# List of examples of lengths

Planets of the Solar System to scale

This is a list of examples of lengths, in meters in order to give an understanding of lengths.

## 1 ym to 1 zm

• 1 × 10−24 metres = 1 ym = 1 yoctometre, the smallest named subdivision of the metre in the SI base unit of length.
• 1 × 10−23 metres = 10 ym
• 1 × 10−22 metres = 100 ym

## 1 zm to 1 am

• 7 × 10−21 metres = radius of effective cross section for a 250 GeV neutrino scattering off a nucleon[2]
• 1 × 10−20 metres = 10 zm
• 1 × 10−19 metres = 100 zm

## 1 am to 1 fm

• 1 × 10−17 metres = 10 am
• 1 × 10−16 metres = 100 am
• 0.85 fm — approximate proton radius[3]

## 1 fm to 1 pm

• 1 × 10−14 metres = 10 fm
• 1 × 10−13 metres = 100 fm

## 1 picometre

Lengths between 10−12 m and 10−11 m (1 pm and 10 pm). (see Picometre)

## 10 picometres

Lengths between 10−11 m and 10−10 m (10 pm and 100 pm).

## 100 picometres

lengths between 10−10 m and 10−9 m (100 pm and 1 nm).

## 10 nanometres

Comparison of sizes of semiconductor manufacturing process nodes with some microscopic objects and visible light wavelengths. At this scale, the width of a human hair is about 10 times that of the image.[12]

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10−8 and 10−7 metres (10 nanometres and 100 nanometres).

• 10 nm = 10 nanometres = 10−8 metres
• 10 nm — lower size of tobacco smoke[13]
• 10 nm Shortest Extreme Ultraviolet wavelength or longest X-ray wavelength[14]
• 11 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell speculated to be manufactured in 2015.
• 16 nm — technology is projected to be reached by semiconductor companies in the 2013 timeframe
• 18 nm — diameter of tobacco mosaic virus[15] (Generally, viruses range in size from 20 nm to 450 nm.)[citation needed]
• 20 nm — width of bacterial flagellum[16]
• 20 nm to 80 nm — thickness of cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria[17]
• 22 nm — Smallest feature size of production microprocessors in September 2009[18]
• 22 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell expected to be manufactured at around the 2011–2011 time frame.
• 30 nm — lower size of cooking oil smoke[13]
• 32 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2009–2010 time frame.
• 45 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2007–2008 time frame.
• 50 nm — upper size for airborne virus particles[13]
• 50 nm — flying height of the head of a hard disk[19]
• 65 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2005–2006 time frame.
• 90 nm — the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2002–2003 time frame.
• 100 nm — larger than 90% of the particles of wood smoke[citation needed] (ranges from 7 to 3000 nanometres)[13]

## 100 nanometres

Lengths between 10−7 and 10−6 m (100 nm and 1 µm).

## 1 micrometre

Click on the thumbnail image to jump to the desired Human-scale order of length magnitude article: top-left is 1E-6 m, lower-right is 1E5 m.

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists some items with lengths between 10−6 and 10−5 m (between 1 and 10 micrometres, or µm).

## 10 Micrometeres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 10−5 m and 10−4 m (10 µm and 100 µm).

## 100 micrometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 10−4 m and 10−3 m (100 µm and 1 mm).

• 100 µm – 1/10 of a millimetre
• 100 µm – 0.00394 inches
• 100 µm – average diameter of a strand of human hair[27]
• 100 µm – thickness of a coat of paint
• 100 µm – length of a dust particle
• 120 µm – diameter of a human ovum
• 170 µm – length of the largest sperm cell in nature[29][30]
• 181 µm – maximum width of a strand of human hair[27]
• 100–400 µm – length of Demodex mites living in human hair follicles
• 200 µm – typical length of Paramecium caudatum, a ciliate protist
• 250–300 µm – length of a dust mite[31]
• 340 µm – length of a single pixel on a 17-inch monitor with a resolution of 1024×768
• 500 µm – typical length of Amoeba proteus, an amoeboid protist
• 500 µm – MEMS micro-engine[citation needed]
• 560 µm - thickness of the central area of a human cornea[32]
• 760 µm – thickness of a credit card

## 1 millimeter

To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10−3 m and 10−2 m (1 mm and 1 cm).

