List of North American animals extinct in the Holocene

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This is an incomplete list of extinct animals of North America. This list covers only extinctions from the Holocene epoch, a geological period that extends from the present day back to about 10,000 radiocarbon years, approximately 11,430 ± 130 calendar years BP (between 9560 and 9300 BC).

Mammals[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (beginning of the Holocene to 1500 CE)

Common Name/Scientific Name Extinction Date (BCE) Range Image
American Cheetahs
Miracinonyx trumani & Miracinonyx inexpectatus
11000 Northern North America Miracinonyx trumani
American Lion
Panthera leo atrox
11000 USA, Canada and Mexico American Lion
American Mastodon
Mammut americanum
8500 USA and Canada American Mastodon
American Mountain Deer
Odocoileus lucasi
10000 USA --
Aztlanolagus agilis
10000 Southeastern Arizona to Central America Aztlanolagus agilis
Beautiful Armadillo
Dasypus bellus
8000 USA to South America --
Bison antiquus 10000 USA and Canada Bison antiquus
Bison occidentalis
5000 Alaska to Minnesota --
Blunt-toothed Giant Hutia
Amblyrhiza inundata
11000 Northern Lesser Antilles --
California Tapir
Tapirus californicus
11000 USA --
Camelops
Camelops spp.
8000 USA and Mexico Camelops hesternus
Capromeryx
Capromeryx minor
11000 USA and Mexico Capromeryx minor
Caribbean Ground Sloths
5000 Caribbean Islands Acratocnus antillensis
Columbian Mammoth
Mammuthus columbi
5800 USA and Mexico Columbian Mammoth
Cope's Tapir
Tapirus copei
11000 USA --
Dire Wolf
Canis dirus
8000 North America Dire Wolf
Eurasian Cave Lion
Panthera leo spelaea
11000 Canada and Alaska Eurasian cave lion
Florida Spectacled Bear
Tremarctos floridanus
8000 USA --
Giant Beaver
Castoroides leiseyorum & Castoroides ohioensis
11000 Canada and USA Giant Beaver
Glyptodon
10000 Central America Glyptodon
Harlan's Muskox
Bootherium bombifrons
9000 North America Harlan's Muskox
Harrington's Mountain Goat
Oreamnos harringtoni
12000 USA and Mexico Harrington's Mountain Goat
Holmesina septentrionalis
8000 USA Holmesina occidentalis
Jefferson's Ground Sloth
Megalonyx spp.
11000 USA and Canada Jefferson's Ground Sloth
Mexican Horse
Equus conversidens
11000 USA and Mexico Mexican Horse
Mylohyus
9000 North America Mylohyus nasutus
Neochoerus spp.
Neochoerus aesopi & Neochoerus pinckneyi
11000 Southeast USA to Panama --
Osborn's Key Mouse
Clidomys osborni
11000 Jamaica --
Pleistocene North American Jaguar
Panthera onca augusta
10000 Panama to USA Pleistocene North American Jaguar
Panamerican Ground Sloth
Eremotherium eomigrans & Eremotherium laurillardi
11000 USA to Panama Panamerican Ground Sloth
Paramylodon harlani
11000 North America Paramylodon harlani
Plate-toothed Giant Hutia
Elasmodontomys obliquus
11000 Puerto Rico --
Platygonus
11000 North America Platygonus compressus
Pygmy Mammoth
Mammuthus exilis
10800-11300 Channel Islands of California, USA Pygmy Mammoth
Saber-tooth cat
Smilodon sp.
8000 North America Smilodon
Saiga Antelope
Saiga tatarica
10000 North America Saiga antelope
Scimitar Cats
Homotherium sp.
10000 USA, Canada, Mexico Scimitar Cats
Shasta Ground Sloth
Nothrotheriops shastensis & Nothrotheriops texanus
11000 USA Shasta Ground Sloth
Scott's horse
Equus scotti
11000 USA and Mexico Scott's Horse
Short-faced bear
Arctodus simus
8000 North America Short-faced Bear
Shrub-ox
Euceratherium collinum
9500 North America Shrub-Ox
Stag-moose
Cervalces scotti
12000 USA and Canada Stag-Moose
Steppe Wisent
Bison priscus
11000 Alaska and Yukon Steppe Wisent
Stilt-legged Llama
Hemiauchenia sp.
11000 USA and Mexico --
Stockoceros
Stockoceros onusrosagris
11000 Southwestern North America Stockoceros
Stout-legged llama
Palaeolama ssp.
11000 USA --
Tapirus merriami
11000 USA --
Twisted-toothed Mouse
Quemisia gravis
11000 Hispaniola --
Ursus maritimus tyrannus
11000 Arctic Ursus maritimus tyrannus
Western Horse
Equus occidentalis
10000 USA Western Horse
Woolly Mammoth
Mammuthus primigenius
2000 Northern USA Woolly Mammoth
Yukon Horse
Equus lambei
11000 USA and Canada Yukon Horse

