List of expeditions of Muhammad

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This List of expeditions of Muhammad, also includes a List of battles of Muhammad and comprises information about casualties, objectives, and nature of the military expeditions ordered by of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, as well as the primary sources which mention the expeditions.

List of expeditions[edit]

Key/Legend

      Sariyyah (expeditions which he ordered but did not take part (73))       Ghazwah (expeditions which he ordered and took part (27))

No. Name Date Muhammad's order and reason for expedition Casualties description Notable primary sources
1 Al Is Caravan Raid 623 [1][2][3][4] Raid Quraysh caravan to relieve themselves from poverty[5]
2 Batn Rabigh Caravan Raid 623 [1][2][3][6] Raid Quraysh caravan to relieve themselves from poverty[4][5]
  • None, caravan left [2]
3 Kharar Caravan Raid May & June 623 [1][2][3][4][8] Attack a Quraysh caravan[4]
  • None, caravan left[2]
4 Invasion of Waddan August 623 [8][9] Attack a Quraysh caravan which included camels[4][8]
  • Unknown
5 Invasion of Buwat October 623 [11][12] Raid a Quraysh caravan which included 200 camels[13][14]
  • None, caravan left [2]
6 Invasion of Dul Ashir December 623 [15] Attack a Quraysh caravan[6]
7 Invasion of Safwan 623 [15] To pursue Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri who led a small group that looted Muhammad's animals[13]
  • None, enemy escaped [13]
8 Nakhla Raid January 624[15] Attack a Quraysh caravan and gather information[6][18]
  • Muslims: 0 Casualties
  • Non-Muslims: 1 killed, 2 captured [18]
9 Battle of Badr March 624 [22] Raid a Quraysh caravan carrying 50,000 gold Dinars guarded by 40 men, and to further Muslim political, economic and military position[23]
  • Muslims: 14 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 70 killed, 30-47 captured[24]
10 Assassination of Asma bint Marwan January 624 [28] Kill 'Asma' bint Marwan for oppressing Muslims,opposing Muhammad with poetry, and for provoking others to attack him[29]
  • Asma' bint Marwan assassinated[27]
11 Assassination of Abu Afak February 624 [31] Kill Abu Afak for opposing Muhammad through poetry[30]
  • Abu Afak assassinated[30]
12 Invasion of Sawiq 624 [34] Pursue Abu Sufyan for killing 2 Muslims and burning a corn field[35]
  • 2 Muslims killed[35]
13 Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa February 624 [38] Attack the Banu Qaynuqa Jews for allegedly breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina[39] by pinning the clothes of a Muslim woman, which lead to her being stripped naked[40]
  • Unknown, some revenge killings[40]
14 Al Kudr Invasion May 624 [47] Surprise attack on the Banu Salim tribe for allegedly plotting to attack Medina[48]
  • Unknown
15 Invasion of Thi Amr September 624 [50][51] Raid the Banu Muharib and Banu Talabah tribes after he received intelligence that they were allegedly going to raid the outskirts of Medina[52]
  • 1 captured by Muslims[52]
16 Assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf September 624 [54] According to Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad ordered his followers to kill Ka'b because he "had gone to Mecca after Badr and inveighed against Muhammad. He also composed verses in which he bewailed the victims of Quraysh who had been killed at Badr. Shortly afterwards he returned to Medina and composed amatory verses of an insulting nature about the Muslim women".[55][56]
  • Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf assassinated[56]
17 Invasion of Bahran 624 [57] Raid the Banu Sulaym tribe,[58] no reason given in primary sources ( Possibly a continuation of the previous war)
18 Nejd Caravan Raid 624 [57] Intercept and capture Quraysh caravan and its goods[57]
  • 3 captured by Muslims(including guide) [57]
19 Expedition of 'Abdullah ibn 'Atik December 624 [62] Kill Abu Rafi' ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq for mocking Muhammad with his poetry and for helping the troops of the Confederates by providing them with money and supplies[63]
  • Abu Rafi assassinated[63]
20 Battle of Uhud March 23 625 [66][67] Defend against Quraysh attack[68]
  • Muslims: 70 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 22 or 37 Killed[68]
21 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad March 625[72] Prevent Quraysh attack on weakened Muslim army[73]
  • Muslims: 2 spies killed
  • Non-Muslims: 3 beheaded, 3 captured[73]
22 Expedition of Qatan June 625 [72] Attack Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe after receiving intelligence that they were allegedly plotting to attack Medina[75]