• 1.0 mm — 1/1000 of a metre
• 1.0 mm — 0.03937 inches or 5/127 (exactly)
• 1.0 mm — side of square of area 1 mm²
• 1.0 mm — diameter of a pinhead
• 1.5 mm — length of average flea
• 2.54 mm — distance between pins on old DIP (dual-inline-package) electronic components
• 5 mm — length of average red ant
• 5.56 x 45 mm NATO — standard ammunition size
• 7.62 x 51 mm NATO — common military ammunition size

## 1 centimeter

Click on the thumbnail image to jump to the desired Human-scale order of length magnitude article: top-left is 1E-6 m, lower-right is 1E5 m.

Lengths between 10−2 m and 10−1 m (1 cm and 10 cm). (see centimetre)

## 1 decimetre

Lengths between 10 centimetres and 100 centimetres (10−1 metre and 1 metre).

### Conversions

10 centimetres (abbreviated to 10 cm) is equal to

### Human-defined scales and structures

• 10.16 cm = 1.016 dm — 1 hand used in measuring height of horses (4 inches)
• 12 cm = 1.2 dm — diameter of a Compact Disc (CD) (= 120 mm)
• 15 cm = 1.5 dm — length of a Bic pen with cap on
• 22 cm = 2.2 dm — diameter of a typical soccer ball
• 30.48 cm = 3.048 dm — 1 foot
• 30 cm = 3 dm — typical school-use ruler length (= 300 mm)
• 60 cm = 6 dm — standard depth (front to back) of a domestic kitchen worktop in Europe (= 600 mm)
• 90 cm = 9 dm — average length of a rapier, a fencing sword[36]
• 91.44 cm = 9.144 dm — one yard
• Cigarettes 100 mm (4 in) in length

## 1 gigametre

Click on the thumbnail image to jump to the desired order of length magnitude: top-left is 1e6m, lower-right is 1e17m. (Image description)
Upper part: Gamma Orionis, Algol B, the Sun (centre), underneath their darker mirror images (artist's interpretation), and to scale.

Lengths starting at 109 metres (1 gigametre (Gm) or 1 million kilometres).

Distances shorter than 109 metres

## Notes

1. ^ a b c m is an abbreviation of metre; cm of centimetre; dm of decimetre; is short for square metre; is short for cubic metre