Recent extinctions (1500 CE to present)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date (CE) Range Image
Antillean Giant Rice Rat
Megalomys desmarestii[1]
1902
France (Martinique) Antillean Giant Rice Rat
Anthony's Woodrat
Neotoma anthonyi[2]
1926
Mexico (Todos Los Santos Islands) --
Banks Island Wolf
Canis lupus bernardi
1920
Canada --
Barbados Raccoon
Procyon lotor gloveralleni
1964
Barbados --
Bunker's Woodrat
Neotoma bunkeri[3]
1932
Mexico (Coronados Islands) [4]
California Golden Bear
Ursus arctos californicus
1922
California California Golden Bear
Caribbean Monk Seal
Monachus tropicalis[5]
1952
Caribbean Sea Caribbean Monk Seal
Cascade Mountains Wolf
Canis lupus fuscus
1940
Canada and USA --
Cuban Coney
Geocapromys columbianus[6]
1500s
Cuba --
Eastern Cougar
Puma concolor couguar
Unknown (declared in 2011)
Eastern Canada and USA Eastern Cougar
Eastern Elk
Cervus canadensis canadiensis
1887
Eastern Canada and USA Eastern Elk
Goff's Pocket Gopher
Geomys pinetis goffi
1955
Florida --
Gull Island Vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus nesophilus
1897
Gull Island, New York --
Hispaniolan Edible Rat
Heteropsomys insulans [7]
1500s
Hispaniola --
Insular Cave Rat
Heteropsomys insulans[8]
1600s
Puerto Rico --
Imposter Hutia
Hexolobodon phenax[9]
1500s
Hispaniola --
Jamaican Monkey
Xenothrix mcgregori[10]
1500s
Jamaica --
Jamaican Rice Rat
Oryzomys antillarum[11]
1870s
Jamaica Jamaican Rice Rat
Little Swan Island Hutia
Geocapromys thoracatus[12]
1955
Swan Islands, Honduras Little Swan Island Hutia
Marcano's Solenodon
Solenodon marcanoi[13]
1500s
Hispaniola --
Merriam's Elk
Cervus canadensis merriami
1906
Southwestern USA --
Mexican Grizzly Bear
Ursus arctos nelsoni
1964
Mexico and Southwestern USA Mexico grizzlies.png
Montane Hutia
Isolobodon montanus[14]
1500s
Hispaniola --
Nelson's Rice Rat
Oryzomys nelsoni[15]
1897
María Madre Island, Mexico Nelson's Rice Rat
Nevis Rice Rat
Pennatomys nivalis[16]
1500s
Netherlans (Sint Eustatius) & Saint Kitts and Nevis --
Newfoundland Wolf
Canis lupus beothucu
1911
Newfoundland Newfoundland Wolf
Oriente Cave Rat
Boromys offella[17]
1500s
Cuba Oriente Cave Rat
Pallid Beach Mouse
Peromyscus polionotus decoloratus
1959
Florida --
Puerto Rican Hutia
Isolobodon portoricensis[18]
1600s
Hispaniola and Puerto Rico --
Puerto Rican Long-nosed Bat
Monophyllus frater
1600s
Puerto Rico --
Santa Lucian Giant Rice Rat
Megalomys luciae[19]
1852
St. Lucia St. Lucian Giant Rice Rat
Saint Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat
Oligoryzomys victus[20]
1898
St. Vincent --
Samana Hutia
Plagiodontia ipnaeum[21]
1500sbr Hispaniola --
San Martín Island Woodrat
Neotoma martinensis[22]
1950 San Martín Island, Mexico --
Sea Mink
Neovison macrodon[23]
1860
Atlantic Canada and New England --
Smith Island Cottontail
Sylvilagus floridanus hitchensi
1987(before)
Smith Island, Virginia --
Southern Rocky Mountains Wolf
Canis lupus youngi
1935
Southern Rocky Mountains, USA --
Steller's Sea Cow
Hydrodamalis gigas[24]
1768
Commander Islands Steller's Sea Cow
Tacoma Pocket Gopher
Thomomys mazama tacomensis
1970
Washington --
Torre's Cave Rat
Boromys torrei[25]
1500s
Cuba Torre's Cave Rat
Tule Shrew
Sorex ornatus juncensis
1905
Baja California, Mexico --
West Indies Nesophontes Nesophontes sp.
Atalaye Nesophontes [26]
Cuban Nesophontes
Greater Cuban Nesophontes [27]
Haitian Nesophontes [28]
Lesser Cuban Nesophontes
Puerto Rican Nesophontes [29]
Saint Michel Nesophontes [30]
Slender Cuban Nesophontes
Western Cuban Nesophontes [31]
1500s
Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico,
U.S. Virgin Islands & United Kingdom (Cayman Islands)
Puerto Rican Nesophontes

