List of executioners

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This is a list of people who have acted as official executioners.



Zachary Wallace Gross 1843–1856


Joseph Baroux 1842–1847
Nicolas Wolf 1847–1855
Antoine Rasseneux 1855–1871

Monsieur d'Alger[edit]

In 1870 the Republic of France abolished all local executioners and named the executioner of Alger, Antoine Rasseneux, Éxécuteur des Arrêts Criminels en Algérie, which became France's official description of the executioner of Algeria's occupation. From there on there would be one only executioner to carry out death sentences for entire Algeria. Since the colony's executioner had obligatorily to live in Alger, people soon started to refer to him as to the „Monsieur d'Alger“, „The Mister from Alger“. At the occasion of his nomination, Rasseneux could choose four among France's and Algeria's former local executioners to be his aides.

Antoine Rasseneux 1871–1885
Gustave Rasseneux 1885–1906
Pierre Lapeyre 1906–1928
Henri Roch 1928–1944
André-Léon Berger 1944–1947
Maurice-Alexandre Meyssonnier 1947–1958(de facto)/1961(official)
Fernand-Jean Meyssonnier 1958–1961


Hall in Tirol[edit]

Lienhart von Grätz 1497–1504
Stefan Ruef 1503–1525
Hans Schaider 1525–1528
Heinrich Käser 1525
Johann Frey 1528–1571
Melchior Frey 1572–1578
Christof Tollinger 1578–1584
Michael Fürst 1584–1606
Sebastian Oberstetter 1606–1608
Jakob Kienle 1608–1611
Jakob Vollmar 1611–1618
Hans Has 1618–1642
Heinrich Hödel 1642–1645
Othmar Krieger 1645–1671
Jakob Zäch 1671–1677
Andreas Leiner 1677–1693
Kaspar Pöltl 1693–1698
Sebastian Waldl 1699–1718
Marx Philipp Abrell 1718–1728
Johann Jakob Abrell 1728–1746
Josef Langmayr 1746
Bartholomeus Putzer 1747–1772
Johann Georg Putzer 1772–1786


Hans Säbele 1488–1509
Martin Vogl 1510
Gilg von Rodem 1510–1515
Heinrich Reif 1515 and 1521–1522
Lorenz von Altsee 1515–1521
Heinrich Käser 1522–1525
Jakob Gatz 1524
Hans Schwingsmesser 1525–1536
Theodor Reichl 1572–1575
Johann Peter Vollmar 1552–1561
Klaus Seckler 1562
Melchior Frey 1563–1572
Mattheus Leonhard 1575–1601
Hans Fürst 1592
Georg Fürst  ?-1621
Wolfgang Fürst 1605–1623
Wolfgang Helmschmied 1536–1552
Wolfgang Puechamer 1601–1605
Michael Pichler 1623–1631
Leonhard Oberdorfer 1632–1672
Johann Schlechuber 1672
Hans Schwarzhuber 1673–1675
Konrad Leonhard Krieger 1675–1679
Hans Jakob Müller 1679–1684
Franz Wagner 1684–1690
Jakob Fürst 1690–1694
Johann Georg Wacker 1694–1723
Johann Jakob Abrell 1723–1728
Johann Georg Kober 1728–1748
Martin Putzer 1748–1772
Bartholomeus Putzer 1772–1777
Franz Michael Putzer 1777–1787


Franz Joseph Wohlmut 1757-1817/21 (deceased 1823)


Paul ? ~1463
Jörg Carlhofer ~1486
Schrottenbacher family 1550–1802
Joachim Stein ~1618
 ? Willenbacher ~1868 (Vienna-Meidling)
Johann Hamberger ~1700
Johann Georg Hoffmann I. 1802–1827
Simon Abel 1827–1839
 ? Seyfried 1829–
Johann Georg Hoffmann II. 1839–1865
Johann Georg Hoffmann III. 1865–1874
 ? Willenbacher 1874–1892
Karl Sellinger 1862–1899
Josef Lang 1900–1918
Johann Lang 1933–1938


 ? Ance ~1789 (Rochefort)
Pierre Nieuwland before 1918 - before 1929 (but did never get to execute anybody)


After 1808, during the Portuguese-Brazilian Kingdom (1808-1822) and the Empire (1822-1889), when Brazil's States were still called "Provinces" and the currency was called "Reis", Brazil had factually abolished torture but was a busy death penalty country.
Method of execution was public hanging by an ultra-short drop of approximately 90 cm (2' 9 11/2"), with the executioner, after having activated the trap door or pushed the convict, according to the gallows's structure, climbed a ladder and launched himself rope downwards, hitting on the convict's shoulders with his weight.
Executioners generally were selected among convicts of capital crimes who had their death sentences stayed for indefinite terms or even commuted for live without parole, and who in exchange for their stays or commutations had to carry out the executions ordered by law. Executioners were, whenever possible, selected from among slaves convicted for a capital crime. And except for the province of Rio Grande do Norte, executioners had obligatorily to be of African descent.
As stayed or commuted convicts, executioners consequently lived as inmates in the prisons of the respective towns where they were based. When an execution was to be carried out elsewhere in his area, the executioner would be transported to the place of execution in chains and sleep in the local prison; after an attempt of murder against Fortunato José in 1834, prisons started separating the executioners were from other inmates.
In the province of Rio Grande do Norte, the executioner had always to be the convict scheduled to die next after an execution, so that province's last execution had to be carried out by a firing squad, after the necessary emergency change of execution protocol.
In the state of Rio de Janeiro, after Independence September 7, 1822 there were also free executioners of African descent who having to travel around, were reached by couriers with execution orders.
Executioners, also when slaves, were paid for their executions; at the example of the province of Minas Gerais, we can establish payment was between 4$000 and 12$000 (4 Mil-Reis to 12 Mil-Reis) per execution.
The last execution of a free convict in Brazil was that of José Pereira de Sousa October 30, 1861 in Santa Luzia (nowadays Luziânia), GO. The last execution at all under law in Brazil was that of the slave Francisco April 28, 1876 in Pilar, AL.
Brazil abolished capital punishment officially with the Proclamation of the Republic November 15, 1889, and by law with its first Republican Constitution of 1891 and Penal Code of September 22, 1892.



