
(U.S. & UK) a black person (JB) with stereotypical black features (dark skin, wide nose, etc.).[15] The term "jig" was often used by Richard Nixon when speaking in private. Used to refer to mannerisms that resemble dancing.
Jim Crow 
(U.S.) a black person; also the name for the segregation laws prevalent in much of the United States until the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.[16]
Jim Fish 
(South Africa) a black person[17]
Kaffir, kaffer, kaffir, kafir, kaffre 
(South Africa) a. a black person. Considered very offensive.
Macaca 
Epithet used to describe a Negro (originally) or a person of North-African origin (more recently). Came to public attention in 2006 when U.S. Senator George Allen infamously used it to refer to one of Jim Webb's volunteers, S. R. Sidarth, when he said, "This fellow here, over here with the yellow shirt, macaca, or whatever his name is." [18]
Mammy 
Domestic servant of African descent, generally good-natured, often overweight, and loud.[19]
Mosshead 
a black person.[8]
Munt 
(among whites in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia) a black person from muntu, the singular of Bantu[20]
Nig-nog 
(UK & U.S.) a black person.[21]
Nigger / nigra / nigga / niggah / nigguh
(U.S., UK) An offensive term for a black person. From the word negro which means the color black in numerous languages. Diminutive appellations include "Nigg" and "Nigz." Over time, the terms "Nigga" and "Niggaz" (plural) have come to be frequently used between some African-Americans without the negative associations of "Nigger."
Niglet / nigglet 
a black child
Nigra / negra / niggra / nigrah / nigruh 
(U.S.) offensive for a black person [first used in the early 1900s][22]
Pickaninny 
a term – generally considered derogatory – that in English usage refers to black children, or a caricature of them which is widely considered racist.
Porch monkey 
a black person,[23]
Powder burn 
a black person.[8]
Quashie 
a black person.[8]
Sambo 
(U.S.) a derogatory term for an African American, Black, or sometimes a South Asian person.[19][24]
Smoked Irish / smoked Irishman 
(U.S.) 19th century term for Blacks (intended to insult both Blacks and Irish).[8]
Sooty 
a black person [originated in the U.S. in the 1950s][25]
Spade 
A black person.[26] recorded since 1928 (OED), from the playing cards suit.
Spook 
a black person.
Tar baby
(UK; U.S.; and N.Z.) a black child.[27]
Teapot 
(British) a black person. [1800s][28]
Thicklips 
a black person.[8]
Uncle Tom 
(U.S. minorities) term for an African-American, Latino, or Asian who panders to white people; a "sellout" (from the title character of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin.)

East Asian

Celestial 
(Aust.) In the late 1900s Chinese people in Australia were often referred to as "Celestials",[citation needed] a reference to their coming from the "Celestial Empire" (i.e. China).[29]
Charlie 
(U.S.) A term used by American troops during the Vietnam War as a shorthand term for communist guerrillas: it was shortened from "Victor Charlie," the radio code designation for Viet Cong, or VC.[30]
Chinaman 
(U.S. and English) Chinese person, used in old American west when discrimination against Chinese was common.[31] Possibly coined by early Chinese Americans from a translation of "Zhong Guo Ren" which is literally "China" and "Person." In contrast to "Frenchman" or "Irishman" which are generally considered neutral, non-insulting terms, "Chinaman" is considered offensive especially in the U.S. due to the virulent anti-Asian racism of the period in which the term came into popular usage (mid-1800s) and tends to generate objections in contemporary usage. Can be comparable to referring to a Black person as "a Negro", today. In 20th century Chicago politics, "Chinaman" had a specific, unintentionally insulting meaning. A junior politician or government worker's political patron was referred to as their "Chinaman" (or "chinaman" without the initial capital) regardless of their actual ethnic heritage or gender.[32] The term "chinaman", without the initial capital, is also regularly used in cricket in a non-ethnic sense to refer to a left-handed bowler who uses a wrist spin action.
Chink 
(U.S.) a derogatory term used towards people of perceived Asian descent. Until the 1980s a U.S. school used the term as a sports mascot.[33]
Jap 
(Predominantly U.S.) Offensive. Shortened from the word "Japanese", used derogatorily towards the group.[citation needed]
Gook 
a derogatory term for Asians, used especially for enemy soldiers.[34] Its use as an ethnic slur has been traced to U.S. Marines serving in the Philippines in the early 20th century.[34] The earliest recorded use is dated 1920.[35] Widely popularized by the Korean war and Vietnam War (1965–73).
Oriental 
(Predominantly U.S., used elsewhere) Refers to an East Asian person (of the Orient) and/or their ethnicity; sometimes considered offensive.[36][37][38]
Nip 
Offensive word for a Japanese person.[39] From "Nippon", first used in World War II[citation needed]

