List of even-toed ungulates by population

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This is a list of even-toed ungulate species by global population. While numbers are estimates, they have been made by the experts in their fields. For more information on how these estimates were ascertained, see Wikipedia's articles on population biology and population ecology.

This list is not comprehensive, as not all ungulates have had their numbers quantified.

Common name Binomial name Population Status Trend Notes Image
Saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis < 750[1] CR[1] Decrease[1] No individuals in captivity. Probably below the minimum viable population. The IUCN presumes extinction in the near future.[1] Pseudoryx nghetinhensis.PNG
Pygmy hog Porcula salvania 250[2] CR[2] Decrease[2] Maximum estimate for mature individuals.[2] PorculaSalvaniaAdultWolf.jpg
Rhim gazelle Gazella leptoceros 250[3] EN[3] Decrease[3] Estimate is for mature individuals only.[3] Slender-horned gazelle (Cincinnati Zoo).jpg
Bawean deer Axis kuhlii 250 – 300[4] CR[4] Steady[4] Estimates are for the wild population only; may reach as high as 500.[4] Bawean deer close.jpg
Addax Addax nasomaculatus 300[5] CR[5] Decrease[5] Maximum estimate for the wild.[5] Addax at the Louisville Zoo.jpg
Tamaraw Bubalus mindorensis 300[6] CR[6] Decrease[6] Bubalus mindorensis by Gregg Yan 01.jpg
Togian babirusa Babyrousa togeanensis 500[7] EN[7] Decrease[7] Maximum estimate.[7]
Walia ibex Capra walie 500[8] EN[8] Increase[8] Walia ibex.jpg
Dama gazelle Nanger dama 500[9] CR[9] Decrease[9] Maximum estimate.[9] Mhorr Gazelle Close Up.jpg
Hirola Beatragus hunteri 500 – 2000[10] CR[10] Decrease[10] May be much lower.[10] Hunter's Hartebeest CAS 1.JPG
Anhui musk deer Moschus anhuiensis 700 – 800[11] EN[11] Decrease[11] Most recent estimate was in 1998.[11]
Przewalski's gazelle Procapra przewalskii 700 – 800[12] EN[12] Decrease[12] Could be underestimated.[12] The book of antelopes (1894) Gazella przewalskii.png
Persian fallow deer Dama mesopotamica 715[13] EN[13] Increase[13] Previously thought to be extinct.[13] Persian Fallow Deer 1.jpg
Wild Bactrian camel Camelus ferus 950[14] CR[14] Decrease[14] Wild population only.[14] Chameau de bactriane.JPG
South Andean deer Hippocamelus bisulcus 1048 – 1500[15] EN[15] Decrease[15] Huemul verdadero.JPG
Calamian deer Axis calamianensis 1123[16] EN[16] Decrease[16] 1994 estimate; has almost certainly decreased.[16] Axis calamianensis.jpg
Abbott's duiker Cephalophus spadix 1500[17] EN[17] Decrease[17] Maximum estimate.[17]
Cuvier's gazelle Gazella cuvieri 1750 – 2950[18] EN[18] unknown[18] Cuvier's gazelle - Cuviergazelle - Gazelle de Cuvier - Gazella cuvieri - 02.jpg
Nilgiri tahr Nilgiritragus hylocrius 1800 – 2000[19] EN[19] Decrease[19] Nilgiri Tahr.jpg
Pygmy hippopotamus Choeropsis liberiensis 2000 – 3000[20] EN[20] Decrease[20] Estimate is from 1993; numbers have probably shrunk.[20] Pygmy hippopotamus pair.jpg
Mountain anoa Bubalus quarlesi 2500[21] EN[21] Decrease[21] Maximum estimate.[21] Buablus quarlesi2.jpg
Visayan spotted deer Rusa alfredi 2500[22] EN[22] Decrease[22] Maximum estimate.[22] Rusa alfredi Wien.jpg
Markhor Capra falconeri 2500[23] EN[23] Decrease[23] Maximum estimate.[23] Turkomen Markhor4.jpg