José do Egito 1823 (refused to carry out his first and only execution, had his stay lifted for it died executed himself)

Feira de Santana[edit]

Joaquim Correia September 26, 1849 (voluntary executioner, hanged Lucas da Feira; despite white he was allowed to carry out that one since his father, Francisco Correia, had been one of Lucas's vicims)



Agostinho Viera April 27, 1825 [1]
Francisco Corrêa Pareça 1835-1845 (executed the mutineers of Laura II October 22, 1839 in Fortaleza, CE)


Cosme Pereira da Silva (nicked "Cosme Cavaco") 1834-1850


Lourenço Nogueira Campos 19th Century
Manuel Preto 19th Century

Minas Gerais[edit]

Ouro Preto[edit]

Fortunato José 1833-1874 (carried out some executions the State of Rio de Janeiro either).

São João del Rei[edit]

Antônio Resende 1833 - after 1848 (executed the Carrancas insurgents in 1833)



slave Silvério active in 1854



João Paulo de Sousa (nicked: "João Paulo Sagaz" and "Boca Negra") 16 de setembro de 1828 (executioner executed January 19, 1829)
slave Felício (nicked: “Farinha Sêca”) 04 de fevereiro de 1832
slave Francisco 05 de abril de 1838 (executioner executed September 05, 1838)
nicked "Macota" active in 1844


Florêncio José Baptista 26 de fevereiro de 1859

Rio de Janeiro[edit]

Rio de Janeiro[edit]

Jerônimo Capitania active in 1792 - executed Joaquim José da Silva Xavier (Tiradentes) April 21, 1792
Ananias active in 1850 - executed also in Espírito Santo, including two of the Queimado Insurrection leaders, Chico Prego and João da Viúva in Serra, ES

Rio Grande do Sul[edit]

Porto Alegre[edit]

slave Manoel nominated January 12, 1822, by commutuation of his death sentence


John Radclive 1892–1911
Arthur Ellis 1912–1935
Camille Blanchard 1935–1960[citation needed]


Hu Xiao ("working" in 2011) [2]

Czech Republic[edit]

Jan Mydlář (1572–1664) (Prague)
 ? Sperling ~1578 (Brno)
 ? Kotzurek ~1835 (Brno)
Alois Seyfried (1848–1849, died 1869) (Brno, also last executioner for Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Johann Baptist Pipperger (1865–1888) (Prague)|}
Leopold Wohlschläger (1888–1927) (Prague)|}
Vladimír Trunda hangman of Milada Horáková, only the name is known
František Skořepa hangman of Rudolf Slánský, only the name is known


w:da:Theodor Seistrup 1881–1906
Carl Peter Hermann Christensen 1906–1926


Hajj Abd Al-Nabi (active in 2013)



Florent Bazart -1516 (lynched after a botched execution)
Nicolas Levasseur  ????-1685
Charles-Louis Sanson 1685 (de facto)/1688 (official)-1699 (de facto)/1703 (official)
Charles Sanson 1699 (de facto)/1707 (official)-1726
François Prudhomme 1726–1739
Charles-Jean-Baptiste Sanson 1739–1754 (de facto)/1778 (official)
Charles Henri Sanson 1754 (de facto)/1778 (official)-1793 (de facto)/1804 (official)
Henri Sanson 1793 (de facto)/1804 (official)-1840
Henry-Clément Sanson 1840–1847 (he was an inveterate abolitionist)
Charles-André Férey 1847–1849
Jean-François Heidenreich 1849–1871

Monsieur de Paris[edit]

In 1870 the Republic of France abolished all local executioners and named the executioner of Paris, Jean-François Heidenreich, Éxécuteur des Arrêts Criminels, which became France's official description of the executioner's occupation. From then on there would be only one executioner to carry out death sentences for all of France. As the Republic's executioner was required to live in Paris, people soon started to refer to him as "Monsieur de Paris", "The Mister from Paris". At the occasion of his nomination, Heidenreich could choose four among France's former local executioners to be his aides.

Jean-François Heidenreich 1871–1872
Nicolas Roch 1872–1879
Louis-Antoine-Stanislas Deibler 1879–1898
Anatole-François-Joseph Deibler 1899–1939
Jules-Henri Desfourneaux 1939–1951
André-Albert Obrecht 1951–1976
Marcel-Charles Chevalier 1976–1981


Henry Ganié −1853
Nicolas Roch 1853–1871 (after 1853, see → Paris)


Pierre Roch 1833


Jean Varennes 2nd half of the 18th Century (brother to Antoine Varennes in Toulouse)


Charles-Louis Jouënne ~1850


Jouhanne"-Justice" mentioned in 1380



François-Joseph Heidenreich 1806–18??
Alphonse-Léon Berger 1863–1872 (after 1872 aide in Paris


Pierre Juoanne −1662


Simon Grandjean 1615-1625 (lynched together with his wife in the end of an unsuccessful beheading)
Louis-Antoine-Stanislas Desmorest ~1823


Jean de Le Porte (active in 1459)


Charles Jouënne 1730


Nicolas-Lubin Jouënne 1737


Alexandre-Victor Jouënne  ?-?


François Desmorets −1843
Nicolas Roch 1843–1853 (after 1853, see → Amiens)


Jacques-Joseph Durand −1819 (executed for homicide)

Le Mans[edit]

Nicolas-Louis Jouënne ~1750


Jean Jacquenot active in 1529
Antoine Benoît -1723 (Benoit and his wife have been murdered in the night from May 18 to 19, 1723)
Jean Lavoué 1723-~1735
Marguerite-Julienne Le Paistour 1746-1749 (fired after involvement in a mayor robbery; married and became a housewife in Cancale)
Claude Chrétien ~1815


François Roch 1813


Georges Hérisson 1729-


Charles Jouënne  ?-?