Latin American/Hispanic

Spic, spick, spik, spig, or spigotty 
A person of Hispanic descent. First recorded use in 1915. Theories include from "no spik English" (and spiggoty from the Chicano no speak-o t'e English), but common belief is that it is an abbreviation of "Hispanic". Also used for someone who speaks the Spanish language.
Brownie 
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[40]
Wetback 
A Latino person. Originally applied specifically to Mexican migrant workers who had crossed the Rio Grande border river illegally to find work in the United States, its meaning has since broadened.
Juan 
The term originated from the idea that all Hispanics are named Juan.[citation needed]
Beaner 
Term for Mexican, but can be used for Hispanics in general because of the idea that all Hispanics are the same.

South Asian

American-Born Confused Desi, or ABCD
(East Indians in U.S.): used for American-born South Asians including Indian/ Pakistani/ Bangladeshi (mainly Indians as Indians are the largest number of "South Asians") who are confused about their cultural identity. This is often used humorously without any derogatory meaning.
Chee-chee 
a Eurasian half-caste, probably from Hindi chi-chi fie!, literally, dirt.[41]
Paki 
A racist term that is often applied to people of Pakistani or South Asian descent. Its origins are commonly traced back to about 30 years ago, when British hooligans used the term Paki-bashing to refer to the gang beating of ethnic minorities.[citation needed]
Curry Muncher 
used in Australia, Africa, New Zealand, and North America, it is a person of East Indian origin.[42]
Dothead 
derogatory term for Indians, from the Hindu practice of bindi (decoration).[citation needed]
Hajji, Hadji, Haji 
Used to refer to Iraqis, Arabs, Afghans, or Middle Eastern and South Asian people in general. Derived from the honorific Al-Hajji, the title given to a Muslim who has completed the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)
Malaun 
Term for Hindus used in Bangladesh.
Raghead 
Arabs, Indian Sikhs and some other Indian peoples, for wearing traditional headdress such as turbans or keffiyehs. Sometimes used generically for all Islamic nations.[citation needed]
Towel head 
A person who wears a turban. Often refers specifically to an Arab or Indian on their habit of wearing head dresses.[citation needed]
Brownie 
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[40]