  • 3 captured by Muslims[76]
23 Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais 625 [77] Kill Khalid bin Sufyan, because there were reports he considered an attack on Madinah and that he was inciting the people on Nakhla or Uranah to fight Muslims[77]
  • Khalid ibn Sufyan assassinated[77]
24 Expedition of Al Raji 625 [82] Some men requested that Muhammad send instructors to teach them Islam,[82] but the men were bribed by the two tribes of Khuzaymah who wanted revenge for the assassination of Khalid bin Sufyan by Muhammad's followers[83]
25 The Mission of Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri 627 [87] Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri sent to assassinate Abu Sufyan[88]
  • 3 polytheists killed by Muslims[88]
  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[89]
26 Expedition of Bir Maona July 625 [90] Muhammad sends Missionaries at request of some men from the Banu Amir tribe,[91] but the Muslims are killed as revenge for the assassination of Khalid bin Sufyan by Muhammad's followers[83]
  • 70 Muslims killed[91]
27 Invasion of Banu Nadir August 625 [94] Muslim scholars (like Mubarakpuri) claim, the Banu Nadir were attacked because the Angel Gabriel told Muhammad that some of the Banu Nadir wanted to assassinate him.[95] Watt contends it was in response to the tribe’s criticism of Muhammad and doubts they wanted to assassinate Muhammad. He says "it is possible that the allegation was no more than an excuse to justify the attack".[96]
  • Unknown
28 Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa October 625[100] or 627[98] Attack the Banu Ghatafan tribe, because he received news that they were assembling at Dhat al-Riqa with a suspicious purpose
  • Many women captured by Muslims[101]
29 Invasion of Badr January 626[84] or March 625[87][103] Attack the Quraysh led by Abu Sufyan, both sides were preparing to fight each other again at Badr[104]
30 Invasion of Dumatul Jandal July 626 [106] Invade Duma, because Muhammad received intelligence that some tribes there were involved in highway robbery and preparing to attack Medina itself[107]
  • None, Ghatafan tribe flees[107]
31 Battle of the Trench February 627 [110] Muhammad orders Muslims to defend Medina from attack, after Banu Nadir and Banu Qaynuqa tribes form an alliance with the Quraysh to attack him as revenge for expelling them from Medina[111][112]
  • Muslims: light casualties
  • Non-Muslims: extremely heavy casualties[113]
32 Invasion of Banu Qurayza February–March 627 [115]

Attack Banu Qurayza because according to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by the angel Gabriel.[116][117][118][119][120][121] Al-Waqidi claims Muhammad had a treaty with the tribe which was torn apart. Stillman and Watt deny the authenticity of al-Waqidi.[122] Al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by Muslim writers, who claim that he is unreliable.[123][124]

  • Muslims: 2 killed[116]
  • Non-Muslims:
  1. 600-900 beheaded (Tabari, Ibn Hisham)
    [116][117][125]
  2. All Males and 1 woman beheaded
    (Sunni Hadith)[126][127]
33 Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah June 627 [131] Attack Bani Bakr sept for booty/spoils[132][133][134]
34 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan 627 [136] Attack Banu Assad bin Qhuzayma tribe to capture booty/spoils[136][137]
  • None, Banu Asad tribe flees[138]
35 First Raid on Banu Thalabah August 627 [84][87][139] Attack the Banu Thalabah tribe, because he suspected they would be tempted to steal his camels[138]
36 Second Raid on Banu Thalabah August 627 [84][87][139] Attack the Banu Thalabah tribe, as revenge for the 1st failed raid on them in which 9 Muslims died[138]
  • 1 injured man captured by Muslims[138]
37 Invasion of Banu Lahyan September 627 [84][87] Attack the Banu Lahyan tribe to get revenge for the killing of 10 Muslims in the Expedition of Al Raji[138]
  • None, Banu Lahyan tribe flees[138]
38 Raid on al-Ghabah

627[144]

No orders given by Muhammad, Amr ibn al-Akwa attacks Uyanah bin Hisn Al-Fazari after seeing him seize 20 of Muhammad's camels[144]
  • 1 Muslim shepherd killed, and his wife captured[144]
39 Expedition of Dhu Qarad September 627 [84][87] To attack a group of men led by Uyanah bin Hisn Al-Fazari, who raided the outskirts of the Medina; and seized 20 of Muhammad's milch camels[145]
  • Muslims: 4 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 4 Killed [146]
40 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Jumum) 627 [138] To raid al-Jumum and capture booty/spoils[148]
  • Some captured by Muslims[138]
41 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Is) September 627 [150] Attack Quraysh caravan and loot their camels[138][151]
