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This is a list of people who have acted as official
In 1870 the Republic of France abolished all local executioners and named the executioner of Alger, Antoine Rasseneux, Éxécuteur des Arrêts Criminels en Algérie, which became France's official description of the executioner of Algeria's occupation. From there on there would be one only executioner to carry out death sentences for entire Algeria. Since the colony's executioner had obligatorily to live in Alger, people soon started to refer to him as to the „Monsieur d'Alger“, „The Mister from Alger“. At the occasion of his nomination, Rasseneux could choose four among France's and Algeria's former local executioners to be his aides.
After 1808, during the Portuguese-Brazilian
Kingdom (1808-1822) and the Empire (1822-1889), when Brazil's States were still called " Provinces" and the currency was called "Reis", Brazil had factually abolished torture but was a busy death penalty country.
Method of execution was public hanging by an ultra-short drop of approximately 90 cm (2' 9 11/2"), with the executioner, after having activated the trap door or pushed the convict, according to the gallows's structure, climbed a ladder and launched himself rope downwards, hitting on the convict's shoulders with his weight.
Executioners generally were selected among convicts of capital crimes who had their death sentences stayed for indefinite terms or even commuted for live without parole, and who in exchange for their stays or commutations had to carry out the executions ordered by law. Executioners were, whenever possible, selected from among slaves convicted for a capital crime. And except for the province of Rio Grande do Norte, executioners had obligatorily to be of African descent.
As stayed or commuted convicts, executioners consequently lived as inmates in the prisons of the respective towns where they were based. When an execution was to be carried out elsewhere in his area, the executioner would be transported to the place of execution in chains and sleep in the local prison; after an attempt of murder against Fortunato José in 1834, prisons started separating the executioners were from other inmates.
In the province of Rio Grande do Norte, the executioner had always to be the convict scheduled to die next after an execution, so that province's last execution had to be carried out by a firing squad, after the necessary emergency change of execution protocol.
In the state of Rio de Janeiro, after Independence September 7, 1822 there were also free executioners of African descent who having to travel around, were reached by couriers with execution orders.
Executioners, also when slaves, were paid for their executions; at the example of the province of Minas Gerais, we can establish payment was between 4$000 and 12$000 (4 Mil-Reis to 12 Mil-Reis) per execution.
The last execution of a free convict in Brazil was that of José Pereira de Sousa October 30, 1861 in Santa Luzia (nowadays Luziânia), GO. The last execution at all under law in Brazil was that of the slave Francisco April 28, 1876 in Pilar, AL.
Brazil abolished capital punishment officially with the Proclamation of the Republic November 15, 1889, and by law with its first Republican Constitution of 1891 and Penal Code of September 22, 1892.
José do Egito
1823 (refused to carry out his first and only execution, had his stay lifted for it died executed himself)
September 26, 1849 (voluntary executioner, hanged
Lucas da Feira; despite white he was allowed to carry out that one since his father, Francisco Correia, had been one of Lucas's vicims)
active in 1854
João Paulo de Sousa (nicked: " João Paulo Sagaz" and " Boca Negra") 16 de setembro de 1828 (executioner executed January 19, 1829)
slave Felício (nicked: “Farinha Sêca”)
04 de fevereiro de 1832
05 de abril de 1838 (executioner executed September 05, 1838)
Macota" active in 1844
nominated January 12, 1822, by commutuation of his death sentence
Jan Mydlář (1572–1664) (
(1848–1849, died 1869) (
Brno, also last executioner for Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Johann Baptist Pipperger
Milada Horáková, only the name is known
Rudolf Slánský, only the name is known
In 1870 the Republic of France abolished all local executioners and named the executioner of Paris, Jean-François Heidenreich, Éxécuteur des Arrêts Criminels, which became France's official description of the executioner's occupation. From then on there would be only one executioner to carry out death sentences for all of France. As the Republic's executioner was required to live in Paris, people soon started to refer to him as "Monsieur de Paris", "The Mister from Paris". At the occasion of his nomination, Heidenreich could choose four among France's former local executioners to be his aides.
Jean Varennes 2nd half of the 18th Century (brother to Antoine Varennes in Toulouse)
Cayenne Central Prison never used its own guillotine.. All death sentences of convicts and locally condemned prisoners were conducted at Saint-Laurent.
All executioners of Saint-Laurent were Bagne inmates themselves.