European/White

Afro-Saxon 
(North America) A young white male devotee of black pop culture.[43]
Ann 
A white woman to a black person, or a black woman who acts too much like a white one. While Miss Ann, also just plain Ann, is a derisive reference to the white woman, by extension it is applied to any black woman who puts on airs and tries to act like Miss Ann.[2]
Bule 
(Indonesia) White people; literally, "albino", but used in the same way that "colored" might be used to refer to a black person to mean any white person.[44]
Charlie 
Mildly derogatory term used by African Americans, mainly in the 1960s and 1970s, to refer to a white person (from James Baldwin's play, Blues For Mister Charlie).[45]
Coonass or coon-ass 
(U.S.) a Cajun; may be derived from the French conasse. May be used among Cajuns themselves. Not considered to be derogatory in most circumstances.
Cracker 
(U.S.) Derogatory term for whites, particularly from the American South.[46]
Gringo 
(The Americas) Non-Hispanic U.S. national. Hence Gringolandia, the United States; not always a pejorative term, unless used with intent to offend.[47]
Gubba 
(AUS) Aboriginal (Koori) term for white people[48] – derived from Governor / Gubbanah
Gweilo, gwailo, or kwai lo (鬼佬) 
(Hong Kong and South China) A White man. Gwei means "ghost." The color white is associated with ghosts in China. A lo is a regular guy (i.e. a fellow, a chap, or a bloke). Once a mark of xenophobia, the word was promoted by Maoists and is now in general, informal use.[49]
Honky (U.S.) 
Offensive term for a white person.
Haole (Hawaii) 
Usually not offensive, can be derogatory if intended to offend. Used by modern-day Native Hawaiians to refer to anyone of European descent whether native born or not. Use has spread to many other islands of the Pacific and is known in modern pop culture.[50]
Mangia cake / cake (Canada)
A derogatory term used by Italians to disdainfully describe those of Anglo-Saxon descent (from Italian, literally 'cake eater'). One suggestion is that this term originated from the perception of Italian immigrants that Canadian bread is sweet as cake in comparison to the rustic bread eaten by Italians.[51]
Ofay 
(US) a white person, unknown etymology.[9][52]
Peckerwood 
(U.S.) a white person (southerner). The term "Peckerwood," an inversion of "Woodpecker," is used as a pejorative term. This word was coined in the 19th century by Southern blacks to describe poor whites. They considered them loud and troublesome like the bird, and often with red hair like the woodpecker's head plumes.[53]
Roundeye 
(English speaking Asians) a white or non-Asian person.[54]
Wigger, Wegro 
is a slang term for a white person who allophilically emulates mannerisms, slangs and fashions stereotypically associated with urban African Americans; especially in relation to hip hop culture.
Zog Lover 
used by white nationalists to describe an Aryan who is subservient to the Jews ("Zog"=Zionist Occupation Government).[55]

Native American

Timber Nigger 
a Native American person, term used by whites in the U.S.[56]
Redskin 
a Native American person, used because whites described tanned Native's skin to be "red".
Indian 
only considered offensive by few, termed by Columbus due to the fact he thought he arrived in India, and met their natives.
Prairie Nigger 
used to describe Native Americans in the Great Plains.[57]
Injun 
a corrupted version of the word "Indian".
Brownie 
Someone of Hispanic, Indian, and Arab, rarely used as someone of Native American or Pacific Island descent.[40]

Individual ethnicities

Americans

Merkin
From a presumed resemblance between the sound of the pubic wig and "American", in common use[citation needed] by the British.
Yankee and Yank
First applied by the Dutch colonists of New Amsterdam to Connecticuters and other residents of New England, possibly from Dutch Janke ("Johnny") or from Jan Kees ("John Cheese").[58] Uncontracted, "Yankee" remains in use in the American South in reference to Northerners; contracted, "Yank" is employed internationally by speakers of British English in informal reference to all Americans (first recorded 1778[58]).
Seppo and Septic
From Cockney rhyming slang, using the unrhymed word of "septic tank" in reference to "Yank" above.
Timber nigger
a Native American[citation needed]

British

Germans

Irish

Mick
Derogatory term for an Irishman in the U.S. and U.K. It is derived from Mickey and Mikey, nicknames for Mícheál, a common Irish name for males after St. Michael.
Paddy
Derogatory term for an Irish man, derived from a nickname for Pádraig, a common Irish name for males after St. Patrick.
Pogue
Epithet derived from the Irish phrase, "Pog mo Thoin", meaning kiss my arse. It is generally not considered offensive.
Taig
Extremely offensive term, deriving from the Irish Gaelic forename Tadhg, often used to describe Catholics in Northern Ireland. It often has implications of Republican sympathy.
Snout
Offensive term used in Northern Ireland to describe Protestants of British descent living in Northern Ireland.
Hun
Offensive term used in Northern Ireland to describe Protestants of British descent living in Northern Ireland.