42 Third Raid on Banu Thalabah 627 [87] To raid Banu Thalabah and capture their camels as booty[152]
  • None, Banu Thalabah tribe flees[152]
43 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma) October 627 [87] Attack robbers who attacked Muhammad's envoy, Dhiyah bin Khalifah al-Kalbi[154]
  • Heavy casualties inflicted, 100 women and boys captured by Muslims[154]
44 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Wadi al-Qura) December 627 [156] Survey the area and to monitor the movements of the enemies of Muhammad[152]
45 Invasion of Banu Mustaliq December 627 [87] Attack Banu Mustaliq because Muhammad received some rumours that the Banu Mustaliq were preparing to attack him.[158] The Banu Mustaliq also believed that Muhammad was preparing to attack them, both sides sent spies to confirm the reports, but the Banu Mustaliq spy was killed by Muslims, and then Muhammad told his followers to prepare for war[159]
  • Muslims: 1 killed
    (friendly fire)
  • Non-Muslims: 10 killed, 200 families taken captive[159][160]
46 Expedition of Abdur Rahman bin Auf December 627 [87] 700 men sent to get the Christian king Al-Asbagh and his people to convert to Islam within 3 days or pay Jizyah[162][163]
47 Expedition of Fidak 627 [87] Attack the Bani Sa‘d bin Bakr tribe, because Muhammad received intelligence they were planning to help the Jews of Khaybar[166]
  • 1 captured by Muslims, rest of tribe flees[167]
48 Second Expedition of Wadi al-Qura January 628 [87] Raid the inhabitants of Wadi al-Qura for revenge, because a number of Muslims were killed when they tried to raid the inhabitants previously, but failed[168]
  • 30 horsemen,[169] and 1 women killed by Muslims[170]
  • Many captured by Muslims[170]
49 Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri February 628 [87] Capture 8 men who came to him to convert to Islam, but then killed one Muslim and drove off with Muhammad's camels[171]
  • Muslims: 1 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 8 tortured to death[171][172]
50 Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha February 628 [87] Kill Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam because Muhammad heard that his group was preparing to attack him[174][175]
51 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah March 628 [178] March to Mecca to perform the lesser pilgrimage (Umrah)[179]
  • None
52 Conquest of Fidak May 628 [181] To force the Jews of Fidak to surrender their properties and wealth(accepting his terms) or be attacked[129]
  • None
53 Battle of Khaybar May/June 628 [184] To attack the Jews of Khaybar for booty to distribute to his followers whose expectations had recently been disappointed (according to Watt)[185]
  • Muslims: 16-18 killed
  • Jews: 93 killed[186]
54 Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura May 628 [181] Attack the Jews of Wadi al Qura to conquer their land[189]
55 Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab December 628 [87] Attack Banu Hawazin for booty[191]
56 Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq December 628 [87] Attack the Banu Kilab tribe[192]
  • Many killed[192]
    (at least 7 families killed[193]) by Muslims
57 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Fadak) December 628 [195] Attack for Banu Murrah tribe to capture booty [196][197]
  • Muslims: 29 killed,[175] Bashir wounded[198]
  • Non-Muslims: large amount killed[175]
58 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Mayfah) January 629 [195] Attack the Banu ‘Awâl and Banu Thalabah tribes to capture booty (camels and flock)[199]
  • Some killed by Muslims[175]
59 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Fadak) May 629[202] Attack the Banu Murrah as revenge for the killing of Muslims in a failed raid carried out by Muslims[203]
  • Everyone who came into contact with Muslims were killed[203]
60 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Yemen) February 629 [195] Attack a large group of polytheists who Muhammad believed gathered to raid the outskirts of Madinah[175]
  • 1 killed, 2 captured by Muslims[205]
61 Expedition of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami April 629[202] 50 men sent to demand the allegiance of the Banu Sualym tribe to Islam[206]
62 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid) May 629 [202] To raid the Banu al-Mulawwih tribe for booty[175][204]
  • Large amount killed,[175] and 1 captured by Muslims[204]
63 Raid on Banu Layth June 629 [115] Attack Banu Layth, camels plundered[203]
  • "We killed the warriors and took the children prisoner." No numbers given, but the Muslims were "about ten men".