## References

1. ^ Carl R. Nave. "Cowan and Reines Neutrino Experiment". Retrieved 2008-12-04. (6.3 x 10−44 cm2, which gives an effective radius of about 2 x 10−23 m)
2. ^ a b Carl R. Nave. "Neutron Absorption Cross-sections". Retrieved 2008-12-04. (area for 20 GeV about 10 x 10−42 m2 gives effective radius of about 2 x 10−21 m; for 250 GeV about 150 x 10−42 m2 gives effective radius of about 7 x 10−21 m)
3. ^ Randolf Pohl, Aldo Antognini, François Nez, Fernando D. Amaro, François Biraben, João M. R. Cardoso, Daniel S. Covita, Andreas Dax, Satish Dhawan, Luis M. P. Fernandes, Adolf Giesen, Thomas Graf, Theodor W. Hänsch, Paul Indelicato, Lucile Julien, Cheng-Yang Kao, Paul Knowles, Eric-Olivier Le Bigot, Yi-Wei Liu, José A. M. Lopes, Livia Ludhova, Cristina M. B. Monteiro, Françoise Mulhauser, Tobias Nebel, Paul Rabinowitz, et al. (8 July 2010). "The size of the proton". Nature 466 (7303): 213–216. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..213P. doi:10.1038/nature09250. PMID 20613837. Retrieved 2010-07-09.
4. ^ a b Carl R. Nave. "Scattering Cross Section". Retrieved 2009-02-10.
5. ^ NIST. CODATA Value: classical electron radius. Retrieved 2009-02-10
6. ^ a b c Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Hydrogen / radii". Archived from the original on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
7. ^ a b Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Helium / radii". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
8. ^ http://rdmag.com/Community/Blogs/RDBlog/Twists-and-turns-keep-TEM-on-top/
9. ^ Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Sulfur / Radii". Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
10. ^ Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Periodicity / Van der Waals radius / periodicity". Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06.
11. ^ "Resolution of an Electron Microscope". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
12. ^ Graham T. Smith (2002). Industrial metrology. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-85233-507-6.
13. ^ a b c d Annis, Patty J. October 1991. Kansas State University. Fine Particle POLLUTION. Figure 1. (tobacco smoke: 10 to 1000 nm; virus particles: 3 to 50 nm; bacteria: 30 to 30000 nm; cooking oil smoke: 30 to 30000 nm; wood smoke: 7 to 3000 nm)
14. ^ Introduction to the Electromagnetic Spectrum and Spectroscopy
15. ^ Stryer, Lubert (1988). Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1843-X.
16. ^ Kojima S, Blair D (2004). "The bacterial flagellar motor: structure and function of a complex molecular machine". Int Rev Cytol. International Review of Cytology 233: 93–134. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(04)33003-2. ISBN 978-0-12-364637-8. PMID 15037363.
17. ^ Microbiology Text.com
18. ^ http://www.physorg.com/news172852816.html accessed 2009.09.21
19. ^ help with PCs web site
20. ^ Electrospray versus Nebulization for Aerosolization and Filter Testing with Bacteriophage Particles. In-Depth Article. Retrieved September 15, 2010. Aerosol Science and Technology, Volume 43, Issue 4 April 2009 , pages 298 - 304.
21. ^ Textbook Of Pharmacology by SD Seth
22. ^ Smith, D.J. (2009). "Human sperm accumulation near surfaces: a simulation study". Journal of Fluid Mechanics 621: 295. Bibcode:2009JFM...621..289S. doi:10.1017/S0022112008004953. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
23. ^ DNA From The Beginning, section 6: Genes are real things., "Amination" section, final slide
24. ^ Gordon Ramel. "Spider Silk". Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-04. "garden spider silk has a diameter of about 0.003 mm ... Dragline silk (about .00032 inch (.008 mm) in Nephila)"
25. ^ a b IST - Innovative Sintering Technologies Ltd. "Fibreshape applications". Retrieved 2008-12-04. "Histogram of cotton thickness"
26. ^ Morton Lippmann (2000). Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects. John Wiley and Sons. p. 453. ISBN 0-471-29298-2. ISBN 978-0-471-29298-2. Retrieved 2008-12-04. "20 µm .. 5 µm"
27. ^ a b c According to The Physics Factbook, the diameter of human hair ranges from 17 to 181 µm. Ley, Brian (1999). "Width of a Human Hair". The Physics Factbook.
28. ^ "Apple – iPhone 4S – See everything clearly with the Retina display". Apple Inc. Official Website. Apple Inc. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
29. ^ http://www2.oakland.edu/biology/lindemann/spermfacts.htm
30. ^ http://www.neatorama.com/2006/06/17/worlds-biggest-sperm-belongs-to-a-tiny-fly/
31. ^ House Dust Mites HYG-2157-97. Retrieved 2008-12-04
32. ^ "Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system". Br J Ophthalmol 83 (7): 774–8. July 1999. PMC 1723104. PMID 10381661.
33. ^ "USGA: Guide to the Rules on Clubs and Balls". USGA. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
34. ^ "Official Rules". MLB. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
35. ^ "Credit Card Dimensions". Retrieved 2011-09-30.
36. ^ http://www.2-clicks-swords.com/article/what-is-a-rapier.html
37. ^ Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr. and William H. Scheuner. "Pinus lambertiana". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved June 2011.
38. ^ Sun Fact Sheet
39. ^ Neuroscience: The Science of the Brain [1] p.44