Italians

Dago
(U.S.) A person of Italian descent.
Ginzo
(U.S.) an Italian-American.[59]
Goombah
An Italian male, especially an Italian thug or mafioso.
Greaseball
(U.S.) A person of Italian descent.[60]
Guido
(US) An Italian-American male. Usually offensive. Derives from the Italian given name, Guido. Used mostly in the Northeastern United States as a stereotype for working-class urban Italian-Americans.[61]
Guinea
(U.S.) someone of Italian descent. (Derives from "Guinea Negro," was called because of some Italians who had dark complexions)[62]
Wog
(Aus) Australian slur for the first wave of European immigrants and their descendants that contrasted with the dominant Anglo-Saxon colonial stock. Used mostly for Mediterraneans and Central Europeans, such as the Spanish, Italians, Greeks, Macedonians, Croatians and Serbians. Does not extend towards the later immigrants of Middle Eastern or Arab descent, such as Lebanese, Persians, Iraqis etc.
Wop
(U.S.) A racial term for anyone of Italian descent, derived from the Italian dialectism, "guappo," close to "dude, swaggerer" and other informal appellations, a greeting among male Neapolitans.[63][64] With Out Passport/Papers or Working On Pavement are popular alternative etymologies for the slur, supposedly derived from Italians that arrived to North America as immigrants without papers and worked in construction and blue collar work. These acronyms are dismissed as folk etymology or backronyms by etymologists.

Jews

  • "Abbie", "Abe", and "Abie": (North America) a Jewish male. From the proper name Abraham. Originated before the 1950s.[65]
  • "Heeb", "Hebe": (U.S.) offensive term for a Jew, derived from the word "Hebrew".[66][67]
  • "Hymie": A Jew, from the Hebrew Chaim ("life"). Also used in the term "Hymie-town," a reference to New York, and in particular, Brooklyn.[68]
  • "Ikey", "ike", "iky": a Jew [from Isaac][69]
  • "Ikey-mo", "ikeymo": a Jew [from Isaac and Moses][70]
  • "Kike": Yiddish word for "circle"—Illiterate Jews who entered the United States at Ellis Island signed their names with a circle instead of a cross because they associated the cross with Christianity.
  • "Mocky", "moky", "moxy", "mockey", "mockie", "mocky": (U.S.) a Jew [first used in the 1930s][71]
  • "Mock", "moch": (U.S.) a Jew [first used in the 1960s as an abbreviated form of mocky (q.v.)][72]
  • "Sheeny":[73] From Yiddish "shaine" or German "schön" meaning "beautiful."[citation needed]
  • Shylock: Comes from Shakespeare's play "Merchant of Venice".
  • "Yid": Yiddish word for Jew.[74]

Macedonians

Russians

Russki, Russkie 
Sometimes disparaging when used by foreigners for "Russian",[86] although in the Russian language, it is a neutral term which simply means an ethnic Russian as opposed to a citizen of the Russian Federation.

See also

Literature

  • Geoffrey Hughes, An Encyclopedia of Swearing: The Social History of Oaths, Profanity, Foul Language, And Ethnic Slurs in the English-speaking World, (M.E. Sharpe: 2006)
  • The New Oxford American Dictionary, second edition. Ed. Erin McKean. (Oxford University Press: 2005).
  • The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. (Oxford University Press: 2004)
  • Bruce Moore (editor), The Australian Oxford Dictionary, (2004)
  • Eric Partridge, A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English, (2002)
  • Richard A. Spears, Slang and Euphemism, (2001)
  • Jonathon Green, The Cassell Dictionary of Slang (1998)
  • Grand dictionnaire (Larousse: 1993)
  • John A. Simpson, Oxford Dictionary Of Modern Slang ISBN 0-19-861052-1
  • John A. Simpson, Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series ISBN 0-19-861299-0