  • Al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 369–370. London & New York: Routledge.
64 Expedition of Shuja ibn Wahb al-Asadi June 629 [202] Raid the Banu Amir tribe to plunder camels for booty[209][210]
  • Unknown
65 Expedition of Ka’b ibn 'Umair al-Ghifari June 629 [202] Attack Banu Quda‘a tribe because Muhammad received intelligence that they had gathered a large number of men to attack the Muslim positions[207]
  • 14 Muslims killed, 1 wounded[207]
66 Battle of Mu'tah August 629 [202] Raid the inhabitants of Mut'ah, because one of Muhammad's messenger was killed by the chief of Ma’ab or Mu’tah[213]
  • Muslims: 12 killed
  • Non-Muslims: Unknown[213]
67 Expedition of Amr ibn al-As September 629 [215] To subjugate the Banu Qudah tribe, and incite the tribes friendly to Muhammad to attack them, because of a rumour that the Banu Qudah were preparing to attack Medina and to improve Muslim prestige[216][217]
  • None, Qudah tribe flees[218]
68 Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah October 629 [219] Attack the tribe of Juhaynah and raid a caravan[220][221][222]
  • None, caravan flees[222]
69 Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami 629 [223][224] To kill Rifa’ah bin Qays, because Muhammad heard they were allegedly enticing the people of Qais to fight him[224]
  • 1 beheaded,[225] 4 women captured by Muslims[226]
70 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Khadirah) November[228] or Dec 629[220] Attack the Ghatafan tribe because he heard that they were amassing troops and were still outside the "domain of Islam"[229]
  • Some killed, some captured by Muslims[229]
71 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) December 629 [228] To divert the attention from his intention of attacking Mecca, he despatched 8 men to attack a caravan passing through Edam[231]
72 Conquest of Mecca December 629 [228] To Conquer Mecca[235]
  • 5 killed by Muslims:[236]
  1. Abdullah b. Khatal[237]
  2. Fartana (slave girl)[238]
  3. Huwayrith b. Nafidh[236]
  4. Miqyas b. Subabah[236]
  5. Harith b. Talatil[236]
73 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Nakhla) December 629 [240] To destroy al-Uzza because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[241] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[242]
74 Raid of Amr ibn al-As December 629 [240] To destroy Suwa because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[241] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[242]
75 Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali December 629 [240] To destroy Manat because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[241] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[242]
  • 1 women killed by Muslims[242]
76 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah) January 630 [240] Invite the Banu Jadhimah tribe to Islam[248]
  • Entire tribe taken prisoner, portion executed[248][249]
77 Battle of Hunayn January 630 [240] To attack the people of Hawazin and Thaqif for refusing to surrender to Muhammad and submit to Islam because "they thought that they were too mighty to admit or surrender" after the Conquest of Mecca[253]
  • Muslims: 5 killed[254]
  • Non-Muslims: 70 killed,[253] 6000 women and children captured[255]
78 Expedition of At-Tufail ibn 'Amr Ad-Dausi January 630 [240] Destroy the idol Yaguth[257] and to secure the allegiance of the Banu Daws tribe to Isam so they can lend him catapults to use in the Siege of Taif[258]
79 Battle of Autas 630 [259] Defend against an attack by a league of tribes that formed an alliance to attack him. Washington Irving claims that the tribes were hostile to Muhammad and wanted to attack him because he was spreading Islam by the sword, and because the tribes feared Muhammad would attack them anyway for vengeance[260]
  • Enemy defeated, many killed by Muslims[257][261]
80 Expedition of Abu Amir Al-Ashari January 630 [84] Chase the enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn[263]
  • Muslims: 1 Killed
  • Non-Muslims: 9 Killed[264]
81 Expedition of Abu Musa Al-Ashari January 630 [84] Chase the enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn[263]
  • At least 1 killed,[265] men, women and children taken captives by Muslims[266]
82 Siege of Ta'if January 630 [267] Attack enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn and sought refuge in the fortress of Taif[255]