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date (CE) Range Image
Dwarf Hutia
Mesocapromys nanus [32]
1937
Cuba --
Garrido's Hutia
Mysateles garridoi [33]
1989
Banco de los Jardins y Jardinillos, Cuba --
Puebla Deer Mouse
Peromyscus mekisturus [34]
1948
Puebla, Mexico --
San Quintin Kangaroo Rat
Dipodomys gravipes [35]
1986
Baja California, Mexico --
San Felipe Hutia
Mesocapromys sanfelipensis[36]
1978
San Felipe, Cuba --
Sclater's Shrew
Sorex sclateri[37]
Unknown
Chiapas, Mexico --

Birds[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (begin Holocene to 1500 AD)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Aiolornis incredibilis
Late Pleistocene
North America --
Antillean Cave Rail
Nesotrochis debooyi
Late Pleistocene
Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Antillean Cave Rail
Californian Turkey
Meleagris californica
10,000 BC.
USA --
Cathartornis gracilis
10,000 BC
USA --
Chendytes lawi
1800 BC.
Western USA Coast Chendytes lawi
Cuban Condor
Gymnogyps varonai
Early Holocene Cuba --
Daggett's Eagle
Buteogallus daggetti
13000 BC.
California and Nuevo León, Mexico --
La Brea Stork
Ciconia maltha
10000 BC.
Western, Southern USA and Cuba La Brea Stork
Saint Croix Macaw
Ara autocthones
Unknown
St. Croix, Virgin Islands. --
Teratorns
Teratornis merriami & Teratornis woodburnensis
8000 BC.
North America Merriam's Teratorn
Woodward's Eagle
Amplibuteo woodwardi
Late Pleistocene
Caribbean --