References

  1. ^ Douglas Livingstone Drums Along Balmoral Drive(1986)
  2. ^ a b Hugh Rawson, Wicked Words, (1989) p. 19.
  3. ^ Spears, loc. cit. p. 10.; also, Zoo Ape or Jungle Ape
  4. ^ Green, loc. cit. p. 36.
  5. ^ Spears, op. cit. p. 118.
  6. ^ "Operation Blue Gum" for Barack Obama Gets the Chainsaw—"The Australian" Hedley Thomas--20 March 2010:
  7. ^ No Way Out (film) 1950 Sidney Poitier and Richard Widmark
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Spears, loc. cit. p. 118
  9. ^ a b "Saturday Night Live transcript, Season 1, Episode 7"
  10. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary: Coon
  11. ^ "crow." Webster's [Accessed 12 March 2006].
  12. ^ The Jerk 1979
  13. ^ Zulu 1964
  14. ^ "'Controversial' golly to be shelved" BBC News 23 August 2001
  15. ^ Simpson, "jigaboo," op. cit.
  16. ^ Jim Crow Laws: Arkansas
  17. ^ "Jim Fish." Ibid. [Accessed 12 March 2006].
  18. ^ Allen Quip Provokes Outrage, Apology
  19. ^ a b Goings, Kenneth (1994) Mammy and Uncle Mose: Black Collectibles and American Stereotyping, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-32592-7
  20. ^ Simpson. "munt." loc. cit.
  21. ^ "nig-nog" Webster's
  22. ^ Simpson. "nigra," loc. cit.
  23. ^ Who Are The Bush People? by Sean Gonsalves
  24. ^ Boskin, Joseph (1986) Sambo, New York: Oxford University Press
  25. ^ Simpson, "sooty." loc. cit.
  26. ^ American Heritage Dictionary
  27. ^ Simpson, "tar," op. cit.
  28. ^ Green, loc. cit. p. 1185.
  29. ^ "A Celestial on a Bronco"
  30. ^ "The Language of War," on the American Experience/Vietnam Online website. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
  31. ^ Peak of Controversy in Canmore "a resident of Calgary, wrote to the Minister of Community Development strongly objecting to the name Chinaman's Peak"
  32. ^ "From trouble to patronage job, and now to bigger trouble" January 27, 2004 Chicago Sun-Times. Accessed March 7, 2007. "Before the age of political correctness, Munoz would have been called Torres' chinaman, and in City Hall, that's still what they'd call him, but if you prefer, you can stick with mentor or patron."
  33. ^ Simpson, "Chinky"
  34. ^ a b Dictionary.com gook.
  35. ^ Seligman, Herbert J., "The Conquest of Haiti", The Nation, July 10, 1920.
  36. ^ "oriental: Dictionary definition and pronunciation". American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-09-27. 
  37. ^ "Definition of oriental". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 2012-09-27. 
  38. ^ "Oriental - Definition". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2012-09-27. 
  39. ^ "Definition of Nip in English". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  40. ^ a b c Green, Jonathon (2005). Cassell's Dictionary of Slang. Weidenfeld & Nicholson. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-304-36636-1. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  41. ^ Hotten, John Camden (1870). The Slang Dictionary; Or, The Vulgar Words, Street Phrases, and "fast" Expressions of High and Low Society: Many with Their Etymology and a Few with Their History Traced. London: J.C. Hotten. p. 98. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  42. ^ Fuller, Alexandra (26 April 2005). Scribbling the Cat: Travels with an African Soldier. Penguin Group US. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-101-11880-1. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  43. ^ Speers, loc. cit. p.4.
  44. ^ Don't call me bule! How expatriates experience a word
  45. ^ Taubman, Howard (24 April 1964). "Theater: 'Blues for Mister Charlie'". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 March 2014. 
  46. ^ Hugh Chisholm, ed. (1910). The Encyclopaedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information. The Encyclopaedia britannica company. p. 359. 
  47. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary: Gringo
  48. ^ "gubba," Moore, op. cit. [Accessed 7 May 2006.]