Pays du Caux[edit]

Nicolas "La Justice" Jouhanne mentioned in 1202


Nicolas Gabriel Sanson 1754


Joseph-Antoine Deibler 1853–1863
Louis-Antoine-Stanislas Deibler 1863–1871 (after 1871, see → Paris)


Jean Rombaud 1530s (in 1536 called to England to execute Anne Boleyn)


Mathieu Bourideu -1757
Jean Daizes 1757-~1769
Antoine Varennes ~1769-1812


François-Joseph Heidenreich 1814–1827
Jean-François Heidenreich 1827–1848 (after 1848, see → Paris)


Nicolas Roch 1838–1843 (after 1843, see → Jura)

Versailles (Cour du Roi)[edit]

Nicolas Charles Gabriel Sanson −1778


Henriet Cousin 2nd. half of 17th century (Paris)
François Prudhomme 1729-17.. (Monsieur de Paris an assistant)
Louis Congo Circa 1725, emancipated slave appointed public executioner of Louisiana (New France)

French Guyana[edit]

Monsieur de Cayenne[edit]

Cayenne Central Prison never used its own guillotine.. All death sentences of convicts and locally condemned prisoners were conducted at Saint-Laurent.

Monsieur de Saint-Laurent[edit]

All executioners of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni were Bagne inmates themselves.

Isidore Hespel 1898–1921 (nicked "Le Chacal" by the other inmates)
Bonnefoy 1921–1923 (inmate nº 42164; nicked "Charlot" by the other inmates)
Louis Ladurelle 1923–1937
1937–1943 (nicked "Mouche à Bœuf" by the other inmates)