Isidore Hespel 1898–1921 (nicked "Le Chacal" by the other inmates)
Bonnefoy 1921–1923 (nicked "Charlot" by the other inmates)
Louis Ladurelle 1923–1937
1937–1943 (nicked "Mouche à Bœuf" by the other inmates)
Mannäi ~20 a.C. (
Schelm von Bergen mid 12th century (
Frankfurt am Main)
Frankfurt am Main)
Peter Funcke 1384–1402? (
Frankfurt am Main)
Hans Maurer ~1446 (
Hans Wintter 1460–1470 (
Dietrich Brenner ~1469 (
Johann Hagedorn 1471- (
Michael Dannenberg −1485 (
Klaus Flügge 1485–1488 (
Ulrich Tucher ~1515 (
Hinrich Penningk 1521–1528 (
Claus Rose 1528–1547? (
Benedictus Barsch 1535–1560 (
Veit Stolz 1538–1613 (
Thann in Bavaria)
Heinrich Wendeborn 1547–1576 (
Hans Leycham 1553–1561? (
Conrat Raab 1557–1565 (
Hermann Rüter, or Hartmann Rüter 1560–1571 (
Hans Deibler 1561–1571 (
Conrad Fischer 1565–1568 (
Franz Joseph Wohlmuth
Joas Lemler ~1567 (
Ulrich Fischer 1568- (
Jakob Deibler (also Teübler) 1571- (
Hans Deibler 1572–1594 (
Jörg Abriel (also Georg Abrellen) 1572–1594? (
Franz Schmidt (also known as Meister Franz) 1572–1617 (
Nuremberg; was the first executioner to ever write a book about his "work"; deceased 1634)
Friedrich ? (also known as
Meister Friedrich) 1575–1611 (
Caspar Spiegel 1576–1586 (
Jürgen Böhme 1576–1612? (
Jakob Stangel 1583- (
Dietrich Jeck ~1586 (
Martin Heintze 1586-? (
Jonas Fischer −1590 (
Frankfurt am Main)
Michael Deibler 1594–1621 (
Andreas Tinel ~1600 (
? Heintze (known as
Sohn des Torgauers) 16..? (
Martin Heintze ~1606 (
Bartholme Deibler (also Teubler) 1607- (
Max Graf 1612–1621 (
Bernhard Schlegel 1617- (
Kaspar Neithart ~1618 (
Christoph Hain ~1621 (
Dietrich Metz 1621–1624? (
Valtin Matz 1622–1639 (
Georg Leichumb 1624–1629 (
Marx Deibler (also Max Deubler) ~1625 (
Hans Kuisl −1627 (
Hans Enderes Abrel ~1628 (
Albert Möller −1630 (
Philipp Möller −1630 (
von Dreißigacker 1630–1647 (
Hans Lissen 1631–1636 (
Gottfried Zürek 1636–1639 (
Barthel Deibler (also Deübler) ~1637 (
Michael Schiler −1639 (
Johann Vollmar ~1639 (
? Gebhart (or Gevert?)
Jakob Bickle ~1640 (
two brothers Metz)
Caspar Vollmer −1640 (
Valentin Deusser −1641 (
Nürnberg, just a few months)
Georg Abrellen −1643 (
Philipp Deibler (also Deubler) 1643- (
Georg Vollmar ~1644 (
Andreas Boden ~1644 (
Matthäus Perger 1645- (
Hans Rudolff 1647–1655 (
Heintze (known as
Sohn des Torgauers) mid-17th century (
Johann Fuchs ~1650 (
Öttingen, deceased 1672)
Matheus Fux (also Matheiß Fux) 1656–1696 (
Bartholomaeus Abrel −1652 (
Johann Vollmar ~1652 (
Ismael Asthusen I. 1653–1664 (
Caspar Götze 1655–1669 (
Andreas Kuisl 1655–1678 (
Berthin Aberel −1659 (
Hans Abril ~1659 (
Markus Bickel, then Jakob Bickel, then Andreas Bickel, then Johannes Bickel; Stuttgart)
Berthold Deutschmann 1664–1674 (
Georg Kuisl ~1665 (
Hans Conrad Näher −1666 (
Hans Conrad Näher 1666- (
Georg Vollmer 1668- (
Jakob Stoeff 1674–1685 (
Hans Jerg Defner ~1677 (
Carl Fuchs ~1677 (
Max Philipp Hartmann 1677–1679 (
Andreas Kuisl 1678- (
Dietrich Deigentesch ~1680 (
Heinrich Müller 1681–1690 (
Hans Jakob Kuisl 1683–1696 (
Christoph Seitz ~1685 (
Ismael Asthusen II. 1685–1703 (
Melchior Vogel −1695 (
Johann Adam Hartmann 1686–1706 (
Georg Schöppelen 1690- (
Martin Koblentz 1690–1702 (