Recent extinctions (1500 AD to present)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Atitlán Grebe
Podilymbus gigas
1989
Guatemala
Bahaman Barn Owl
Tyto pollens
circa 1500s
Andros Island, Bahamas Bahaman Barn Owl
Bermuda Night Heron
Nyctanassa carcinocatactes
circa 1700s
Bermuda --
Brace's Emerald
Chlorostilbon bracei
1870s
Bahamas --
Carolina Parakeet
Conuropsis carolinensis
1918
Eastern USA and Canada Carolina Parakeet
Cuban Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Campephilus principalis bairdii
1987
Cuba Cuban Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Cuban Red Macaw
Ara tricolor
1860s
Cuba Cuban Red Macaw
Dusky Seaside Sparrow
Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens
1987
Florida Dusky Seaside Sparrow
Gould's Emerald
Chlorostilbon elegans
Unknown
Bahamas or Jamaica Gould's Emerald
Grand Cayman Thrush
Turdus ravidus
1940s
Grand Cayman --
Great Auk
Pinguinus impennis
1852
North Atlantic Coast Great Auk
Guadalupe Caracara
Caracara lutosa
1900
Guadalupe, Mexico Guadalupe Caracara
Guadeloupe Parakeet
Aratinga labati
circa 1700s
France (Guadeloupe) Guadeloupe Parakeet
Guadeloupe Parrot
Amazona violacea
1779
France (Guadeloupe) Guadeloupe Parrot
Heath Hen
Tympanuchus cupido cupido
1932
New England Heath Hen
Labrador Duck
Camptorhynchus labradorius
1878
Atlantic Northeast Labrador Duck
Lesser Antillean Macaw
Ara guadeloupensis
1760
France (Guadeloupe) Lesser Antillean Macaw
Martinique Parrot
Amazona martinicana
1779
France (Martinique) Martinique Parrot
Mauge's Parakeet
Aratinga chloroptera maugei
1779
Mona Island, Puerto Rico Mauge's Parakeet
Passenger Pigeon
Ectopistes migratorius
1914
Eastern USA and Canada Passenger Pigeon
Slender-billed Grackle
Quiscalus palustris
1910
Central Mexico Slender-billed Grackle
Spectacled Cormorant
Phalacrocorax perspicillatus
1850
Komandorski Islands Spectacled Cormorant
Violet Macaw
Anodorhynchus purpurascens
Unknown
France (Guadeloupe) Violet Macaw

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Bachman's Warbler
Vermivora bachmanii
1988
Southeastern USA Bachman's Warbler
Eskimo Curlew
Numenius borealis
1981
Alaska to Argentina Eskimo Curlew
Guadalupe Storm Petrel
Oceanodroma macrodactyla
1912
Guadalupe, Mexico Guadalupe Storm Petrel
Imperial Woodpecker
Campephilus imperialis
1956
Mexico Imperial Woodpecker
Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Campephilus principalis
1987
Southeastern USA and Cuba Ivory-billed Woodpecker
Jamaican Petrel
Pterodroma caribbaea
1879
Jamaica Jamaican Petrel
Jamaican Poorwill
Siphonorhis americana [38]
1860
Jamaica Jamaican Poorwill
Semper's Warbler
Leucopeza semperi
1961
St. Lucia Semper's Warbler

Reptiles[edit]

Modern extinctions (1500 AD to present)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Guadeloupe Ameiva
Ameiva cineracea[39]
1928
France (Guadeloupe) --
Jamaica Giant Galliwasp
Celestus occiduus[40]
1840
Jamaica Jamaica Giant Galliwasp
Martinique Giant Ameiva
Ameiva major[41]
Unknown
France (Martinique) --
Martinique Curly-tailed Lizard
Leiocephalus herminieri[42]
1830s
France (Martinique) --
Navassa Curly-tailed Lizard
Leiocephalus eremitus[43]
1917
Navassa Island, USA --
Navassa Island Dwarf Boa
Tropidophis bucculentus
Late 1800s
Navassa Island, USA --
Navassa Island Iguana
Cyclura cornuta onchiopsis[44]
Late 1800s
Navassa Island, USA --
Saint Croix Racer
Borikenophis sanctaecrucis[45]
Unknown
St. Croix, US Virgin Islands --

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Culebra Island Giant Anole
Xiphosurus roosevelti
1978
Culebera Island, Puerto Rico --

Amphibians[edit]