Mannäi ~20 a.C. (Machaerus)
Schelm von Bergen mid 12th century (Frankfurt am Main)
 ? Hans ~1370 (Frankfurt am Main)
 ? Vicko 1372–1384 (Hamburg)
Peter Funcke 1384–1402? (Hamburg)
 ? Rosenfeld ~1402 (Hamburg)
 ? Friedrich ~1446 (Frankfurt am Main)
Hans Maurer ~1446 (Heilbronn)
Hans Wintter 1460–1470 (Nürnberg)
Dietrich Brenner ~1469 (Nördlingen)
Johann Hagedorn 1471- (Hamburg)
Hans ? ~1479 (Nürnberg)
Michael Dannenberg −1485 (Hamburg)
Klaus Flügge 1485–1488 (Hamburg)
 ? Peter ~1486 (Eger)
 ? Vit ~1500 (Hannover)
Ulrich Tucher ~1515 (Nördlingen)
Hinrich Penningk 1521–1528 (Hamburg)
 ? Gilg 1525 (Nürnberg)
Claus Rose 1528–1547? (Hamburg)
Benedictus Barsch 1535–1560 (Berlin)
 ? Schmidt ~1537 (Bamberg)
Hans ? 1537 (Wittstock)
Veit Stolz 1538–1613 (Augsburg)
 ? Adelarius −1539 (Bremen)
 ? Kester −1544 (Thann in Bavaria)
Heinrich Wendeborn 1547–1576 (Hamburg)
Hans Leycham 1553–1561? (Memmingen)
Conrat Raab 1557–1565 (Nördlingen)
Hermann Rüter, or Hartmann Rüter 1560–1571 (Berlin)
Hans Deibler 1561–1571 (Memmingen)
Conrad Fischer 1565–1568 (Nördlingen)
Franz Joseph Wohlmuth ~1566 (Cologne)
Joas Lemler ~1567 (Augsburg)
Ulrich Fischer 1568- (Nördlingen)
Jakob Deibler (also Teübler) 1571- (Memmingen)
Hans Deibler 1572–1594 (Augsburg)
Jörg Abriel (also Georg Abrellen) 1572–1594? (Schongau)
Franz Schmidt (also known as Meister Franz) 1572–1617 (Nuremberg; was the first executioner to ever write a book about his "work"; deceased 1634)
Friedrich ? (also known as Meister Friedrich) 1575–1611 (Ansbach)
Caspar Spiegel 1576–1586 (Berlin)
Jürgen Böhme 1576–1612? (Hamburg)
 ? Philipp ~1581 (Eger)
Jakob Stangel 1583- (Schwabmünchen)
Dietrich Jeck ~1586 (Bötzow, Oranienburg)
Martin Heintze 1586-? (Berlin)
Jonas Fischer −1590 (Frankfurt am Main)
Michael Deibler 1594–1621 (Augsburg)
Andreas Tinel ~1600 (Ohlau)
Heyland family 1600- (Leipzig)
 ? Heintze (known as Sohn des Torgauers) 16..? (Bitterfeld)
Martin Heintze ~1606 (Wrietzen)
Bartholme Deibler (also Teubler) 1607- (Memmingen)
 ? Ingermann ~1609 (Helmstedt)
Max Graf 1612–1621 (Hamburg)
Bernhard Schlegel 1617- (Nürnberg)
Kaspar Neithart ~1618 (Passau))
Christoph Hain ~1621 (Leipzig)
Dietrich Metz 1621–1624? (Augsburg)
Valtin Matz 1622–1639 (Hamburg)
Georg Leichumb 1624–1629 (Augsburg)
Marx Deibler (also Max Deubler) ~1625 (Donauwörth)
Hans Kuisl −1627 (Schongau)
Hans Enderes Abrel ~1628 (Markt Oberdorf)
Albert Möller −1630 (Husum)
Philipp Möller −1630 (Husum)
 ? von Dreißigacker 1630–1647 (Dresden)
Hans Lissen 1631–1636 (Berlin)
Gottfried Zürek 1636–1639 (Berlin)
Barthel Deibler (also Deübler) ~1637 (Biberach[disambiguation needed])
Michael Schiler −1639 (Holzen)
Johann Vollmar ~1639 (Dillingen
 ? Gebhart (or Gevert?) 1639-? (Hamburg)
 ? Gebhart 1639–1653 (Berlin)
Jakob Bickle ~1640 (Donauwörth)
two brothers Metz) ~1640 (Weißenhorn)
Caspar Vollmer −1640 (Öttingen)
 ? Kühn −1641 (Görlitz)
Valentin Deusser −1641 (Nürnberg, just a few months)
Georg Abrellen −1643 (Schongau)
Philipp Deibler (also Deubler) 1643- (Öttingen)
Georg Vollmar ~1644 (Burglengenfeld)
Andreas Boden ~1644 (Frankenstein)
 ? Span ~1644 (Dinkelsbühl)
Matthäus Perger 1645- (Nürnberg)
Hans Rudolff 1647–1655 (Berlin)
Heintze (known as Sohn des Torgauers) mid-17th century (Lentzen)
Suhr family ~1650–1750 (Celle)
Johann Fuchs ~1650 (Öttingen, deceased 1672)
Claus Frölich ~1652 (Braunschweig)
Matheus Fux (also Matheiß Fux) 1656–1696 (Memmingen)
Bartholomaeus Abrel −1652 (Günzburg)
Johann Vollmar ~1652 (Lauingen)
Ismael Asthusen I. 1653–1664 (Hamburg)
Gottfried ? 1655 (Berlin)
Caspar Götze 1655–1669 (Berlin)
Andreas Kuisl 1655–1678 (Markt Oberdorf)
Berthin Aberel −1659 (Günzburg)
Hans Abril ~1659 (Kaufbeuren)
Bickel family 1660–1691 (Markus Bickel, then Jakob Bickel, then Andreas Bickel, then Johannes Bickel; Stuttgart)
Berthold Deutschmann 1664–1674 (Hamburg)
Georg Kuisl ~1665 (Kempten)
Hans Conrad Näher −1666 (Kaufbeuren)
Hans Conrad Näher 1666- (Ulm)
Georg Vollmer 1668- (Öttingen)
Hans Müller 1669–1680 (Berlin)
Jakob Stoeff 1674–1685 (Hamburg)
Hans Jerg Defner ~1677 (Nördlingen)
Carl Fuchs ~1677 (Wassertüdingen)
Max Philipp Hartmann 1677–1679 (Augsburg)
Andreas Kuisl 1678- (Sonthofen)
Dietrich Deigentesch ~1680 (Ulm)
Heinrich Müller 1681–1690 (Berlin)
Hans Jakob Kuisl 1683–1696 (Schongau)
Christoph Seitz ~1685 (Kaufbeuren)
Ismael Asthusen II. 1685–1703 (Hamburg)
Melchior Vogel −1695 (Dresden)
Johann Adam Hartmann 1686–1706 (Augsburg)
Georg Schöppelen 1690- (Öttingen)
Martin Koblentz 1690–1702 (Berlin)
 ? Hansen (known as “Dr. Hansen”) −1694 (Siegburg)
 ? Heintze before 1695 (Torgau; father of Leipzig hangman Christoph Heintze)
Christoph Heintze −1695 (Leipzig)
Polster family 1695- (Leipzig)
Conrad Fux ~1696 (Memmingen)
Andreas Klingensteiner ~1701 (Kempten)
Hans Michael Eichfeld 1702–1705 (Berlin)
Ismael Asthusen III. 1703–1722 (Hamburg)
Johann Michael Kopp 1703–1753 (Sonthofen)
Johann Jakob Scheller ~1705 (Augsburg)
Conrad Fuchs ~1705 (Kaufbeuren)
Augustin Konrad Walter 1705–1710 (Berlin)
Barthlome Abrell −1707 (Günzburg)
Johann Michael Klingensteiner 1707–17.. (Günzburg)
 ? Deigentesch −1708 (Kempten)
Hans Michael Eichfeld 1710–1714 (Berlin)
 ? Fischer ~1711 (Babenhausen)
Hans Kuisl 1711–1734 (Schongau)
 ? Kuisle −1714 (Augsburg)
Wilhelm Kober −1714 (Markt Oberdorf)
Christopf Stoff 1714 (Berlin)
 ? Neumann 1714–1719 (Berlin)
Franz Trenckhler 1714–1723 (Augsburg)
Nikolaus Kober 1714–1763 (Markt Oberdorf)
Johannes Seitz ~1715 (Kaufbeuren)
Johann Adam Scheller 1718- (Pfaffenhausen)
Johann Michael Kober ~1720 (Donauwörth)
Jakob Bayr ~1720 (Füssen)
Mattheß Fux ~1720 (Kaufbeuren)
Johann Fuchs −1720 (Memmingen)