? Hansen (known as “
Dr. Hansen”) −1694 (
before 1695 (
Torgau; father of Leipzig hangman Christoph Heintze)
Christoph Heintze −1695 (
Conrad Fux ~1696 (
Andreas Klingensteiner ~1701 (
Hans Michael Eichfeld 1702–1705 (
Ismael Asthusen III. 1703–1722 (
Johann Michael Kopp 1703–1753 (
Johann Jakob Scheller ~1705 (
Conrad Fuchs ~1705 (
Augustin Konrad Walter 1705–1710 (
Barthlome Abrell −1707 (
Johann Michael Klingensteiner 1707–17.. (
Hans Michael Eichfeld 1710–1714 (
Hans Kuisl 1711–1734 (
Kuisle −1714 (
Wilhelm Kober −1714 (
Christopf Stoff 1714 (
Franz Trenckhler 1714–1723 (
Nikolaus Kober 1714–1763 (
Johannes Seitz ~1715 (
Johann Adam Scheller 1718- (
Johann Michael Kober ~1720 (
Jakob Bayr ~1720 (
Mattheß Fux ~1720 (
Johann Fuchs −1720 (
Johann Conrad Nejer ~1720 (
Johann Fuchs ~1720 (
Leonhard Tallhover ~1720 (
Adolph Grossholz ~1720 (
Georg Wilhelm 1720–1728 (
? Pickel (also Bickel)
Johann Trenkler ~1722 (
Franz Wilhelm Hennings I. 1722-? (1735?) (
Johann Georg Tränckler 1723–1730 (
Johann Christoph Jeck 1729–1730 (
Martin Hennings 1729–1731 (
Johann Adam Scheller ~1730 (
Martin Weydemann ~1731 (
Johann Seitz ~1732 (
Johann Michael Weydenkeller 1732–1757 (
Georg Vollmair ~1734 (
Jakob Kuisl 1735- (
Johann Christian Göppel 1738- (
Johann Michael Widmann 1738–1757 (
Martin Gottlieb Koch 1740–1747 (
Gottfried Weydemann 1745–1748 (
Andreas Kleine 1747-? (
Jakob Kratzel 1748–1752 (
Johann Georg Widmann 1751–1781 (
Johannes Georg Kopp 1753–1801? (
Johann Christoph Neumann 1756- (
Königsberg, today Kaliningrad)
Wilm Kober 1763–1786 (
Jakob Steinmeyer 1764- (
Johann Klingensteiner −1765 (
Ismael Asthusen IV. 17??-1767 (
Franz Wilhelm Hennigs II. 1767–1773 (
Johann Georg Tränckhler ~1768 (
Johann Daniel Brandt 1769–1808 (
Heinrich Widmann ~1772 (
Jakob Bickel ~1773 (
Franz Wilhelm Hennings III. 1773 (
Franz Wilhelm Hennings IV. 1773–1790 (
Johann Georg Fux 1773- (
Josef Anton Klingensteiner ~1775 (
Johann Michael Widemann ~1777 (
Heinrich Widmann ~1778 (
Xaver Steinmeyer ~1779 (
August Heinrich Kaufmann 1780–1802 (
Karl Huß 1781–1827 (
Johann Georg Igel −1783 (
Franz Xaver Igel 1783- (
Josef Benedikt Kuisl 1783–1807 (
Baptist Trinkler ~1786 (
Jakob Igel ~1787 (
Johann Pflügler −1789, suicided 1790 (
Franz Wilhelm Hennings V. 1790–1822 (
Josef Igel ~1798 (
Remigus Metz 1801– (
Johann Hörmann 1802–1833 (
Carl Friedrich Kaufmann 1802–1836? (
Johann Michael Kuisl 18??- (last hangman of
Christian Friedrich Krafft 1808–1819 (
Martin Hörmann 1813–1841 (
August Hellriegel 1818–1834 (
Franz Wilhelm Hennings VI. 1822–1830 (
Lorenz Scheller 1829–1854 (
Raphael Georg Voigt 1830–1852 (
A. W. Krafft
Wilhelm Weber 1836–1850 (
Christian Schwarz 1827–1860 (
Bremen, 1843–1859 also Hannover)
Anton Leisner −1852 (
Heinrich Graul ~1852 (
Georg Eduard Voigt 1852– (
Carl Altmann 1853–1874? (
Michael Müller 1854–1886 (
Lorenz Scheller 1854–1880 (
Franz Reichhart after 1854 (
Julius Krautz 1878–1889 (
Prussia) (until 1878 executioner of Hannover)
Friedrich Schmidt 1874–1877 (
Ferdinand August Zimmermann 1877–? (
Jakob Müller 1888–1908 (
Friedrich Reindel 1889–1898 (
Wilhelm Reindel 1899–1901 (
Franz Xaver Reichhart 1894–1924 (
