List of extinct birds

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This page refers only to birds that have gone extinct since the year 1500 and usually were subject to scientific study while alive.
For a list of early taxa of birds known only from fossils, see List of fossil birds. For birds extinct in Late Quaternary prehistoric times and usually known from specimens not completely fossilized, see Late Quaternary prehistoric birds.

Since 1500, over 190 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing. The situation is exemplified by Hawaii, where 30% of all known recently extinct bird taxa originally lived. Other areas, such as Guam, have also been hit hard; Guam has lost over 60% of its native bird taxa in the last 30 years, many of them due to the introduced Brown Tree Snake.

Currently there are approximately 10,000 species of birds, with an estimated 1,200 considered to be under threat of extinction.

Island species in general, and flightless island species in particular are most at risk. The disproportionate number of rails in the list reflects the tendency of that family to lose the ability to fly when geographically isolated. Even more rails became extinct before they could be described by scientists; these taxa are listed in Later Quaternary Prehistoric Birds.

The extinction dates given below are usually approximations of the actual date of extinction. In some cases, more exact dates are given as it is sometimes possible to pinpoint the date of extinction to a specific year or even day (the San Benedicto Rock Wren is possibly the most extreme example—its extinction could be timed with an accuracy of maybe half an hour). Extinction dates in the literature are usually the dates of the last verified record (credible observation or specimen taken); in many Pacific birds which became extinct shortly after European contact, however, this leaves an uncertainty period of over a century because the islands on which they used to occur were only rarely visited by scientists.

Painting of a Dodo, with a red parrot on its left side, and a blue one at its right
The famous "Edwards' Dodo", painted by Roelant Savery in 1626

Extinct bird species[edit]

Struthioniformes[edit]

The Ostrich and related ratites.

  • Elephant Bird, Aepyornis maximus and/or A. medius (Madagascar, 16th century?)
The taxonomy of the elephant birds is not fully resolved; it is certain that at least one taxon survived until some 1000 years ago at least. Judging from geographical data, A. maximus and the smaller A. medius are possibilities.
  • Upland Moa, Megalapteryx didinus (South Island, New Zealand, late 15th century?)
Generally believed to have been extinct by 1500, this is the only Moa species that according to current knowledge might have survived until later times, possibly as late as the 1830s.
Extinct in the wild c. 1805, the last captive specimen died in 1822 in the Jardin des Plantes.
  • Kangaroo Island Emu, Dromaius baudinianus (Kangaroo Island, Australia, 1827)
  • West Coast Spotted Kiwi, Apteryx occidentalis (South Island, New Zealand, c. 1900)
A doubtful form known from a single bird; may be a Little Spotted Kiwi subspecies or a hybrid between that species and the Rowi.

Anseriformes[edit]

Ducks, geese and swans.

A relict species from Northeast Asia. Officially critically endangered due to recent unconfirmed reports.
  • Réunion Shelduck, Alopochen kervazoi (Réunion, Mascarenes, c.1690s)
  • Mauritian Shelduck, Alopochen mauritianus (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c.1695)
  • Amsterdam Duck, Anas marecula (Amsterdam Island, South Indian Ocean, c.1800)
  • Saint Paul Island Duck, Anas sp. (Saint Paul Island, South Indian Ocean, c.1800)
only known by a painting from 1793. Might be identical with the Amsterdam Island Duck or a distinct species or subspecies.
  • Mauritian Duck, Anas theodori (Mauritius and Réunion, Mascarenes, late 1690s)
  • Mariana Mallard, Anas oustaleti (Marianas, West Pacific, 1981)
  • Finsch's Duck, Chenonetta finschi from New Zealand possibly survived to 1870
  • Pink-headed Duck, Rhodonessa caryophyllacea (East India, Bangladesh, North Myanmar, 1945?)– a reclassification into the genus Netta is recommended but not generally accepted.
Officially critically endangered; recent surveys have failed to rediscover it.
  • Réunion Pochard, Aythya cf. innotata (Réunion, Mascarenes, c.1690s)
A bone of a pochard found on Réunion seems to resolve the reports of canards other than the Mauritian Duck having occurred on the island. The taxonomic status of this form cannot be resolved until more material is found, however.