Johann Conrad Nejer ~1720 (Memmingen)
Johann Fuchs ~1720 (Regensburg)
Leonhard Tallhover ~1720 (Schwabmünchen)
Adolph Grossholz ~1720 (Stuttgart)
Georg Wilhelm 1720–1728 (Berlin)
 ? Pickel (also Bickel) ~1722 (Kiel)
Johann Trenkler ~1722 (Schönegg[disambiguation needed])
Franz Wilhelm Hennings I. 1722-? (1735?) (Hamburg)
 ? Polster ~1723 (Borna)
Johann Georg Tränckler 1723–1730 (Augsburg)
Christoph Pfeffer ~1724 (Braunschweig)
Johann Christoph Jeck 1729–1730 (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
Martin Hennings 1729–1731 (Berlin)
Johann Adam Scheller ~1730 (Augsburg)
 ? Michaelis 1730–1740 (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
Martin Weydemann ~1731 (Berlin)
Johann Seitz ~1732 (Kaufbeuren)
Johann Michael Weydenkeller 1732–1757 (Kaufbeuren)
Georg Vollmair ~1734 (Burgau)
Jakob Kuisl 1735- (Schongau)
Johann Christian Göppel 1738- (Bremen)
Johann Michael Widmann 1738–1757 (Nürnberg)
 ? Schmidt ~1740 (Schrobenhausen)
Martin Gottlieb Koch 1740–1747 (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
 ? Widemann 1743–1767 (Memmingen)
Gottfried Weydemann 1745–1748 (Berlin)
 ? Fritz ~1747 (Halle)
Andreas Kleine 1747-? (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
Jakob Kratzel 1748–1752 (Berlin)
Steinmeyer family ~1750 (Haigerloch)
Johann Georg Widmann 1751–1781 (Schongau)
 ? Meyer 1752–1769 (Berlin)
Johannes Georg Kopp 1753–1801? (Sonthofen)
Johann Christoph Neumann 1756- (Königsberg, today Kaliningrad)
 ? Huß ~1760 (Brüx)
Martin ? ~1760 (Munich)
Wilm Kober 1763–1786 (Markt Oberdorf)
Jakob Steinmeyer 1764- (Haigerloch)
Johann Klingensteiner −1765 (Günzburg)
Ismael Asthusen IV. 17??-1767 (Hamburg)
Franz Wilhelm Hennigs II. 1767–1773 (Hamburg)
Johann Georg Tränckhler ~1768 (Augsburg)
Johann Daniel Brandt 1769–1808 (Berlin)
Heinrich Widmann ~1772 (Memmingen)
Jakob Bickel ~1773 (Memmingen)
Franz Wilhelm Hennings III. 1773 (Hamburg)
Franz Wilhelm Hennings IV. 1773–1790 (Hamburg)
Johann Georg Fux 1773- (Kaufbeuren)
Josef Anton Klingensteiner ~1775 (Günzburg)
Johann Michael Widemann ~1777 (Memmingen)
Heinrich Widmann ~1778 (Memmingen)
Xaver Steinmeyer ~1779 (Haigerloch)
August Heinrich Kaufmann 1780–1802 (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
 ? Huß −1781 (Eger)
Karl Huß 1781–1827 (Eger)
Johann Georg Igel −1783 (Waal)
Franz Xaver Igel 1783- (Waal)
Josef Benedikt Kuisl 1783–1807 (Schongau)
Baptist Trinkler ~1786 (Markt Oberdorf)
Jakob Igel ~1787 (Weißenhorn)
Johann Pflügler −1789, suicided 1790 (Augsburg)
Franz Wilhelm Hennings V. 1790–1822 (Hamburg)
Josef Igel ~1798 (Weißenhorn)
 ? Stein ~1800 (Landeck/Silesia)
 ? Rörle −1800 (Schwabmünchen)
Remigus Metz 1801– (Sonthofen)
Johann Hörmann 1802–1833 (Donauwörth)
Carl Friedrich Kaufmann 1802–1836? (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
Johann Michael Kuisl 18??- (last hangman of Schongau?)
Christian Friedrich Krafft 1808–1819 (Berlin)
 ? Nord ~1812 (Heidelberg)
Martin Hörmann 1813–1841 (Munich)
 ? Voss ~1817 (Dühnen)
 ? Funcke ~1818 (Braunschweig)
Johann Hartmann 1818–1831 (Hannover)
August Hellriegel 1818–1834 (Berlin)
Franz Wilhelm Hennings VI. 1822–1830 (Hamburg)
Lorenz Scheller 1829–1854 (Munich)
Raphael Georg Voigt 1830–1852 (Hamburg)
 ? Hormuth 1834 (Berlin)
A. W. Krafft 1834–1860 (Berlin)
Wilhelm Weber 1836–1850 (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
Christian Schwarz 1827–1860 (Bremen, 1843–1859 also Hannover)
Anton Leisner −1852 (Bavaria)
Heinrich Graul ~1852 (Bavarian Palatinate)
Georg Eduard Voigt 1852– (Prussia)
Carl Altmann 1853–1874? (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
Michael Müller 1854–1886 (Baden)
Lorenz Scheller 1854–1880 (Bavaria)
Franz Reichhart after 1854 (Bavaria)
 ? Bormann 1859–1870 (Hannover)
Emanuel Hamel ~1860 (Sangershausen)
Julius Krautz 1878–1889 (Prussia) (until 1878 executioner of Hannover)
Friedrich Schmidt 1874–1877 (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
Ferdinand August Zimmermann 1877–? (Bernau[disambiguation needed])
Franz Müller 1886–1888 (Baden)
Jakob Müller 1888–1908 (Baden)
 ? Schwarz −1888 (Württemberg)
 ? Siller 1888–1926 (Württemberg)
Friedrich Reindel 1889–1898 (Prussia)
Wilhelm Reindel 1899–1901 (Prussia)
Franz Xaver Reichhart 1894–1924 (Bavaria)
Karol Wypyszewski 1893-1896 (Baden)
Benjamin Burckhardt 1884–1896 (Baden)
Karl Burckhardt 1896–1935 (Baden, Württemberg and Hesse)
Lorenz Schwietz 1900–1914 (Prussia)
Richard Schwietz 1913–1915 (Prussia)
Alwin Engelhardt 1900–1906 (Prussia)
Carl Gröpler 1906–1937 (Prussia)
Otto Oswald Brand -1885 (Saxonia)
w:de:Moritz Brand 1885-before 1927 (“working” in 1908) (Saxonia)
Karl Müller 1908– after 1922 (Baden, since 1921 also Hesse)
Paul Spaethe 1912–1924 (Prussia, in 1923 also Saxony)
Hans Kordess −1918 (According to the New York Times, 25 April 1918
Konrad Widder 1922–1923 (Baden)
Joseph Kurz (also Kurzer) 1924–1927 (Prussia)
Johann Baptist Reichhart 1924-1948/50
Fritz Reichelt 1927–1933 (Prussia)
Alwin Engelhardt 1933–1936 (Prussia) (the same Alwin Engelhardt who was in office from 1900 to 1906)
Friedrich Hehr 1935–1949 (Baden, Württemberg and Hesse, since 1937 in the whole Third Reich)
Ernst Reindel 1936–1943 (sources vary about his start)
Gottlob Bordt 1940–1945
Karl Henschke 1943–1945
August Köster 1943–1945
Alois Weiss 1943–1945
Wilhelm Röttger 1942–1945
Johann Mühl 1943–1945
Fritz Witzka 1943–1945
Alfred Roselieb 1941–1945
Clemens Dobbek after 1945, “working” in 1947
Horst Schwenke after 1945, “working” in 1949
Heinz M. 1946–
Gustav Völpel 1946–1948 (it is not sure if his allegations of having been an executioner are true)
Hermann Lorenz 1968–1981 (former East Germany)