  • Muslims: 12 killed[268]
  • Non-Muslims: Unknown
83 Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn April 630 [270] Attack the Muslim tribe of Banu Tamim for refusing to pay tax (Zakat)[271]
  • 11 men, 21 women and 30 boys, captured by Muslims[272]
84 Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir May 630 [276] Attack the Banu Khatham tribe to capture booty[272][277]
  • Muslims: many wounded, some killed
  • Non-Muslims: many wounded, some killed, some women captured[272]
85 Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi June 630 [278] To call the Banu Kilab tribe to embrace Islam[272]
  • 1 killed by Muslims[272]
86 Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz July 630 [280] Attack a group of Abyssinians (Ethiopians) who Muhammad suspected were pirates[272][281][282]
  • None, Ethiopians flee[281]
87 Third Expedition of Dhu Qarad July 630 [281] Muhammad sent him to take revenge for the killing of the son of Abu Dhar Ghifari at al-Ghaba[281][283]
88 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib July 630 [285] Destroy al-Qullus, an idol worshipped by pagans[286]
  • Many men, women and children taken captive by Muslims[286][287]
89 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan (Udhrah and Baliy) July 630 [289] Attack the tribes of Udhrah and Baliy, no further details[289][290]
  • Unknown
90 Battle of Tabouk October 630 [289] Attack the Byzantine empire. Mubarakpuri claims, reason was revenge for the killing of 1 of Muhammad's ambassadors by a Christian chief of al-Balaqa, which led to the Battle of Mutah. Mubrakpuri claims this was the reason for the Battle of Tabouk also, and that there was a rumour Heraclius was preparing an attack on Muslims.[291] William Muir claims Heraclius wanted to prevent the recurrence of Muslim attacks such as the Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan against the Banu Udrah tribe.[292] A tribe that was aligned to the Byzantine Empire[293]
  • None, no enemies met[291]
91 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Dumatul Jandal) October 630 [289] Attack the Christian prince of Duma.[296]
  • 1 killed, 2 taken captive[297]
92 Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb 630 [299] To demolish the idol al-Lat[300]
  • Unknown
93 Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar 630 [302] Demolish a mosque for promoting opposition[296]
  • None (speculation that people may have been burnt[303])
94 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal) April 631 [306][307] Demolish an idol called Wadd,[307][308] worshipped by the Banu Kilab tribe[309]
  • Banu Abd-Wadd and Banu Amir al-Ajdar tribe members killed by Muslims[306][307]
95 Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah April 631 [311][312] Ordered Surad ibn Abdullah (new convert) to war against the non-Muslim tribes in his neighbourhood[311]
  • Heavy casualties, people of Jurash killed[313]
96 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Najran) June 631 [289] Call on the people of Najran to embrace Islam or fight the Muslims[314]
  • None, Banu Harith tribe surrenders and converts to Islam[314]
97 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mudhij) December 631 [289] Attack the Banu Nakhla tribe to reduce them to submission[318]
  • 20 killed by Muslims.[318]
98 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Hamdan) 631 [289] To call the people of Hamdan to embrace Islam[320]
99 Demolition of Dhul Khalasa April 632 [311] Demolish the Temple of Dhul Khalasa worshipped by the Bajila and Khatham tribes[322]
100 Expedition of Usama bin Zayd May 632 [325] Invade Palestine and attack Moab and Darum[326]
  • Local population "slaughtered" by Muslims, "destroying, burning and taking as many captives as they could"[326]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195773071. "In the first two or three expeditions the numbers involved are given as from 20 to 80. In those of the later part of 623 (ii-vi/2), however, when Muhammad himself took part, they are said to have ranged up to 200."  (free online)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 127. (online)
  3. ^ a b c Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  4. ^ a b c d e f Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 345.
