List of African animals extinct in the Holocene

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The list of extinct animals in Africa features the animals that have become extinct on the African continent and its islands, like Madagascar, Mauritius, Rodrigues, Réunion, Seychelles, Saint Helena, Cape Verde, etc. Only extinctions of the Holocene Epoch are included.

Map of Africa

Mammals[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 AD)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Atlas Wild Ass
Equus africanus atlanticus
300
North African --
Canary Islands Giant Rats
Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani
Before 1500 AD.
Spain (Canary Islands) Canary Islands Giant Rats
Giant Aye-aye
Daubentonia robusta
1000 AD.
Madagascar --
Giant Fossa
Cryptoprocta spelea[1]
Unknown
Madagascar Giant Fossa
Hipposideros besaoka
10000 BC.
Madagascar --
Homotherium
Homotherium sp.
10000 BC.
Africa Homotherium
Koala Lemur
Megaladapis sp.
1420 AD.
Madagascar Koala Lemur
Lava Mouse
Malpaisomys insularis
Before 1500
Spain (Canary Islands) --
Malagasy Aardvark
Plesiorycteropus sp.
200 BC
Madagascar --
Malagasy Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus sp. [2][3]
1000 AD.
Madagascar Malagasy Hippopotamus
Megalotragus
Megalotragus sp.
10000 BC.
Africa Megalotragus
North African Elephant
Loxodonta africana pharaoensis
300 AD.
North Africa North African Elephant
Pelorovis
Pelorovis sp.
2000 BC.
Africa Pelorovis
Sivatherium
Sivatherium sp.
6000 BC.
Africa Sivatherium

Recent Extinctions (1500 to present)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Atlas Bear
Ursus arctos crowtheri
1870s
North Africa Atlas Bear
Aurochs
Bos primigenius[4]
Unknown (Africa),
1627(Europe)
North Africa Aurochs
Bluebuck
Hippotragus leucophaeus[5]
1799
South Africa Bluebuck
Bubal Hartebeest
Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus[6]
1923
North Africa Bubal Hartebeest
Cape Lion
Panthera leo melanochaitus
1860
South Africa Cape Lion
Cape Serval
Leptailurus serval serval
Unknown
South Africa --
Cape Warthog
Phacochoerus aethiopicus aethiopicus
1900
South Africa --
Kenya Oribi
Ourebia ourebi kenyae[7]
Unknown
Kenya --
Large Sloth Lemur
Palaeopropithecus sp.[8]
1500s
Madagascar Palaeopropithecus ingens
Lesser Mascarene Flying Fox
Pteropus subniger[9]
Early 1800s
Mauritius and France (Reunion) Lesser Mascarene Flying Fox
Quagga
Equus quagga quagga[10]
August 12, 1883
Namibia and South Africa Quagga
Red Gazelle
Eudorcas rufinaa[11]
1894
Algeria --
Robert's Lechwe
Kobus leche robertsi[12]
Unknown
South Africa --
Western Black Rhinoceros
Diceros bicornis longipes[13]
1996
Cameroon Western Black Rhinoceros

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Bouvier’s Red Colobus
Procolobus pennantii bouvieri [14]
1970s
Central Africa --
De Winton's Golden Mole
Cryptochloris wintoni [15]
1907
South Africa --
Ethiopian Amphibious Rat
Nilopegamys plumbeus[16]
1927
Ethiopia --
Wimmer's Shrew
Crocidura wimmeri [17]
1976
Côte d'Ivoire --

Birds[edit]