Karol Wypyszewski 1893-1896 (
Benjamin Burckhardt 1884–1896 (
Karl Burckhardt 1896–1935 (
Baden, Württemberg and Hesse)
Lorenz Schwietz 1900–1914 (
Richard Schwietz 1913–1915 (
Alwin Engelhardt 1900–1906 (
Carl Gröpler 1906–1937 (
Otto Oswald Brand -1885 (
w:de:Moritz Brand 1885-before 1927 (“working” in 1908) (
Karl Müller 1908– after 1922 (
Baden, since 1921 also Hesse)
Paul Spaethe 1912–1924 (
Prussia, in 1923 also Saxony)
Hans Kordess −1918 (According to the
New York Times, 25 April 1918
Konrad Widder 1922–1923 (
Joseph Kurz (also Kurzer) 1924–1927 (
Johann Baptist Reichhart 1924-1948/50
Fritz Reichelt 1927–1933 (
Alwin Engelhardt 1933–1936 (
Prussia) (the same Alwin Engelhardt who was in office from 1900 to 1906)
Friedrich Hehr 1935–1949 (
Baden, Württemberg and Hesse, since 1937 in the whole Third Reich)
Ernst Reindel 1936–1943 (sources vary about his start)
Gottlob Bordt 1940–1945
Karl Henschke 1943–1945
August Köster 1943–1945
Alois Weiss 1943–1945
Wilhelm Röttger 1942–1945
Johann Mühl 1943–1945
Fritz Witzka 1943–1945
after 1945, “working” in 1947
after 1945, “working” in 1949
Gustav Völpel 1946–1948 (it is not sure if his allegations of having been an executioner are true)
Hermann Lorenz 1968–1981 (former
Elizabeth ? (known as "Lady Betty")
Roscommon) [3 ]
All executioners of New Caledonia's Bagne were inmates themselves.
Ionel Boeru leader of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad
Dorin Cârlan member of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad
Octavian Gheorghiu member of the Nicolae and Elena Ceauşescu couple firing squad
20ies of the 19th century
Cratwell to 1538 (when he was himself hanged for robbery)
[11 ] [12 ]
Stump-leg" to 1556 (when he was himself hanged for theft)
[11 ] [13 ]
Thomas Derrick 1601- before 1616
Gregory Brandon before 1616- before 1640
Richard Brandon before 1640–1649
William Lowen 1649
Edward Dun 1649–1663
(the subject of [15 ] Groanes from Newgate, or an Elegy upon Edward Dun. Esq., the Citie's Common Hangman, who dyed Naturally in his bed the 11th of September, 1663 Written by a person of Quality) [16 ]
Jack Ketch 1663–1686
Paskah Rose 1686 (Bleackley (1929) graphs his name as
John Price 1714–1715
William Marvell 1715–1717
James Aird 1715–1723
[ ] citation needed
? Banks (known as
Banks the Bailiff) 1717- after 1718
Richard Arnet before 1726–1728
(hanged [17 ] Jonathan Wild in 1725 ) [18 ]
(known as "the laughing hangman" [19 ] ) [19 ]
John Thrift 1735–1752 (convicted of murder in 1750, but pardoned and continued in office;
[20 ] executed [21 ] Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat on 9 April 1747, the last man to be beheaded in England. ) [22 ]
Thomas Turlis 1752–1771 (hanged
Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers with a silken rope, the last nobleman to be hanged in England ) [23 ]
Edward Dennis 1771–1786 (the last hangman at Tyburn and the first at Newgate;
died 21 November 1786 at his home in the Old Bailey [24 ] ) [25 ]
Edward Barlow 1781–1812
William Brunskill career lasted from 1786 to 1814
(started as assistant to Edward Dennis; [26 ] executed [24 ] Catherine Murphy in 1789, the last woman to be burned at the stake in England)