  5. ^ a b Richard A. Gabriel, Muhammad, Islam's first great general, p. 73.
  6. ^ a b c Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 346.
  7. ^ a b Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 4. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  8. ^ a b c Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 4. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "august 623 Then occurred the sariyyah of Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqa towards al-Kharar in Dhu al-Qa'dah (May–June 623 AC)" 
  9. ^ Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0887063442, "In Safar (which began August 4, 623), nearly twelve months after his arrival in Medina on the twelfth of Rabi' al- Awwal, he went out on a raid as far as Waddan" 
  10. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 345. 
  11. ^ Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 118.
  12. ^ Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 13, ISBN 978-0887063442, "Expeditions Led by Muhammad Then the Messenger of God led an expedition in Rabi' al-Akhir (which began October 2, 623) in search of Quraysh. He went as far as Buwat" 
  13. ^ a b c d Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 128. (online)
  14. ^ a b Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 285. 
  15. ^ a b c Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 245, ISBN 978-9960899558 
  16. ^ a b Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. pp. 285–286. 
  17. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 286. 
  18. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp.128-131. (online)
  19. ^ Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 246, ISBN 978-9960899558 
  20. ^ Muhammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād, p. 347.
  21. ^ Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 247, ISBN 978-9960899558  See footnote 1, page 247
  22. ^ Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0887063442, "Some say the Battle of Badr took place on 19 Ramadan (March 15, 624)." 
  23. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 132. (online)
  24. ^ Muḥammad Aḥmad Bāshmīl, The great battle of Badr, p. 122.
  25. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 133-138. (online)
  26. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 137. (online)
  27. ^ a b Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 210. 
  28. ^ William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 130 
  29. ^ a b Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 35. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "SARIYYAH OF `UMAYR IBN `ADI. Then (occurred) the sariyyah of `Umayr ibn `Adi Ibn Kharashah al-Khatmi against `Asma' Bint Marwan, of Banu Umayyah Ibn Zayd, when five nights had remained from the month of Ramadan, in the beginning of the nineteenth month from the hijrah of the apostle of Allah." 
  30. ^ a b c Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. pp. 675–676. 
  31. ^ William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 133 
  32. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 675. 
  33. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 31. ASIN B0007JAWMK. ""Then occurred the "sariyyah" of Salim Ibn Umayr al-Amri against Abu Afak, the Jew, in [the month of] Shawwal in the beginning of the twentieth month from the hijrah" 
  34. ^ Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. xiii, ISBN 978-0887063442 
  35. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp.150-151. (online)
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  37. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 33–34. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  38. ^ Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 254.
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  46. ^ Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 86, ISBN 978-0887063442 
  47. ^ William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 140 
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  50. ^ a b Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 100, ISBN 978-0887063442 
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  54. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 35. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "SARIYYAH FOR SLAYING KA'B IBN AL-ASHRAF Then (occurred) the sariyyah for slaying Ka'b Ibn al-Ashraf, the Jew. It took place on 14 Rabi' al-Awwal (4. September AC 624))" 
  55. ^ Uri Rubin, The Assassination of Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf, Oriens, Vol. 32. (1990), pp. 65-71.
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  60. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 290 (footnote 1).
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  62. ^ William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 14
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  65. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 482. "THE KILLING OF SALLAM IBN ABU'L-HUQAYQ" 
  66. ^ William Montgomery Watt (1961), Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, p. 135, ISBN 0198810784, "The Battle of Uhud (23rd March 625) About..." 
  67. ^ Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 105, ISBN 978-0887063442, "Messenger of God to Uhud. This is said to have been on Saturday, 7 Shaw- wal, in Year Three of the Hijrah (March 23, 625)." 