  49. ^ Gweilo
  50. ^ haole – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  51. ^ "Anyone for a Kubasa on a Calabrese?"
  52. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  53. ^ A Visual Database of Extremist Symbols, Logos and Tattoos
  54. ^ Spears, p. 295.
  55. ^ "Welcome to Zog-World" by Eric Thomson:
  56. ^ Kennedy, Randall L. (Winter 1999–2000). "Who Can Say "Nigger"? And Other Considerations". The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education (26): 86–96 [87]. doi:10.2307/2999172. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  57. ^ Partridge, Eric (2006). The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English: J-Z. New York: Taylor & Francis. p. 1538. ISBN 978-0-415-25938-5. Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  58. ^ a b Harper, Douglas. Online Etymology Dictionary: "Yankee". 2013. Accessed 13 Jul 2013.
  59. ^ "ginzo" The New Oxford American Dictionary, second edition. Ed. Erin McKean. (Oxford University Press: 2005.) [Accessed 6 May 2006]
  60. ^ greaseball – Definitions from Dictionary.com
  61. ^ "Strutting Season". The Washington Post. 2003-07-06. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  62. ^ "Guinea," op. cit. [Accessed 21 March 2006].
  63. ^ wop. Dictionary.com. Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper, Historian. "Wop". Retrieved 1 November 2007. 
  64. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary: Wop
  65. ^ Spears, loc. cit. p. 1.
  66. ^ Madresh, Marjorie (2004-05-28). "Founder of 'Hip to be Heeb' magazine speaks to students". The Triangle Online. Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  67. ^ "Merriam-Webster Online definition of hebe". Retrieved 2007-02-14. 
  68. ^ Hymie, Eric Wolarsky, Rhetoric of Race Dictionary Project, College of New Jersey. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
  69. ^ John A. Simpson, Oxford Dictionary Of Modern Slang ISBN 0-19-861052-1. "ikey", loc. cit.
  70. ^ Loc cit. "ikeymo"
  71. ^ Ibid. "mocky".
  72. ^ Simpson. "mock", loc. cit.
  73. ^ Rockaway, Robert A. (2000), But He Was Good to His Mother: The Lives and Crimes of Jewish Gangsters, Gefen Publishing House Ltd., p. 95, ISBN 965-229-249-4 
  74. ^ Online Etymological Dictionary: Yid
  75. ^ Ο ΟΑΣΕ αναγνώρισε "μακεδονική" μειονότητα στην Ελλάδα
  76. ^ a b (Greek) "Ο Γιώργος Καρατζαφέρης έβαλε "στην θέση της" την Υπουργό Εξωτερικών των Σκοπίων" (in Greek). Ελληνικές Γραμμες ("Hellenic Lines"). Retrieved July 18, 2006. 
  77. ^ Rychlík, Jan (2007). "The Consciousness of the Slavonic Orthodox Population in Pirin Macedonia and the Identity of the Population of Moravia and Moravian Slovakia". Sprawy Narodowościowe (31): 183–197. Retrieved July 11, 2009. 
  78. ^ (Greek) "Η επιστροφή των "Σλαβομακεδόνων" (the return of the "Slavomacedonians")". antibaro.gr. Retrieved September 10, 2006. 
  79. ^ Laura Payton. MP Karygiannis Accused of Berating Civil Servants. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  80. ^ Canadian Member of Parliament Refers to Macedonians as 'Skopjans'. Action Alert. 21 September 2007.
  81. ^ Macedonians Demand Resignation of Liberal MP Jim Karygiannis. Macedonian Human Rights Movement International. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  82. ^ Report Sent to International Organizations, April 8, 2008, http://macedoniansaregreeksen.blogspot.gr/2008/04/report-sent-to-international.html
  83. ^ Ant1 News, Ώρα μηδέν για το Σκοπιανό (Time Zero for the Skopjan issue), Retrieved on 2008-03-02.
  84. ^ eriot, P. (1997) "Faut-il que les langues aient un nom? Le cas du macédonien", in Andrée Tabouret-Keller (éd.) : Le nom des langues. L'enjeu de la nomination des langues, vol. 1, (Louvain : Peeters), pp. 167–190.
  85. ^ Androitis, N. P. (1966) The Federative Republic of Skopje and its Language. (Athens)
  86. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2006, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.