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Alaotra Grebe
Tachybaptus rufolavatus
1985
Madagascar Alaotra Grebe
Aldabra Brush-warbler
Nesillas aldabrana
1983
Seychelles --
Ascension Flightless Crake
Mundia elpenor
1656?
United Kingdom (Ascension) Ascension Flightless Crake
Ascension Night Heron
Nycticorax olsoni
1600s
United Kingdom (Ascension) --
Broad-billed Parrot
Lophopsittacus mauritianus
1680
Mauritius Broad-billed Parrot
Canary Islands Oystercatcher
Haematopus meadewaldoi
1940
Spain (Canary Islands) Canary Islands Oystercatcher
Canary Islands Quail
Coturnix gomerae
Unknown
Spain (Canary Islands) --
Delalande's Coua
Coua delalandei
1834
Madagascar Delalande's Coua
Dodo
Raphus cucullatus
1662
Mauritius Dodo
Eastern Canary Islands Chiffchaff
Phylloscopus canariensis exsul
1986
Spain (Canary Islands) --
Elephant Bird
Aepyornis sp.
1600s
Madagascar Elephant Bird
Large Saint Helena Petrel
Pseudobulweria rupinarum
Unknown
United Kingdom (Saint Helena) --
Madeiran Wood Pigeon
Columba palumbus maderensis
1924
Portugal (Madeira) --
Mascarene Coot
Fulica newtoni
1693?
Mauritius and France (Reunion) Mascarene Coot
Mascarene Parrot
Mascarinus mascarinus
1834
France (Reunion) Mascarene Parrot
Mauritian Duck
Anas theodori
1690s
Mauritius and France (Reunion) --
Mauritian Shelduck
Alopochen mauritianus
1690s
Mauritius and France (Reunion) --
Mauritius Blue Pigeon
Alectroenas nitidissimus
1830s
Mauritius Mauritius Blue Pigeon
Mauritius Grey Parrot
Psittacula bensoni
1764
Mauritius and France (Reunion) --
Mauritius Night-Heron
Nycticorax mauritianus
Late 1600s
Mauritius --
Mauritius Owl
Mascarenotus sauzieri
1850
Mauritius Mauritius Owl
Newton's Parakeet
Psittacula exsul
1875
Mauritius Newton's Parakeet
Red Rail
Aphanapteryx bonasia
1700s
Mauritius Red Rail
Réunion Flightless Ibis
Threskiornis solitarius
Early 1700s
France (Réunion) Réunion Flightless Ibis
Réunion Gallinule
Porphyrio coerulescens
1730
France (Réunion) Réunion Gallinule
Réunion Kestrel
Falco duboisi
1700s
France (Reunion) --
Réunion Night-Heron
Nycticorax duboisi
1700s
France (Reunion) --
Réunion Owl
Mascarenotus grucheti
1700s
France (Reunion) --
Réunion Pigeon
Nesoenas duboisi
1705
France (Reunion) --
Réunion Shelduck
Mascarenachen kervazoi
1690s
France (Reunion) --
Réunion Starling
Fregilupus varius
1850s
France (Réunion) Réunion Starling
Rodrigues Night-Heron
Nycticorax megacephalus
1750s
Mauritius Rodrigues Night-Heron
Rodrigues Owl
Mascarenotus murivorus
1750s
Mauritius --
Rodrigues Parrot
Necropsittacus rodericanus
1750s
Mauritius Rodrigues Parrot
Rodrigues Rail
Erythromachus leguati
1750s
Mauritius Rodrigues Rail
Rodrigues Solitaire
Pezophaps solitaria
1778
Mauritius Rodrigues Solitaire
Rodrigues Starling
Necropsar rodericanus
1750s
Mauritius Rodrigues Starlingg
Saint Helena Crake
Porzana astrictocarpus
Early 1600s
United Kingdom (Saint Helena) --
Saint Helena Cuckoo
Nannococcyx psix
late 1700s
United Kingdom (Saint Helena) --
Saint Helena Dove
Dysmoropelia dekarchiskos
After 1502
United Kingdom (Saint Helena) --
Saint Helena Hoopoe
Upupa antaios
Early 1500s
United Kingdom (Saint Helena) Saint Helena Hoopoe
Saint Helena Rail
Porzana astrictocarpus
After 1502
United Kingdom (Saint Helena) --
Seychelles Parakeet
Psittacula wardis
1886
Seychelles Seychelles Parrot
Small Saint Helena Petrel
Bulweria bifax
After 1502
United Kingdom (Saint Helena) --
Tristan Moorhen
Gallinula nesiotis
late 1800s
United Kingdom (Tristan da Cunha) Tristan Moorhen

Reptiles[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 AD)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Voay
Voay robustus
100s AD.
Madagascar Voay