Galliformes[edit]

Quails and relatives.
See also Bokaak "Bustard" under Gruiformes below

  • The Pile-builder Megapode, Megapodius molistructor may have survived on New Caledonia to the late 18th century as evidenced by descriptions of the bird named "Tetrao australis" and later "Megapodius andersoni".
  • The Viti Levu Scrubfowl, Megapodius amissus of Viti Levu and possibly Kadavu, Fiji, may have survived to the early 19th or even the 20th century as suggested by circumstantial evidence.
  • Raoul Island Scrubfowl, Megapodius sp. (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, 1876)
A megapode is said to have inhabited Raoul Island until the population was wiped out in a volcanic eruption. It is not clear whether the birds represent a distinct taxon or derive from a prehistoric introduction by Polynesian seafarers.
Officially critically endangered. Not recorded with certainty since 1876, but thorough surveys are still required, and there is a recent set of possible (though unlikely) sightings around Naini Tal in 2003. A little-known native name from Western Nepal probably refers to this bird, but for various reasons, no survey for Ophrysia has ever been conducted in that country, nor is it generally assumed to occur there (due to the native name being overlooked).

Charadriiformes[edit]

Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis), Natural History Museum, London, England

Shorebirds, gulls and auks.

  • Javan Lapwing, Vanellus macropterus (Java, Indonesia, mid-20th century)
Officially classified as critically endangered, but as this conspicuous bird has not been recorded since 1940, it is almost certainly extinct.
Doubtfully distinct from P. leucoptera.
May still exist; officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
  • Slender-billed Curlew, Numenius tenuirostris (Western Siberia, early first decade of the 21st century?)
May still exist; officially classified as critically endangered. A few birds were recorded in 2004, following several decades of increasing rarity. There was an unconfirmed sighting in Albania in 2007. A survey to find out whether this bird still exists is currently being undertaken by the RSPB (BirdLife in the UK).
Later sightings of black oystercatchers off Senegal were not likely to be of this sedentary species, but two records from Tenerife - the last in 1981 - may be.

Gruiformes[edit]

Rails and allies. Probably paraphyletic.