Mountain Nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni 2500 – 4000[24] EN[24] Decrease[24] 2500 is a maximum estimate from 1999, but recent work has shown numbers may be as high as 4000.[24] Tragelaphus buxtoni.jpg
European bison Bison bonasus 3200[25] VU[25] Increase[25] Includes 1400 domestic animals and 1800 wild. Domestic numbers are likely underestimated.[25] Wisent.jpg
Chacoan peccary Catagonus wagneri 3200[26] EN[26] Decrease[26] Estimate was made in 2002; wide-scale deforestation of their habitat began in 2003.[26] Catagonus wagneri 1 - Phoenix Zoo.jpg
Wild water buffalo Bubalus arnee 3 400[27] EN Decrease Flickr - Rainbirder - Bull Water Buffalo.jpg
Jentink's duiker Cephalophus jentinki 3500[28] EN[28] Decrease[28] Maximum estimate; may be less than 2000.[28] The book of antelopes (1894) Cephalophus jentinki.png
Barasingha Rucervus duvaucelii 3500 – 5100[29] VU[29] Decrease[29] The barasingha.jpg
Nile lechwe Kobus megaceros 4291[30] EN[30] Decrease[30] Kobus megaceros-male.jpg
Small red brocket Mazama bororo 4500[31] VU[31] Decrease[31] Maximum estimate.[31]
Arabian tahr Arabitragus jayakari 5000[32] EN[32] Decrease[32] Maximum estimate.[32] Stuffed Arabian Tahr.jpg
West Caucasian tur Capra caucasica 5000 – 6000[33] EN[33] Decrease[33] Kozorožec kavkazský.jpg
Barbary sheep Ammotragus lervia 5000 – 10 000[34] LC[34] Steady[34] Ammotragus lervia right zoo.JPG
Beira Dorcatragus megalotis 7000[35] VU[35] Decrease[35]
Arabian Oryx Oryx leucoryx 7000 – 8000[36] VU[36] Steady[36] 6000 – 7000 in captivity and ~1000 in the wild.[36] Tempul 009.jpg
Hairy-fronted muntjac Muntiacus crinifrons 7000 – 8500[37] VU[37] Decrease[37] Most recent estimate was in 1998.[37] 2011 Muntjak-4.jpg
Banteng Bos javanicus 8000[38] EN[38] Decrease[38] Maximum estimate; may be fewer than 5000. Numbers do not include the non-purebred domestic variety.[38] Bos javanicus javanicus.jpg
Nubian ibex Capra nubiana 10 000[39] VU[39] Decrease[39] Maximum estimate.[39] Nubian Ibex in Negev.JPG
Southern pudú Pudu puda 10 000[40] VU[40] Decrease[40] Maximum estimate.[40] Pudu pudu AB.jpg
Red goral Naemorhedus baileyi 10 000[41] VU[41] Decrease[41] Maximum estimate for mature individuals.[41] Naemorhedus baileyi - Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology - DSC02442.JPG
Four-horned antelope Tetracerus quadricornis 10 000[42] LC[42] Decrease[42] Vierhornantilope.jpg
Javan rusa Rusa timorensis 10 000[43] VU[43] Decrease[43] Maximum estimate for mature individuals.[22] Rusa Deer (C. Timorensis).jpg
Taruca Hippocamelus antisensis 12 000 – 17 000[44] VU[44] Decrease[44] Huemul.jpg
Gaur Bos gaurus 13 000 – 30 000[45] VU[45] Decrease[45] Bandipur 2.jpg
Soemmerring's gazelle Nanger soemmerringii 14 000[46] VU[46] Decrease[46] Soemmerring's Gazelle, St. Louis Zoo.jpg
Mountain gazelle Gazella gazella 15 000[47] VU[47] Decrease[47] Maximum estimate.[47] PikiWiki Israel 14396 Deer resting.JPG
Wild yak Bos mutus 15 000[48] VU[48] Decrease[48] Estimate is from 1995.[48] Bos grunniens at Letdar on Annapurna Circuit.jpg
Giant eland Tragelaphus derbianus 15 000 – 20 000[49] LC[49] Decrease[49] Taurotragus derbianus gigas.jpg
Black wildebeest Connochaetes gnou 18 000[50] LC[50] Increase[50] Minimum estimate (11 000 wild and 7000 domesticated).[50] Black Wildebeest.jpg
Grey rhebok Pelea capreolus 18 000[51] LC[51] Steady[51] Vaal Rhebok.jpg