William Taylor −1810
[ ] citation needed
James Botting 1813/17-1819
James Botting 1817–1820
Thomas Cheshire 1820 (known as "Old Cheese";
assistant from 1808 to 1820 and from 1820 to 1840) [28 ] [29 ]
James Foxen 1820–1829
William Lee −1827
[ ] citation needed
William Calcraft 1829–1874
John Scott 1835–1847 (last executioner of Edinburgh)
George Smith 1849–1872
Thomas Askern 1853–1877
[ ] citation needed
Robert Anderson Evans 1873–1875
William Marwood 1874–1883
George Meker, or George Incher 1875–1881
[ ] citation needed
Bartholomew Binns 1883–1884
James Berry 1884–1891
James Billington 1884–1901
Thomas Henry Scott 1892–1895
Thomas Billington 1897–1901
William Billington 1902–1905
John Billington 1901–1905
John Ellis 1901–1923/24
Henry Pierrepoint 1901–1910
William Willis 1906–1926 (assistant to John Ellis from 1906;
assisted him in the execution of [31 ] Hawley Harvey Crippen ) [32 ]
Thomas Pierrepoint 1909–1946
Robert Baxter 1915–1935
Thomas Phillips 1918–1941
Robert Wilson 1920–1936
Alfred Allen 1928–1937
Stanley Cross 1932–1941
Albert Pierrepoint 1932–1956
Henry Kirk, or Harry Kirk 1941–1950
Stephen Wade, or
Steve Wade 1941–1955
Harry Bernard Allen 1941–1964
Syd Dernley 1949–1954
Robert Leslie Stewart 1950–1964
Royston Lawrence Rickard 1953–1964
[ ] citation needed
Harry Frank Robinson 1958–1964
[ ] citation needed
Samuel Barrass Plant 1961–1964
[ ] citation needed
John Underhill 1963–1964
[ ] citation needed
John C. Woods (1911–1950). Hangman for the Third Army in WWII. He was one of the hangmen who executed Nazi war criminals.
Joseph Malta (1918–1999) was the hangman who, with John C. Woods, executed the top 10 leaders of the Third Reich in Nuremberg on October 16, 1946, for crimes against humanity.
Clarence Burford, warden at
Kilby Prison from 1952–1965, was involved in several executions [33 ]
Murray Daniels, assistant warden at
Kilby Prison in the 1950s, involved in eleven executions [34 ]
J.D. White, warden at
Holman Correctional Facility from 1980 to 1983, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences. Executed Alabama's first post-Furman inmate, John Louis Evans on April 22, 1983. [35 ]
Willie Johnson, warden at
Holman Correctional Facility from 1983 to 1988, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences [36 ]
Charlie Jones, warden at
Holman Correctional Facility from 1988–2002, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences [37 ]
Grantt Culliver, warden at
Holman Correctional Facility from 2002–2009, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences [38 ]
Gary Hetzel, warden at
Holman Correctional Facility since 2012, required by state law to be the executioner of death sentences [39 ]
During the first part of the 20th century, operators of the
electric chair were known as " State electricians".
Max Brice – executioner from mid-1950s to 1967
Daniel Vasquez – warden of San Quentin prison who served as executioner at the
gas chamber executions of Robert Alton Harris in 1992 and the execution of David Mason the following year.
John J. "Jack" Eeles – corrections officer who served as hangman at Colorado State Penitentiary until he was murdered in a prison riot on October 3, 1929.