  • "Leguat's Giant" or géant, a hypothetical giant rail from the Mascarenes described as Leguatia gigantea, is based on his descriptions of flamingos, as Leguat was not familiar with their French name flamand or thought that it referred to other birds (it was in his time sometimes used for spoonbills, for example).
  • Antillean Cave Rail, Nesotrochis debooyi known by pre-Columbian bones from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Stories of an easy to catch bird named carrao heard by Alexander Wetmore in 1912 on Puerto Rico might refer to this species.
  • Hawkins's Rail, Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific, 19th century)
  • Red Rail, Aphanapteryx bonasia (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c. 1700)
  • Rodrigues Rail, Aphanapteryx leguati (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century)
  • Bar-winged Rail, Nesoclopeus poecilopterus (Fiji, Polynesia, c. 1980)
  • New Caledonian Rail, Gallirallus lafresnayanus (New Caledonia, Melanesia, c. 1990?)
Officially classified as critically endangered, the last records were in 1984 and it seems that all available habitat is overrun by feral pigs and dogs, which prey on this bird.
  • Wake Island Rail, Gallirallus wakensis (Wake Island, Micronesia, 1945)
  • Tahitian Red-billed Rail, Gallirallus pacificus (Tahiti, Society Islands, late 18th– 19th century)
  • Dieffenbach's Rail, Gallirallus dieffenbachii (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific, mid-19th century)
  • Tongatapu Rail, Gallirallus hypoleucus (Tongatapu, Tonga, late 18th - 19th century)
  • Vava'u Rail, Gallirallus cf. vekamatolu (Vava'u, Tonga, early 19th century?)
This bird is known only from a drawing by the 1793 Malaspina expedition, apparently depicting a species of Gallirallus. The 'Eua Rail, Gallirallus vekamatolu, is known from prehistoric bones found on 'Eua, but this species is almost certainly not G. vekamatolu, as that bird was flightless and hence is unlikely to have settled 3 distant islands. However, it probably was a close relative.
  • The Norfolk Rail, Gallirallus sp. may be the bird shown on a bad watercolor illustration made around 1800.
  • Chatham Rail, Cabalus modestus (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific, c. 1900)
  • Réunion Rail or Dubois's Wood-rail, Dryolimnas augusti (Réunion, Mascarenes, late 17th century)
  • Ascension Crake, Mundia elpenor (Ascension, Island, Atlantic, late 17th century)– formerly Atlantisia
  • Saint Helena Crake, Porzana astrictocarpus (Saint Helena, Atlantic, early 16th century)
  • Laysan Rail, Porzana palmeri (Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1944)
  • Hawaiian Rail, Porzana sandwichensis (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, c. 1890)
  • Kosrae Crake, Porzana monasa (Kosrae, Carolines, c. mid-late 19th century)
  • Miller's Rail, Porzana nigra (Tahiti, Society Islands, c. 1800)
Known only from paintings and descriptions; taxonomic status uncertain as the material is often believed to refer to the extant Spotless Crake.
The Laysan Rail was an omnivore
Known only from descriptions. Former existence of a Porphyrio on Réunion is fairly certain, but not proven to date.
May have survived to c. 1900. In the lower right corner of Paul Gauguin's 1902 painting Le Sorcier d'Hiva Oa ou le Marquisien à la cape rouge there is a bird which reminds of native descriptions of P. paepae.
  • The North Island Takahē, Porphyrio mantelli known from subfossil bones found on North Island, New Zealand, may have survived to 1894 or later.
  • New Caledonian Gallinule, Porphyrio kukwiedei from New Caledonia, Melanesia, may have survived into historic times. The native name n'dino is thought to refer to this bird.
  • Samoan Wood Rail, Gallinula pacifica (Savai'i, Samoa, 1907?)
Probably better placed in the genus Pareudiastes, unconfirmed reports from the late 20th century suggest it still survives in small numbers, and therefore it is officially classified as critically endangered.
  • Makira Woodhen, Gallinula silvestris (Makira, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century?)
Only known from a single specimen, this rail is probably better placed in its own genus, Edithornis. There are some unconfirmed recent records that suggest it still survives, and thus it is officially classified as critically endangered.
  • Tristan Moorhen, Gallinula nesiotis (Tristan da Cunha, Atlantic, late 19th century)
  • Mascarene Coot, Fulica newtonii (Mauritius and Réunion, Mascarenes, c. 1700)
  • Fernando de Noronha Rail, Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Fernando de Noronha, W. Atlantic, 16th century?)
A distinct species of rail inhabited Fernando de Noronha island, but it has not been formally described yet. Probably was extant at Western contact.
  • Tahitian "Goose", Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Tahiti, late 18th century?)
Early travellers to Tahiti reported a "goose" that was found in the mountains. Altogether, a species of the rail genus Porphyrio seems the most likely choice.
  • Bokaak "Bustard", Rallidae? gen. et sp. indet. 'Bokaak'
An unidentified terrestrial bird is mentioned in an early report from Bokaak in the Marshall Islands. It is described as a "bustard" and may have been a rail or a megapode. In the former case it may have been a vagrant of some still-extant species; in any case, no bird that could be described as "bustard-like" is found on Bokaak today.[2]
  • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. 'Amsterdam Island'
Unknown rail from Amsterdam Island, one specimen found but not recovered. Extinct by 1800 or may have been straggler of extant species.

Podicipediformes[edit]

Grebes.