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Ainsworth's Salamander
Plethodon ainsworthi[46]
1964
USA --
Craugastor chrysozetetes[47] Unknown
Honduras --
Craugastor escoces[48] 1986
Costa Rica --
Golden Toad
Bufo periglenes[49]
1989
Costa Rica Golden toad

Possibly Extinct

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Atoyac Minute Salamander
Thorius infernalis[50]
1980s
Guerrero, Mexico --
Bigfoot Splayfoot Salamander
Chiropterotriton magnipes[51]
Unknown
San Luis Potosí & Querétaro, Mexico --
Golden Coqui
Eleutherodactylus jasperi[52]
1981
Puerto Rico Golden Coqui
San Martin Pygmy Salamander
Thorius narismagnus[53]
1980s
Veracruz, Mexico --
Web-footed Coquí
Eleutherodactylus karlschmidti[54]
1974
Puerto Rico --

Fish[edit]

Prehistoric extinctions (begin Holocene to 1500 AD)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Saber-toothed Salmon
Oncorhynchus rastrosus
Late Pleistocene
Western Coast of Canada and USA Saber-toothed Salmon

Recent extinctions (1500 AD to present)

Common Name\Scientific Name Extinction Date Range Image
Alberca Silverside
Chirostoma bartoni
2006
Lerma River Basin, Mexico --
Alvord Cutthroat Trout
Oncorhynchus clarki alvordensis
1920s
Alvord Dry Lake, Oregon --
Ameca Shiner
Notropis amecae[55]
Unknown
Mexico --
Amistad Gambusia
Gambusia amistadensis[56]
Unknown (declared in 1987)
Goodenough Spring, Texas
Ash Meadows Killifish
Empetrichthys merriami[57]
1948
Ash Meadows, Nevada Ash Meadows killifish
Banff Longnose Dace
Rhinichthys cataractae smithi
Unknown (declared in 1987)
Banff, Alberta --
Blackfin Cisco
Coregonus nigripinnis[58]
1969
Great Lakes, Canada and USA --
Blue walleye
Sander vitreus glaucus
1983
Great Lakes, Canada and USA Blue walleye
Cachorrito de la Trinidad
Cyprinodon inmemoriam[59]
Unknown
Mexico --
Clear Lake Splittail
Pogonichthys ciscoides'[60]
1970s
Clear Lake, California --
Deepwater Cisco
Coregonus johannae[61]
1952
Great Lakes, Canada and USA --
Durango Shiner
Notropis aulidion[62]
Unknown
Mexico --
Graceful Priapella
Priapella bonita[63]
Unknown
Mexico --
Grass Valley Speckled Dace
Rhinichthys osculus reliquus
1938
Lander County, Nevada --
Harelip Sucker
Moxostoma lacerum[64]
1893
Southeastern USA --
Independence Valley Tui Chub
Gila bicolor isolata
1970s
Independence Valley, Nevada --
Las Vegas Dace
Rhinichthys deaconi[65]
1986
Las Vegas Valley, USA --
Longjaw Cisco
Coregonus alpenae[66]
1975
Great Lakes, Canada and USA --
Maryland Darter
Etheostoma sellare[67]
1988
Deer Creek, Maryland Maryland darter
Mexican Dace
Evarra bustamantei[68]Evarra eigenmanni[69] & Evarra tlahuacensis[70]
Unknown
Mexico --
Pahranagat Spinedace
Lepidomeda altivelis[71]
1938
Pahranagat Valley, Nevada --
Phantom Shiner
Notropis orca[72]
1975
Rio Grande Basin, Mexico and USA --
Parras Characodon
Characodon garmani[73]
Unknown
Mexico --
Perrito de Parras
Cyprinodon latifasciatus [74]
Unknown
Mexico --
Perrito de Sandia
Cyprinodon spp. [75]
Unknown
Mexico --
Raycraft Ranch Killifish
Empetrichthys latos concavus
Unknown
Raycraft Ranch, Nevada --
Salado Shiner
Notropis saladonis[76]
Unknown
Mexico --
San Marcos Gambusia
Gambusia georgei[77]
1983
San Marcos Spring, Texas --
Scioto Madtom
Noturus trautmani[78]
1957
Big Darby Creek, Ohio --
Shortnose Cisco
Coregonus reighardi[79]
1985
Great Lakes, Canada and USA Shortnose Cisco
Silver Trout
Salvelinus agassizi[80]
1930
Dublin Pond, New Hampshire Silver Trout
Snake River Sucker
Chasmistes muriei[81]
Unknown
Snake River, Wyoming --
Stumptooth Minnow
Stypodon signifer[82]
Unknown
Mexico --
Tecopa Pupfish
Cyprinodon nevadensis calidae
1979
Majavo Desert Springs, California Tecopa Pupfish
Thicktail Chub
Gila crassicauda[83]
1950s
Central Valley of California Thicktail Chub
Utah Lake Sculpin
Cottus echinatus[84]
1928
Utah Lake, Utah --
Villa Lopez Pupfish
Cyprinodon ceciliae[85]
Unknown
Mexico --
Yellowfin Cutthroat Trout
Oncorhynchus clarki macdonald
After 1903
Twin Lakes, Colorado --