Wayne K. Patterson – warden at Colorado State Penitentiary who pulled the lever to start execution of Luis Jose Monge on June 2, 1967. This was the last execution in the United States prior to the 1972 US Supreme Court case
Furman vs. Georgia, which temporarily invalidated the death penalty nationwide. Patterson was opposed to capital punishment. [41 ]
Jack P. Duckworth
1981 – Warden of Indiana State Prison at Michigan City who was required by law to throw the switch at the electrocution of
Steven Timothy Judy [42 ]
Edwin B. Currier
circa 1910 – Chief Engineer at Massachusetts General Hospital who operated electric chair control panel during executions at
Charlestown Prison. [43 ]
Alan R. Doerhoff (apparently involved in executions also in Indiana, Arizona and at least one Federal)
State Executioners [ edit ]
Frank Wilson electrical industry superintendent from Pittsburgh area who served as executioner between 1949 and 1953 at Rockview Prison.
Jerry Kramer (executioner) Pittsburgh area electrician contracted as executioner at Rockview from 1954 to 1962. Resigned from post following execution of Elmo Smith.
Joe Byrd – Captain of the guard at the
Walls Unit who served as executioner between 1936 and 1964. The nearby prison cemetery, where unclaimed remains of executed inmates are buried by the state, is named in his honor. [34 ] W.
James "Jim" Estelle – Director of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) between 1972 to 1983. Was designated executioner under policy developed by the TDCJ in 1976. Was the individual pushing the drugs into the IV lines at the December, 1982 execution of [51 ] Charlie Brooks, the first inmate in the United States to be executed by lethal injection.
Jerry Givens 1982–1999 – Givens, a corrections officer at Virginia State Penitentiary and later Greensville Correctional Center, served as official executioner for all executions carried out in the state during this time period.
Sources [ edit ]
Anderson, Patrick R.: "Expert witnesses: Criminologists in the Courtroom".|Albany: State University of New York, 1987
Evans, Richard J.: Rituals of Retribution: Capital Punishment in Germany, 1600–1987. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996; London: Penguin Books, 1997
Goulart, José Alípio: Da Palmatória ao Patíbulo: Castigos de Escravos no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Editora Conquista, 1971
Koch, Tankred: Die Geschichte der Henker: Scharfrichterschicksale aus acht Jahrhunderten. Heidelberg: Kriminalistikverlag, 1988; Herrsching: Manfred-Pawlak-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1991
Martschukat, Jürgen: Inszeniertes Töten: Eine Geschichte der Todesstrafe vom 17. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Köln: Böhlau, 2000; Hamburg: 2006
Nowosadtko, Jutta: Scharfrichter und Abdecker: Der Alltag zweier "unehrlicher Berufe" in der Frühen Neuzeit. Paderborn: 1994
Ribeiro, João Luiz: No Meio das Galinhas as Baratas Não Têm Razão: A Lei de 10 de Junho de 1835 - Os Escravos e a Pena de Morte no Império do Brasil 1822-1889. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Renovar, 2005.
Rossa, Kurt: Todesstrafen: Von den Anfängen bis heute. Bergisch-Gladbach: Bastei-Lübbe-Verlag, 1979
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Did not carry out any execution; officially nominated that day, he refused the “job” and persisted in his refusal, changing his mind not even when tortured to make him reconsider. The next day, April 28, 1825, two anonymous convicts of whose names have not appeared records so far, if there are any surviving somewhere, refused the “job” either and so persisted when being shown the gallows and in front of them announced they'd be hanged there later; they preferred their own hangings
^ Christopher Winn (2006). I Never Knew That About Ireland. Random House. p. 30. ISBN 0091910250.
^ "Singapore executioner 'sacked. BBC News Online. 28 November 2005. '"
^ "Hangman ignites outrage". Melbourne: Reuters. 30 November 2005.
^ Darshan didn't do it, The Age, 3 December 2005
^ a b Donald Rumbelow (1982). The Triple Tree: Newgate, Tyburn, and Old Bailey. Harrap. p. 176. ISBN 0245538771.
^ Richard Grafton (1809). Grafton's chronicle, or history of England: to which is added his table of the bailiffs, sheriffs and mayors of the city of London from the year 1189, to 1558, inclusive : in two volumes 2. Johnson. p. 463.
^ Andrew Barrett; Christopher Harrison, eds. (1999). Crime and punishment in England: a sourcebook. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 1857288718.
^ Frederic George Stephens; Mary Dorothy George, eds. (1870). Catalogue of prints and drawings in the British Museum: Division I. Political and personal satires 1. Trustees of the British Museum. p. 421.
^ Bleakley (1929) p.4
^ William Thomas Lowndes (1834). The bibliographer's manual of English literature containing an account of rare, curious, and useful books, published in or relating to Great Britain and Ireland, from the invention of printing: with bibliographical and critical notices, collations of the rarer articles, and the prices at which they have been sold in the present century. W. Pickering. p. 628.