Elizabeth ? (known as "Lady Betty") 1780–1810 (Roscommon)[3]


Yamada Asaemon (山田浅右衛門) 1736?−1881



Huda Ben Amir 1984- [4]


Rajendran Kuppusamy −1986 (died Nov. 15, 2011) [5]

New Caledonia[edit]

Monsieur de la Bagne[edit]

All executioners of New Caledonia's Bagne were inmates themselves.

Jugaret 1937–1943 (nicked "La Gueule" by the other inmates)[citation needed]

New Zealand[edit]

Tom Long 1877–1908


w:no:Augustus Høcker 1689–1721
w:no:Johan Heinrich Helmschläger 1684–1760
w:no:August Lædel 1733–1749
w:no:Anton Lædel 1799–1833
w:no:Torbjørn Pedersen 1828–1834
w:no:Samson Isberg 1841–1864
w:no:Theodor Larsen 1864–

Papal States[edit]

Giovanni Bugatti 1796–1865
Antonio Balducci 1865–1870


Jan Mueller –1793
Stefan Böhm 1793-1813 or before
Maciejewski -1928
Jan Maciejewski -1932
Artur Braun 1932 (no executions, fired the morning after his nomination for shooting around woefully drunk while celebrating his new "job")
Piotr Śmietański 1948 or before-1951


Belchior Nunes Carrasco 15th Century (from his last name appeared the Portuguese word carrasco meaning hangman)


Ionel Boeru leader of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad
Dorin Cârlan member of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad
Octavian Gheorghiu member of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad

Russia (USSR)[edit]

Vasili Blokhin 1926–1952

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Ahmed Rezkallah
Muhammad Saad al-Beshi[6][7]

Abdallah Al-Bishi


Darshan Singh 1959–present (but did not carry out the execution of Van Tuong Nguyen in 2005)[8][9][10]

South Africa[edit]

Christiaan "Chris" Barnard 19??–1995 (no relation to heart surgeon Christiaan Barnard)[citation needed]


w:es:Antonio López Sierra 1949–1975
w:es:Vicente López Copete 1953–1974
w:es:Bernardo Sánchez Bascuñana 1949–1972
w:es:José Monero 1972–1974


Anders Pettersson (Blekinge, Skåne) 1838–c. 1868
Johan Fredrik Hjort (Stockholm) 1862–1882
Per Petter Christiansson Steineck (Jönköping/Vadstena) 1861–1887
Albert Gustaf Dahlman (originally in Stockholm, from 1901 for the entire country) 1885–1920



Franz Josef Mengis carried out Canton (= State) of Aargau's last public execution May 24, 1854, in Lenzburg


Bernhard Schlegel -1374


 ? Deigentesch ~1716


François Tabazan -1624


 ? Vollmer ~1782
see also Schwyz


Baltzer Mengis ~1652 (also referred to as Balthasar Mengis)


Vollmar family 1695-
see also Schwyz


Christoph Mengis -1651
Christoph II. Mengis 1651-1681
Johannes Mengis 1681-1695
Balthasar Mengis 1695-1723
Bernhard Mengis 1723-
 ? Mengis -1779
Johann Melchior Grossholz -1815
Augustin Grossholz 1815–1826
Joseph Pickel 1826–1829
Oswald Schlumpf 1829–1830
Johann Bettenmann 1855–1857 (also for Saint-Gall)
Franz Xaver Schmid 1830–1855 (also for Zug and Glarus)


Franz Grossholz 1822–
Arthur X. August 25, 1939 (official reference to the executioner of Paul Irniger, the "taxi killer of Baar"; died in 1960 of paranoid schizophrenia at Burghölzli mental institution in Zurich)
see also Schwyz


 ? Vollmer 20ies of the 19th century

Federal Executioner for all Swiss Death Penalty Cantons[edit]

Theodor Mengis 1879–1918
Theodor Mengis Junior 1918-1958

United Kingdom[edit]

Cratwell to 1538 (when he was himself hanged for robbery)[11][12]
"Stump-leg" to 1556 (when he was himself hanged for theft)[11][13]
 ? Bull before 1593–1601
Thomas Derrick 1601- before 1616
Gregory Brandon before 1616- before 1640
Richard Brandon before 1640–1649
William Lowen 1649[14]
Edward Dun 1649–1663[15] (the subject of Groanes from Newgate, or an Elegy upon Edward Dun. Esq., the Citie's Common Hangman, who died naturally in his bed the 11th of September, 1663. Written by a person of Quality)[16]
Jack Ketch 1663–1686
Paskah Rose 1686 (Bleackley (1929) graphs his name as Pasha Rose)
John Price 1714–1715
William Marvell 1715–1717
James Aird 1715–1723[citation needed]
 ? Banks (known as Banks the Bailiff) 1717- after 1718[17]
Richard Arnet before 1726–1728[17] (hanged Jonathan Wild in 1725[18])
John Hooper 1728–1735[19] (known as "the laughing hangman"[19])
John Thrift 1735–1752 (convicted of murder in 1750, but pardoned and continued in office;[20][21] executed Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat on 9 April 1747, the last man to be beheaded in England.[22])
Thomas Turlis 1752–1771 (hanged Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers with a silken rope, the last nobleman to be hanged in England[23])
Edward Dennis 1771–1786 (the last hangman at Tyburn and the first at Newgate;[24] died 21 November 1786 at his home in the Old Bailey[25])
Edward Barlow 1781–1812
William Brunskill career lasted from 1786 to 1814[26] (started as assistant to Edward Dennis;[24] executed Catherine Murphy in 1789, the last woman to be burned at the stake in England)
William Taylor −1810[citation needed]
James Botting 1813/17-1819
John Langley 1814–1817[27]
James Botting 1817–1820
Thomas Cheshire 1820 (known as "Old Cheese";[28] assistant from 1808 to 1820 and from 1820 to 1840)[29]
James Foxen 1820–1829
William Lee −1827[citation needed]
William Calcraft 1829–1874
John Scott 1835–1847 (last executioner of Edinburgh)[30]
George Smith 1849–1872
Thomas Askern 1853–1877[citation needed]
Robert Anderson Evans 1873–1875
William Marwood 1874–1883
George Meker, or George Incher 1875–1881[citation needed]
Bartholomew Binns 1883–1884
James Berry 1884–1891
James Billington 1884–1901
Thomas Henry Scott 1892–1895
Thomas Billington 1897–1901
William Billington 1902–1905
John Billington 1901–1905
John Ellis 1901–1923/24
Henry Pierrepoint 1901–1910
William Willis 1906–1926 (assistant to John Ellis from 1906;[31] assisted him in the execution of Hawley Harvey Crippen[32])
Thomas Pierrepoint 1909–1946
Robert Baxter 1915–1935
Thomas Phillips 1918–1941
Robert Wilson 1920–1936
Alfred Allen 1928–1937
Stanley Cross 1932–1941
Albert Pierrepoint 1932–1956
Henry Kirk, or Harry Kirk 1941–1950
Stephen Wade, or Steve Wade 1941–1955
Harry Bernard Allen 1941–1964
Syd Dernley 1949–1954
Robert Leslie Stewart 1950–1964
Royston Lawrence Rickard 1953–1964[citation needed]
Harry Frank Robinson 1958–1964[citation needed]
Samuel Barrass Plant 1961–1964[citation needed]
John Underhill 1963–1964[citation needed]

United States[edit]

John C. Woods (1911–1950). Hangman for the Third Army in WWII. He was one of the hangmen who executed Nazi war criminals.