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  69. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 292.
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  75. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 349.
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  83. ^ a b Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0195773071. "The common version, however, is that B. Lihyan wanted to avenge the assassination of their chief at Muhammad's instigation, and bribed two clans of the tribe of Khuzaymah to say they wanted to become Muslims and ask Muhammad to send instructors."  (online)
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  90. ^ Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 151, ISBN 978-0887063442, "Then in Safar (which began July 13, 625), four months after Uhud, he sent out the men of Bi'r Ma'unah" 
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  95. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 189. (online)
  96. ^ Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. xxxv, ISBN 978-0887063442, "The main underlying reason for the expulsion of the clan of al-Nadir was the same as in the case of Quaynuqa, namely, that Jewish criticisms endangered the ordinary Muslim's belief in Muhammad's prophethood and in the Quran as revelation from God." 
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  105. ^ Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, p. 222  See footnote
  106. ^ Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, pp. 225–226 
  107. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 193-194. (online)
  108. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 657. 
  109. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 76. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "Ghazwah of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, to Dumat Al-Jandal" 
  110. ^ Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 216.
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  115. ^ a b William Muir (2003), The life of Mahomet, Kessinger Publishing, p. 317, ISBN 9780766177413 
  116. ^ a b c Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 201-205. (online)
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  119. ^ Peters, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, p. 222-224.
  120. ^ Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book, pp. 137-141.
  121. ^ Subhash C. Inamdar (2001), Muhammad and the Rise of Islam: The Creation of Group Identity, Psychosocial Press, p. 166 (footnotes), ISBN 1887841288 
  122. ^ Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book, pp. 14-16.
  123. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, section on "Muhammad"
  124. ^ Watt, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Section on "Kurayza, Banu".
  125. ^ Al Tabari, Michael Fishbein (translator) (1997), Volume 8, Victory of Islam, State University of New York Press, pp. 35–36, ISBN 9780791431504 
  126. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2665
  127. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:52:280
  128. ^ Ibn Kathir, Saed Abdul-Rahman (2009), Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz'21, MSA Publication Limited, p. 213, ISBN 9781861796110 (online)
  129. ^ a b Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad, p. 338.
  130. ^ Al Tabari, Michael Fishbein (translator) (1997), Volume 8, Victory of Islam, State University of New York Press, pp. 35–36, ISBN 9780791431504 
  131. ^ Muhammad Yasin Mahzar Siddiqi, Role of Booty in the economy during the prophets time, Vol. 1, King Abdul Aziz University , p.11. (archive), "In the sixth year of the hijrah (June, 627-May, 628A.D.) there were three ghazawa t but no booty was obtained from them. Of the 18 saraya, during this year only seven yielded any monetary or material benefits to the Muslims The very first expedition of the year i.e. Muhammad b. Maslamah's expedition..."
  132. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 204. (online)
  133. ^ a b Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 96. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  134. ^ a b Al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, p. 534-535.
  135. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 96. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "SARIYYAH OF MUHAMMAD IBN MASLAMAH AGAINST AL-QURATA" 
  136. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 205. (online)
  137. ^ a b Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 104. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "Then occurred the sariyyah of 'Ukkashah Ibn Mihsan al-Asadl on al-Ghamr." 
  138. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 205. (online)
  139. ^ a b Tabari, Al (2008), The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 119, ISBN 978-0887063442 
  140. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 105. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "despatched Muhammad Ibn Maslamah with ten men towards Bana Tha'labah and Bana 'Uwal, a branch of Bana Tia'labah who were..." 