Harvey's duiker Cephalophus harveyi 20 000[52] LC[52] Decrease[52] Numbers may be overestimated.[52] The book of antelopes (1894) Cephalophus harveyi.png
Pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus 20 000 – 80 000[53] NT[53] Decrease[53] Venado de las pampas.jpg
Red-fronted gazelle Eudorcas rufifrons 25 000[54] VU[54] Decrease[54] Gazella rufifrons AB.jpg
Zebra duiker Cephalophus zebra 28 000[55] VU[55] Decrease[55] Could be overestimated; may be less than 15 000.[55] Cephalophus zebra.jpg
Bongo Tragelaphus eurycerus 28 000[56] NT[56] Decrease[56] Two subspecies: Mountain (75 – 140) and Lowland (28 000).[56] Tragelaphus eurycerus isaaciPCCA20071227-8374B.jpg
Alpine ibex Capra ibex 30 000[57] LC[57] Increase[57] Was as low as 100 individuals in the 1800s.[57] Bouquetin adulte couché.jpg
Silver Dik-dik Madoqua piacentinii 30 000[58] DD[58] Decrease[58] Possibly overestimated.[58]
Nyala Tragelaphus angasii 32 000[59] LC[59] Steady[59] Tragelaphus angasii nbii safari h00351.jpg
Ogilby's duiker Cephalophus ogilbyi 35 000[60] LC[60] Decrease[60] The book of antelopes (1894) Cephalophus ogilbyi.png
Okapi Okapia johnstoni 35 000 – 50 000[61] NT[61] Steady[61] Okapi at Cincinnati Zoo.jpg
Mountain reedbuck Redunca fulvorufula 36 000[62] LC[62] Steady[62] Minimum estimate, divided into three subspecies: Southern (33 000), Chanler's (2900), and Western (450).[62] Bergriedbock 2007-08-16 201.jpg
Red forest duiker Cephalophus natalensis 42 000[63] LC[63] Decrease[63] Numbers may be underestimated.[63] Natal-Rotducker Zoo Landau.JPG
Klipspringer Oreotragus oreotragus 42 000[64] LC[64] Steady[64] Estimate is considered conservative.[64] Klipspringer 5.jpg
Blackbuck Antilope cervicapra 50 000[65] NT[65] Steady[65] Numbers have increased from 20 – 24 000 in the 1970s.[65] Black Buck.jpg
Spanish ibex Capra pyrenaica 50 000[66] LC[66] Increase[66] Numbered only ~7900 in the early 1990s.[66] Capra pyrenaica.jpg
Saiga Antelope Saiga tatarica 50 000[67] CR[67] Decrease[67] Numbers stood at 1 250 000 in the mid-1970s.[67] Mongolia Saiga tatarica.jpg
Royal antelope Neotragus pygmaeus 62 000[68] LC[68] Decrease[68] Possibly underestimated.[68] Royal antelope.jpg
East African oryx Oryx beisa 67 000[69] NT[69] Decrease[69] Divided into two subspecies: Beisa (50 000) and Fringe-eared (17 000).[69] Oryx beisa 1.jpg
Southern reedbuck Redunca arundinum 73 000[70] LC[70] Steady[70] Rietbok.jpg
Sable antelope Hippotragus niger 75 000[71] LC[71] Steady[71] Sable bull.jpg
Roan antelope Hippotragus equinus 76 000[72] LC[72] Decrease[72] Roan Antelope, Kafue National Park, Zambia, Nov 2011.jpg
Giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis 80 000[73] LC[73] Decrease[73] Maximum estimate.[73] Giraffe koure niger 2006.jpg
Mountain goat Oreamnos americanus 80 000 – 119 000[74] LC[74] Steady[74] Mountain Goat USFWS.jpg
Gerenuk Litocranius walleri 95 000[75] NT[75] Decrease[75] Male and female Gerenuk.jpg
Sharpe's Grysbok Raphicerus sharpei 95 000[76] LC[76] Steady[76] Difficult to study due to the animal's nocturnal nature; numbers may be underestimated.[76] Sharpe's Grysbok.jpg
Japanese serow Capricornis crispus 100 000[77] LC[77] Increase[77] Lightmatter japanese serows.jpg
Black duiker Cephalophus niger 100 000[78] LC[78] Decrease[78] Black Duiker.jpg