Joseph Malta (1918–1999) was the hangman who, with John C. Woods, executed the top 10 leaders of the Third Reich in Nuremberg on October 16, 1946, for crimes against humanity.


Clarence Burford, warden at Kilby Prison from 1952–1965, was involved in several executions[33]
Murray Daniels, assistant warden at Kilby Prison in the 1950s, involved in eleven executions[34]
J.D. White, warden at Holman Correctional Facility from 1980 to 1983, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences. Executed Alabama's first post-Furman inmate, John Louis Evans on April 22, 1983.[35]
Willie Johnson, warden at Holman Correctional Facility from 1983 to 1988, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences[36]
Charlie Jones, warden at Holman Correctional Facility from 1988–2002, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences[37]
Grantt Culliver, warden at Holman Correctional Facility from 2002–2009, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences[38]
Gary Hetzel, warden at Holman Correctional Facility since 2012, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences[39]


Maledon, George

During the first part of the 20th century, operators of the electric chair were known as "State electricians".


Max Brice – executioner from mid-1950s to 1967

Daniel Vasquez – warden of San Quentin prison who served as executioner at the gas chamber executions of Robert Alton Harris in 1992 and the execution of David Mason the following year.


John J. "Jack" Eeles – corrections officer who served as hangman at Colorado State Penitentiary until he was murdered in a prison riot on October 3, 1929.[40]
Wayne K. Patterson – warden at Colorado State Penitentiary who pulled the lever to start execution of Luis Jose Monge on June 2, 1967. This was the last execution in the United States prior to the 1972 US Supreme Court case Furman vs. Georgia, which temporarily invalidated the death penalty nationwide. Patterson was opposed to capital punishment.[41]


Jack P. Duckworth 1981 – Warden of Indiana State Prison at Michigan City who was required by law to throw the switch at the electrocution of Steven Timothy Judy[42]


Louis Congo 1725-1740s


Edwin B. Currier circa 1910 – Chief Engineer at Massachusetts General Hospital who operated electric chair control panel during executions at Charlestown Prison.[43]


Jimmy Thompson – 1940–1950[44]
Thomas Berry Bruce – 1957–1987[45]
Donald Hocutt – 1987–1995 [46]


Alan R. Doerhoff (apparently involved in executions also in Indiana, Arizona and at least one Federal)

New York[edit]

Erie County[edit]

Grover Cleveland 1870s (When sheriff of Erie County)[47]

State Executioners[edit]

Edwin Davis 1891–1914
John Hulbert 1913–1926
Robert Elliott 1926–1939
Joseph Francel 1939–1953
Dow Hover 1953–1963


S.C. Treadwell or Mack Treadwell before 1909-1919
Rich Owens 1918–1947 [48]
Mike Mayfield, corrections officer- 1962–1966 [49]


Frank Wilson electrical industry superintendent from Pittsburgh area who served as executioner between 1949 and 1953 at Rockview Prison.[50]
Jerry Kramer (executioner) Pittsburgh area electrician contracted as executioner at Rockview from 1954 to 1962. Resigned from post following execution of Elmo Smith.

South Carolina[edit]

Sam Cannon


  • Joe Byrd – Captain of the guard at the Walls Unit who served as executioner between 1936 and 1964.[34] The nearby prison cemetery, where unclaimed remains of executed inmates are buried by the state, is named in his honor.
  • W. James "Jim" Estelle – Director of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) between 1972 to 1983. Was designated executioner under policy developed by the TDCJ in 1976.[51] Was the individual pushing the drugs into the IV lines at the December, 1982 execution of Charlie Brooks, the first inmate in the United States to be executed by lethal injection.


Jerry Givens 1982–1999 – Givens, a corrections officer at Virginia State Penitentiary and later Greensville Correctional Center, served as official executioner for all executions carried out in the state during this time period.

West Virginia[edit]

Jefferson County[edit]

Sheriff James W. Campbell and Deputy Sheriff John Avis (hanged John Brown December 2, 1859)

Zimbabwe and former Rhodesia[edit]

Jack Catchpole predecessor to "Ted" "Lofty" Milton; former Rhodesia's chief executioner until 1963
Edward "Lofty" Milton 1954 - after 1968; former Rhodesia's chief executioner after 1963


  • Anderson, Patrick R.: "Expert witnesses: Criminologists in the Courtroom".|Albany: State University of New York, 1987
  • Evans, Richard J.: Rituals of Retribution: Capital Punishment in Germany, 1600–1987. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996; London: Penguin Books, 1997
  • Goulart, José Alípio: Da Palmatória ao Patíbulo: Castigos de Escravos no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Editora Conquista, 1971
  • Koch, Tankred: Die Geschichte der Henker: Scharfrichterschicksale aus acht Jahrhunderten. Heidelberg: Kriminalistikverlag, 1988; Herrsching: Manfred-Pawlak-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1991
  • Martschukat, Jürgen: Inszeniertes Töten: Eine Geschichte der Todesstrafe vom 17. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Köln: Böhlau, 2000; Hamburg: 2006
  • Nowosadtko, Jutta: Scharfrichter und Abdecker: Der Alltag zweier "unehrlicher Berufe" in der Frühen Neuzeit. Paderborn: 1994
  • Ribeiro, João Luiz: No Meio das Galinhas as Baratas Não Têm Razão: A Lei de 10 de Junho de 1835 - Os Escravos e a Pena de Morte no Império do Brasil 1822-1889. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Renovar, 2005.
  • Rossa, Kurt: Todesstrafen: Von den Anfängen bis heute. Bergisch-Gladbach: Bastei-Lübbe-Verlag, 1979
Newspaper Sources