Recent Extinctions (1500 to present)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Cape Verde Giant Skink
Macroscincus coctei[18]
1920s
Cape Verde Cape Verde Giant Skink
Domed Mauritius Giant Tortoise
Cylindraspis triserrata[19]
Early 1700s
Mauritius --
Domed Rodrigues Giant Tortoise
Cylindraspis peltastes[20]
1800s
Mauritius Domed Rodrigues Giant Tortoise
Eastwood's Long-tailed Seps
Tetradactylus eastwoodae[21]
1912
South Africa --
Hoffstetter's Worm Snake
Typhlops cariei[22]
Unknown
Mauritius --
Mauritian Giant Skink
Didosaurus maurtianus[23]
1650
Mauritius --
Mozambique Centipede-eater
Aparallactus nigriceps
Unknown
Mozambique --
Réunion Giant Tortoise
Cylindraspis indica[24]
1840s
France (Reunion) Réunion Giant Tortoise
Rodrigues Day Gecko
Phelsuma edwardnewtoni
1917
Mauritius Rodrigues Day Gecko
Rodrigues Giant Day Gecko
Phelsuma gigas[25]
1842
Mauritius --
Roque Chico de Salmor Giant Lizard
Gallotia simonyi simonyi
1930s
Spain (Canary Islands) Roque Chico de Salmor Giant Lizard
Round Island Burrowing Boa
Bolyeria multocarinata[26]
1975
Mauritius --
Saddle-backed Mauritius Giant Tortoise
Cylindraspis inepta[27]
Early 1700s
Mauritius --
Saddle-backed Rodrigues Giant Tortoise
Cylindraspis vosmaeri[28]
1800s
Mauritius Saddle-backed Rodrigues Giant Tortoise

Amphibians[edit]

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Du Toit's Torrent Frog
Arthroleptides dutoiti
1962
Kenya --
Togo Slippery Frog
Conraua derooi
Unknown
Ghana and Togo --

Fish[edit]

Insects[edit]

Crustacean[edit]

Molluscs[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Cryptoprocta spelea (Giant Fossa)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  2. ^ Boisserie, J.-R. (2008). "Hippopotamus guldbergi (Madagascan Dwarf Hippopotamus, Madagascan Pygmy Hippo, Malagasy Hippo)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  3. ^ Boisserie, J.-R. (2008). "Hippopotamus lemerlei (Madagascan Dwarf Hippopotamus, Malagasy Hippo)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  4. ^ Tikhonov, A. (2008). "Bos primigenius (Aurochs)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  5. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Hippotragus leucophaeus (Bluebuck, Blue Buck)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  6. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Alcelaphus buselaphus ssp. buselaphus (Bubal Hartebeest)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  7. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Ourebia ourebi ssp. kenyae (Kenya Oribi)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  8. ^ Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Palaeopropithecus ingens (Large Sloth Lemur)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  9. ^ Mickleburgh, S., Hutson, A.M., Bergmans, W. & Howell, K. (2008). "Pteropus subniger (Dark Flying Fox, Lesser Mascarene Flying-fox)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  10. ^ Hack, M.A., East, R. & Rubenstein, D.I. (2008). "Equus quagga ssp. quagga (Quagga)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  11. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Eudorcas rufina (Red Gazelle)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  12. ^ IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group (2008). "Kobus leche ssp. robertsi (Roberts' Lechwe)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
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  14. ^ Oates, J.F. & Struhsaker, T. (1996). "Procolobus pennantii ssp. bouvieri (Bouvier's Red Colobus, Bouvier’s Red Colobus)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  15. ^ Bronner, G. (1996). "Cryptochloris wintoni (De Winton's Golden Mole)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  16. ^ Kerbis Peterhans, J. & Lavrenchenko, L. (2008). "Nilopegamys plumbeus (Ethiopian Amphibious Rat, Ethiopian Water Mouse)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 23, 2013. 
  17. ^ Hutterer, R. (1996). "Crocidura wimmeri (Wimmer's Shrew)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 20, 2013. 
  18. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Macroscincus coctei (Cape Verde Giant Skink, Cocteau's Skink)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  19. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis triserrata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  20. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis peltastes". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  21. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Tetradactylus eastwoodae (Eastwood's Longtailed Seps, Eastwood's Whip Lizard)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  22. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Typhlops cariei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  23. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Leiolopisma mauritiana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  24. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis indica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  25. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Phelsuma gigas". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  26. ^ Madagascar Reptile & Amphibian Specialist Group (1996). "Bolyeria multocarinata (Round Island Burrowing Boa)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  27. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis inepta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  28. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Cylindraspis vosmaeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
  29. '^ Hanssens, M. (2004). "Aplocheilichthys sp. nov. 'Naivasha". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
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  37. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Labidura herculeana (Saint Helena Earwig, St Helena Earwig)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 25, 2013. 
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  • IUCN 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 24 March 2006.

External links[edit]