Bohor reedbuck Redunca redunca 101 000[79] LC[79] Decrease[79] Probably underestimated.[79] Bohor Reedbuck, male, Serengeti.jpg
Dall sheep Ovis dalli 111 500 – 116 500[80] LC[80] Steady[80] 2005 04 27 1582 Dall Sheep.jpg
Lesser kudu Tragelaphus imberbis 118 000[81] NT[81] Decrease[81] Minimum estimate.[81] Lesser Kudu Female.jpg
Goitered gazelle Gazella subgutturosa 120 000 – 140 000[82] VU[82] Decrease[82] Sir Bani Yas -Sandgasell.JPG
Hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius 125 000 – 148 000[83] VU[83] Decrease[83] Hippopotamus - 04.jpg
Puku Kobus vardonii 130 000[84] NT[84] Decrease[84] Kobus vardonii (male).jpg
Common eland Tragelaphus oryx 136 000[85] LC[85] Steady[85] Common eland mara.jpg
Yellow-backed duiker Cephalophus silvicultor 160 000[86] LC[86] Decrease[86] Cephalophus sylvicultor sylvicultor2.jpg
Red-flanked duiker Cephalophus rufilatus 170 000[87] LC[87] Decrease[87] Redflankedduiker.jpg
Sitatunga Tragelaphus spekii 170 000[88] LC[88] Decrease[88] Yet-to-be-published research suggests the population has been overestimated.[88] Tragelaphus spekei Weibchen.jpg
Weyns's duiker Cephalophus weynsi 188 000[89] LC[89] Decrease[89]
Waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus 200 000[90] LC[90] Decrease[90] About 95 000 of the Defassa subspecies and 105 000 of the Common.[90] Water buck at an english wildlifepark arp.jpg
Lechwe Kobus leche 212 000[91] LC[91] Steady[91] Combined numbers of three subspecies: Red (98 000), Kafue (78 000), and Black (36 000).[91] Lechwe antelopes Berlin.jpg
Bates's pygmy antelope Neotragus batesi 219 000[92] LC[92] Steady[92] Neotragus batesi Goodchild.jpg
Water chevrotain Hyemoschus aquaticus 278 000[93] LC[93] Decrease[93] Em - Hyemoschus aquaticus.jpg
White-bellied duiker Cephalophus leucogaster 287 000[94] LC[94] Decrease[94]
Black-fronted duiker Cephalophus nigrifrons 300 000[95] LC[95] Decrease[95] Cephalophe a front noir.jpg
Vicuña Vicugna vicugna 347 273[96] LC[96] Increase[96] Vikunja-IMG 7052.JPG
Grant's gazelle Nanger granti 350 000[97] LC[97] Decrease[97] Ngorongoro Grant-Gazelle.jpg
Hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus 362 000[98] LC[98] Decrease[98] Kongoni.jpg
Suni Nesotragus moschatus 365 000[99] LC[99] Steady[99] Suni 1.jpg
Gemsbok Oryx gazella 373 000[100] LC[100] Steady[100] Spiessbock-Etosha-01.jpg
Peters's duiker Cephalophus callipygus 382 000[101] LC[101] Decrease[101] Peters Duiker (Cephalophus callipygus) from behind, Campo Maan National Park.jpg
Mongolian gazelle Procapra gutturosa 400 000[102] LC[102] Unknown[102] Estimate has dropped from 2 700 000 since 1998.[102] Procapra gutturosa - Bertuch.jpg
Greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros 482 000[103] LC[103] Steady[103] Greater kudu face.jpg
Salt's dik-dik Madoqua saltiana 485 600[104] LC[104] Steady[104] Рыжебрюхий дикдик 1.jpg
Günther's dik-dik Madoqua guentheri 511 000[105] LC[105] Steady[105] Guenther's Dik-Dik.jpg
American bison Bison bison 530 000[106] NT[106] Steady[106] Includes 500 000 domestic animals and 30 000 wild (19 000 plains bison and 11 000 wood bison).[106] American bison k5680-1.jpg
Guanaco Lama guanicoe 535 750 – 589 750[107] LC[107] Steady[107] Guanako TDP.jpg
Thomson's gazelle Eudorcas thomsonii 550 000[108] NT[108] Decrease[108] Serengeti Thomson-Gazelle1.jpg
Steenbok Raphicerus campestris 600 000[109] LC[40] Steady[109] Considered an underestimate.[109] 2012-Steenbok-female.jpg