  141. ^ Al Tabari, Isma'il Qurban Husayn (translator) (25 Sep 1990), The last years of the Prophet, State University of New York Press, p. 123, ISBN 978-0887066917  (online)
  142. ^ Yahiya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi (2005), Riyad-us Saliheen, Islamic Books  See no. 1309
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  144. ^ a b c d Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 99. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  145. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 231. (online)
  146. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0195773071. "Then there was the raid on Muhammad's private herd of camels by 'Uyaynah b. Hisn al-Fazari, who was doubtless annoyed because Muhammad had broken off negotiations with him over the withdrawal of Ghatafan. The raid was a small affair. Only 40 enemy horsemen were involved, and the booty was only 20 milking camels; 8 Muslims pursued on horseback, recovered half the camels, and killed 4 of the raiders for the loss of i of their own number."  (free online)
  147. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 100. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  148. ^ Uri Rubin (1998), The Life of Muḥammad, Ashgate, p. 223, ISBN 9780860787037, "Haritha on the raid to al-Jamum and Zayd obtained goats and sheep and captured a group of unbelievers..." 
  149. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 106. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  150. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0195773071. "One was a little-known expedition about September 627"  (free online)
  151. ^ a b c Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 107. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  152. ^ a b c d Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 206. (online)
  153. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 107. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha towards al-Taraf" 
  154. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 226. (online)
  155. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 108. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha against Hisma" 
  156. ^ William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, pp. 12-13.
  157. ^ a b Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 109. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha towards Wadi al-Qura" 
  158. ^ Sir William Muir (1861), The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira: with introductory chapters on the original sources for the biography of Mahomet and on the pre-Islamite history of Arabia, Volume 3, Smith, Elder & Co, p. 237  (abridged version)
  159. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 207-209. (online)
  160. ^ William Muir (2003), The life of Mahomet, Kessinger Publishing, p. 310, ISBN 9780766177413  (original)
  161. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 490. 
  162. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  163. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 672. 
  164. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  165. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 672. 
  166. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  167. ^ a b Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 110. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "SARIYYAH OF 'ALI IBN ABl TALIB AGAINST BANU SA'D IBN BAKR AT FADAK" 
  168. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  169. ^ Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  170. ^ a b c Al Tabari, Michael Fishbein (translator) (1997), Volume 8, Victory of Islam, State University of New York Press, pp. 95–97, ISBN 9780791431504 
  171. ^ a b c William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, pp. 18-19.
  172. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 1:4:234
  173. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surai Madiah 5:39, "The Punishment of those who cause mischief in the Land", and Tafsir ibn Kathir, 5:39, Text version
  174. ^ a b William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 17
  175. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 241. (online)
  176. ^ Tirmidhi (Partial translation), see no. 3923, p. 182.
  177. ^ Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator) (1998). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh. Oxford University Press. p. 665. "Abdullah b. Rawaha's raid to kill al-Yusayr b. Rizam" 
  178. ^ Emory C. Bogle (1998), Islam: origin and belief, University of Texas Press, p. 19.
  179. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 214-215.
  180. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 211. ASIN B0007JAWMK. 
  181. ^ a b Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 180. ISBN 978-9960897714. (online)
  182. ^ Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), Pg 554, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, also see Tafsir ibn Kathir 59:7, Text Version
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  184. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195773071. "Muhammad had thus a straightforward reason for attacking Khaybar. The moment he chose for the attack May /June 628 (i/y) shortly after his return from the expedition of al-Hudaybiyah was one when it was also convenient for him to have booty to distribute to his followers whose expectations had recently been disappointed."  (free online)
  185. ^ Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195773071. "Muhammad had thus a straightforward reason for attacking Khaybar. The moment he chose for the attack May /June 628 (i/y) shortly after his return from the expedition of al-Hudaybiyah was one when it was also convenient for him to have booty to distribute to his followers whose expectations had recently been disappointed."  (free online)
  186. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 238. (online)
  187. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 432.
  188. ^ Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , pp. 433-434.
  189. ^ William Muir, The Life of Mahomet (2003), p. 394.
  190. ^ a b Tabari, Al (25 Sep 1990), The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma’il Qurban Husayn), State University of New York Press, "enumerating with them the expedition of Wadi al-Qura. He stated that he fought there with his slave Mid'am" 
  191. ^ a b Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 146. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "The Sariyyah of 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab, may Allah show him mercy, on Turabah" 
  192. ^ a b William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 83 (footnote 2).
  193. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2632
  194. ^ Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 146. ASIN B0007JAWMK. "The Sariyyah of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, on Banu Kilab at Najd" 
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Main sources[edit]

Notes[edit]