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Did not carry out any execution; officially nominated that day, he refused the “job” and persisted in his refusal, changing his mind not even when tortured to make him reconsider. The next day, April 28, 1825, two anonymous convicts of whose names have not appeared records so far, if there are any surviving somewhere, refused the “job” either and so persisted when being shown the gallows and in front of them announced they'd be hanged there later; they preferred their own hangings
  2. ^ "Chinese executioner says job not "complicated"". Reuters. November 14, 2011. 
  3. ^ Christopher Winn (2006). I Never Knew That About Ireland. Random House. p. 30. ISBN 0091910250. 
  4. ^ Meo, Nick (March 6, 2011). "'Huda the executioner' - Libya's devil in female form". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  5. ^ murmurs (2011-12-29). "murmurs: December 2011". Retrieved 2014-08-14. 
  6. ^ "Saudi executioner tells all". BBC News. June 5, 2003. 
  7. ^ [1][dead link]
  8. ^ "Singapore executioner 'sacked'". BBC News Online. 28 November 2005. 
  9. ^ Levett, Connie; Butcher, Steve (30 November 2005). "Hangman ignites outrage". Melbourne: Reuters. 
  10. ^ Darshan didn't do it, The Age, 3 December 2005
  11. ^ a b Donald Rumbelow (1982). The Triple Tree: Newgate, Tyburn, and Old Bailey. Harrap. p. 176. ISBN 0245538771. 
  12. ^ Richard Grafton (1809). Grafton's chronicle, or history of England: to which is added his table of the bailiffs, sheriffs and mayors of the city of London from the year 1189, to 1558, inclusive : in two volumes 2. Johnson. p. 463. 
  13. ^ Andrew Barrett; Christopher Harrison, eds. (1999). Crime and punishment in England: a sourcebook. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 1857288718. 
  14. ^ Frederic George Stephens; Mary Dorothy George, eds. (1870). Catalogue of prints and drawings in the British Museum: Division I. Political and personal satires 1. Trustees of the British Museum. p. 421. 
  15. ^ Bleakley (1929) p.4
  16. ^ William Thomas Lowndes (1834). The bibliographer's manual of English literature containing an account of rare, curious, and useful books, published in or relating to Great Britain and Ireland, from the invention of printing: with bibliographical and critical notices, collations of the rarer articles, and the prices at which they have been sold in the present century. W. Pickering. p. 628. 
  17. ^ a b Bleakley (1929) p.39
  18. ^ Gerald Howson (1985). Thief-Taker General: Jonathan Wild and the emergence of crime and corruption as a way of life in eighteenth-century England. Transaction Publishers. pp. 132, 276. ISBN 0887380328. 
  19. ^ a b Bleakley (1929) p.55
  20. ^ John Brown (1820). Memoirs of George the Third, late king of Great Britain: including characters and anecdotes of the British court. H. Fisher. p. 129. 
  21. ^ Pat Rogers (1980). Hacks and dunces: Pope, Swift and Grub Street. University paperbacks 704. Taylor & Francis. p. 92. ISBN 0416742408. 
  22. ^ Lloyd Bradley; Thomas Eaton (2005). Book of Secrets. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 138. ISBN 0740755617. 
  23. ^ Timothy Vance Kaufman-Osborn (2002). From noose to needle: capital punishment and the late liberal state. Law, meaning, and violence. University of Michigan Press. p. 77. ISBN 0472088904. 
  24. ^ a b Jeremy Beadle; Ian Harrison (2008). Firsts, Lasts & Onlys: Crime. Anova Books. p. 39. ISBN 1905798040. 
  25. ^ John Laurence (1971). A history of capital punishment: with special reference to capital punishment in Great Britain. Kennikat Press. p. 104. ISBN 0804611149. 
  26. ^ Bleakley (1929) p.135
  27. ^ Bleakley (1929) p.151
  28. ^ Notes and Queries. 2nd ser XI. 20 April 1861. p. 315. 
  29. ^ Bleakley (1929) pp.192-202
  30. ^ Chambers's encyclopaedia: a dictionary of universal knowledge for the people 4. W. & R. Chambers. 1862. p. 190. 
  31. ^ Kenneth Fields (1998). Lancashire magic & mystery: secrets of the Red Rose County. Sigma. p. 115. ISBN 1850586063. 
  32. ^ David James Smith (2010). Supper with the Crippens. Hachette UK. ISBN 140913413X. 
  33. ^ Russell Tate (December 3, 1967). "Kilby electric chair – will anyone else ride lightning?". Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  34. ^ a b "Applications for executioner posts run high". Wilmington Morning Star. May 11, 1976. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  35. ^ United Press International (May 21, 1986). "Warden Transfers to Fulfill Promise". Florence Times-Daily. Retrieved June 1, 1983. 
  36. ^ Associated Press (May 21, 1986). "Mother Relieved After Execution". Tuscaloosa News. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  37. ^ Stan Bailey (August 4, 2002). "Retired executioner has no regrets". The Birmingham News. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  38. ^ Tom Gordon (March 14, 2010). "After 20 executions, Grantt Culliver has a serene outlook". The Birmingham News. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  39. ^ Associated Press (July 26, 2013). "Andrew Reid Lackey executed in Alabama for killing elderly man.". The Epoch Times. Retrieved July 27, 2013. 
  40. ^ Michael Radelet. "History- Capital Punishment in Colorado, 1859-1972". Office of the Colorado State Public Defender. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  41. ^ Terje Langeland (July 18, 2002). "The Executioner's Song - Job is Not All That It's Cracked Up to Be". Colorado Springs Independent. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Judy Is Getting Something He Wants". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. March 8, 1981. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  43. ^ "WILL ACCEPT $100 LESS FOR EXECUTIONS". The Boston Globe. November 9, 1914. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  44. ^ "MISSISSIPPI: Death on Wheels". Time. January 18, 1943. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  45. ^ "Mississippi's executioner leaves job after 30 years". The Advocate. May 15, 1987. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  46. ^ "Former state executioner dies". Associated PressWAFF. March 5, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  47. ^ "When Grover Cleveland Acted As Hangman". The New York Times. July 7, 1912. 
  48. ^ Gene Curtis (July 10, 2007). "Only in Oklahoma: Executing criminals just another job". Tulsa World. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Executioner plugs electric chair". Lawrence Journal-World. Associated Press. May 16, 1977. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  50. ^ "EXECUTIONER RESIGNS POST". Gettysburg Times. May 23, 1953. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  51. ^ "Bad News on Death Row". Texas Monthly. October 1976. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  • Bleakley, Horace (1929). The Hangmen of England: How They Hanged and Whom They Hanged, The Life Story of "Jack Ketch" through two Centuries. London: Chapman and Hall. 

External links[edit]