Pronghorn Antilocapra americana 700 000[110] LC[110] Steady[110] Numbered over 35 million in the early 1800s and as little as 20 000 in the early 1920s.[110] Pronghorn-855.jpg
Bay duiker Cephalophus dorsalis 725 000[111] LC[111] Decrease[111] Cephalophus dorsalis.JPG
Oribi Ourebia ourebi 750 000[112] LC[112] Decrease[112] Ourebia ourebi cropped.jpg
African buffalo Syncerus caffer 890 000[113] LC[113] Decrease[113] Considered conservative. Divided into four subspecies: West African Savanna (27 000), Central African Savanna (133 000), Southern Savanna (670 000), & Forest (60 000).[113] Serengeti Bueffel1.jpg
Kirk's dik-dik Madoqua kirkii 971 000[114] LC[114] Steady[114] Damara-dik-dik.jpg
Siberian roe deer Capreolus pygargus 1 000 000[115] LC[115] Decrease[115] About 500 000 were hunted annually in Russia in the 1800s.[115] Paozikun530.jpg
Bushbuck Tragelaphus scriptus 1 340 000[116] LC[116] Steady[116] Estimate is considered conservative.[116] Bushbuck1.jpg
Eurasian elk Alces alces 1 500 000[117] LC[117] Increase[117] Elgportraet han (Alces alces).jpg
Blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus 1 550 000[118] LC[118] Steady[118] Blue Wildebeest, Ngorongoro.jpg
Common duiker Sylvicapra grimmia 1 660 000[119] LC[119] Steady[119] Considered extremely conservative; yet-to-be-published research shows it may number as high as 10 000 000.[119] Common duiker kenya.jpg
Impala Aepyceros melampus 2 000 000[120] LC[120] Steady[120] Impala mutualim with birds wide.jpg
Springbok Antidorcas marsupialis 2 000 000 – 2 500 000[121] LC[121] Increase[121] Saut de gazelle Springbok.jpg
Maxwell's duiker Philantomba maxwellii 2 137 000[122] LC[122] Decrease[122] Quite possibly underestimated.[122] Stavenn Cephalophus maxwellii.jpg
Blue duiker Philantomba monticola 7 000 000[123] LC[123] Steady[123] Estimate is considered conservative.[123] Blauducker.jpg
Domestic goat Capra aegagrus hircus 850 000 000[124] Domesticated Domestic goat kid in capeweed.jpg
Cattle Bos primigenius 1 000 000 000[125] Domesticated Braunvieh.jpg
Domestic pig Sus scrofa domesticus 1 000 000 000[126] Domesticated Sow with piglet.jpg
Domestic sheep Ovis aries 1 000 000 000[126] Domesticated Ovis orientalis aries 'Skudde' (aka).jpg
Water buffalo Bubalus bubalis 172 000 000
incl. 3.2 Million Carabao in the Philippines[127]
Domestic Murrah buffalo.JPG

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d Narayan, G., Deka, P. & Oliver, W. (2008). "Porcula salvania". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
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  7. ^ a b c d Macdonald, A.A., Burton, J. & Leus, K. (2008). "Babyrousa togeanensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
  8. ^ a b c Geberemedhin, B. & Grubb, P. (2008). "Capra walie". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-11. 
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  12. ^ a b c d IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Procapra przewalskii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2012-11-12. 
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  27. ^ Choudhury, A. (2010). The vanishing herds : the wild water buffalo. Gibbon Books, Rhino Foundation, CEPF & COA, Taiwan, Guwahati, India.
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