^ a b Bleakley (1929) p.39
^ Gerald Howson (1985). Thief-Taker General: Jonathan Wild and the emergence of crime and corruption as a way of life in eighteenth-century England. Transaction Publishers. pp. 132, 276. ISBN 0887380328.
^ a b Bleakley (1929) p.55
^ John Brown (1820). Memoirs of George the Third, late king of Great Britain: including characters and anecdotes of the British court. H. Fisher. p. 129.
^ Pat Rogers (1980). Hacks and dunces: Pope, Swift and Grub Street. University paperbacks 704. Taylor & Francis. p. 92. ISBN 0416742408.
^ Lloyd Bradley; Thomas Eaton (2005). Book of Secrets. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 138. ISBN 0740755617.
^ Timothy Vance Kaufman-Osborn (2002). From noose to needle: capital punishment and the late liberal state. Law, meaning, and violence. University of Michigan Press. p. 77. ISBN 0472088904.
^ a b Jeremy Beadle; Ian Harrison (2008). Firsts, Lasts & Onlys: Crime. Anova Books. p. 39. ISBN 1905798040.
^ John Laurence (1971). A history of capital punishment: with special reference to capital punishment in Great Britain. Kennikat Press. p. 104. ISBN 0804611149.
^ Bleakley (1929) p.135
^ Bleakley (1929) p.151
^ . 2nd ser Notes and Queries XI. 20 April 1861. p. 315.
^ Bleakley (1929) pp.192-202
^ Chambers's encyclopaedia: a dictionary of universal knowledge for the people 4. W. & R. Chambers. 1862. p. 190.
^ Kenneth Fields (1998). Lancashire magic & mystery: secrets of the Red Rose County. Sigma. p. 115. ISBN 1850586063.
^ David James Smith (2010). Supper with the Crippens. Hachette UK. ISBN 140913413X.
^ Russell Tate (December 3, 1967). "Kilby electric chair – will anyone else ride lightning?". Tuscaloosa News . Retrieved July 26, 2010.
^ a b "Applications for executioner posts run high". . May 11, 1976 Wilmington Morning Star . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ United Press International (May 21, 1986). "Warden Transfers to Fulfill Promise". Florence Times-Daily . Retrieved June 1, 1983.
^ Associated Press (May 21, 1986). "Mother Relieved After Execution". Tuscaloosa News . Retrieved July 26, 2010.
^ Stan Bailey (August 4, 2002). "Retired executioner has no regrets". The Birmingham News . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ Tom Gordon (March 14, 2010). "After 20 executions, Grantt Culliver has a serene outlook". The Birmingham News . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ Associated Press (July 26, 2013). "Andrew Reid Lackey executed in Alabama for killing elderly man.". The Epoch Times . Retrieved July 27, 2013.
^ Michael Radelet. "History- Capital Punishment in Colorado, 1859-1972". Office of the Colorado State Public Defender . Retrieved May 8, 2011.
^ Terje Langeland (July 18, 2002). "The Executioner's Song - Job is Not All That It's Cracked Up to Be". Colorado Springs Independent . Retrieved May 8, 2011.
^ "Judy Is Getting Something He Wants". . March 8, 1981 Spartanburg Herald-Journal . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ "WILL ACCEPT $100 LESS FOR EXECUTIONS". . November 9, 1914 The Boston Globe . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ "MISSISSIPPI: Death on Wheels". . January 18, 1943 Time . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ "Mississippi's executioner leaves job after 30 years". . May 15, 1987 The Advocate . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ "Former state executioner dies". Associated Press – WAFF. March 5, 2010 . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ Gene Curtis (July 10, 2007). "Only in Oklahoma: Executing criminals just another job". Tulsa World . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ "Executioner plugs electric chair". . Lawrence Journal-World Associated Press. May 16, 1977 . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ "EXECUTIONER RESIGNS POST". Gettysburg Times. May 23, 1953 . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
^ "Bad News on Death Row". . October 1976 Texas Monthly . Retrieved July 15, 2010.
Bleakley, Horace (1929). The Hangmen of England: How They Hanged and Whom They Hanged, The Life Story of "Jack Ketch" through two Centuries. London: Chapman and Hall.
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