Crustaceans[edit]

Insects[edit]

The Chestnut Casebearer Moth's larva case

Arachnids[edit]

Mollusks[edit]

The Cahaba Pebblesnail
Corded Purg
Little Flat-top Snail
The Shoal Sprite
Umbilicate Pebblesnail

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on February 10, 2007.
  1. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Megalomys desmarestii (Antillean Giant Rice Rat, Desmarest’s Pilorie)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  2. ^ Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T. & Castro-Arellano, I. (2008). "Neotoma anthonyi (Anthony's Woodrat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  3. ^ Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. (2008). "Neotoma bunkeri (Bunker's Woodrat, Bunkers Woodrat, Coronados Island Woodrat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  4. ^ ARKive species - Bunkers woodrat (Neotoma bunkeri)
  5. ^ Kovacs, K. (2008). "Monachus tropicalis (Caribbean Monk Seal, West Indian Monk Seal, West Indian Seal)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  6. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Geocapromys columbianus (Cuban Coney)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  7. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). Brotomys voratus (Hispaniolan Edible Rat). In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved December 21, 2013.
  8. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Heteropsomys insulans (Insular Cave Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  9. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Hexolobodon phenax (Imposter Hutia)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  10. ^ MacPhee, R. & Hoffmann, M. (2008). "Xenothrix mcgregori (Jamaican Monkey)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  11. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Oryzomys antillarum (Jamaican Rice Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  12. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Geocapromys thoracatus (Little Swan Island Hutia)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  13. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Solenodon marcanoi (Marcano's Solenodon)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  14. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Isolobodon montanus (Montane Hutia)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  15. ^ Timm, R., Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T. & Lacher, T. (2008). "Oryzomys nelsoni (Nelson's Rice Rat, Tres Marias Island Rice Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  16. ^ Turvey, S.T. & Collen, B. (2008). "Pennatomys nivalis (Nevis Rice Rat, St. Eustatius Rice Rat, St. Kitts Rice Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  17. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Boromys offella (Oriente Cave Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  18. ^ Turvey, S. & Dávalos, L. (2008). "Isolobodon portoricensis (Puerto Rican Hutia)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  19. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Megalomys luciae (Santa Lucia Giant Rice Rat, Santa Lucian Pilorie)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  20. ^ Turvey, S. & Dávalos, L. (2008). "Oligoryzomys victus (St Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat, St. Vincent Pygmy Rice Rat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  21. ^ Turvey, S. & Helgen, K. (2008). "Plagiodontia ipnaeum (Samana Hutia)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  22. ^ Álvarez-Castañeda, S.T., Castro-Arellano, I. & Lacher, T. (2008). "Neotoma martinensis (San Martin Island Woodrat)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
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Notes[edit]