Officially declared extinct in 2010, 25 years after the last official sighting. Declined through habitat destruction and hybridization with the Little Grebe. Disappeared from only known location in the 1980s.

Ciconiiformes[edit]

Herons and related birds. Possibly paraphyletic.

  • The "Painted Vulture" (Sarcoramphus sacra), a Floridian bird supposedly similar to the King Vulture, seems based on a misidentification of the Northern Caracara. See King Vulture article for discussion.
  • Bermuda Night Heron, Nyctanassa carcinocatactes (Bermuda, West Atlantic, 17th century)
Sometimes assigned to the genus Nycticorax
Known only from subfossil bones, but the description of a flightless Ascension bird by F. André Thevet cannot be identified with anything other than this species.
Long considered to be vagrant individuals of the Australian Little Bittern, bones recovered from Holocene deposits indicate that this was indeed a distinct taxon, but it might not be a separate species.
  • Réunion Ibis, Threskiornis solitarius (Réunion, Mascarenes, early 18th century)
This species was the basis of the "Réunion Solitaire", a supposed relative of the Dodo and the Rodrigues Solitaire. Given the fact that ibis (but no dodo-like) bones were found on Réunion and that old descriptions match a flightless Sacred Ibis quite well, the "Réunion Solitaire" hypothesis has been refuted.

Pelecaniformes[edit]

Cormorants and related birds.

Procellariiformes[edit]

Petrels, shearwaters, albatrosses and storm petrels.

Possibly a subspecies of the Black-capped Petrel; unconfirmed reports suggest it might survive. Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
A wing of a carcass similar to Gould's Petrel was recovered on Mangareva in 1922, where it possibly bred. No such birds are known to exist there today.
Officially critically endangered, possibly extinct, but a thorough survey in 2000 concluded the species was certainly extinct.

Sphenisciformes[edit]

Penguins

  • The Chatham Penguin, Eudyptes sp. (Chatham Islands, SW Pacific), is only known from subfossil bones, but a bird kept captive at some time between 1867 and 1872 might refer to this taxon.

Columbiformes[edit]

Pigeons, doves and dodos.
For the "Réunion Solitaire", see Réunion Sacred Ibis.

The passenger pigeon was once among the most common birds in the world, a single flock numbering up to 2.2 billion birds. It was hunted close to extinction for food and sport in the late 19th century. The last individual died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914.
Formerly in Streptopelia. There seems to have been at least another species of pigeon on Réunion (probably an Alectroenas), but bones have not yet been found. It disappeared at the same time.
Formerly in Streptopelia. A possible subspecies of the Madagascar Turtle Dove (N. picturata), this seems not to be the bird observed by Leguat. Introduced rats might have killed it off in the late 17th century.
Also known as the Spotted Green Pigeon, the only known specimen has been in Liverpool Museum since 1851 and was probably collected on a Pacific island for Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. It has been suggested that this bird came from Tahiti based on native lore about a somewhat similar extinct bird called titi, but this has not been verified.
Officially listed as critically endangered. Only known from 2 specimens taken in 1891, there have been a number of unconfirmed reports from all over the Sulu Archipelago in 1995. However, these reports stated that the bird had suddenly undergone a massive decline, and by now, habitat destruction is almost complete. If not extinct, this species is very rare, but the ongoing civil war prevents comprehensive surveys.
Only known from descriptions of 2 now-lost specimens.
Last recorded in 1927, only 2 specimens exist. Declared extinct in 2005.
Two subspecies, the little-known P. m. mercierii of Nuku Hiva (extinct mid-late 19th century) and P. m. tristrami of Hiva Oa.
Known only from one specimen taken at the only documented sighting in 1953, the validity of this species has been questioned, but no good alternative to distinct species status has been proposed. Officially critically endangered, it might occur on Panay, but no survey has located it. One possible record in 2002 seems not to have been followed up.
  • Mauritius Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas nitidissima (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c. 1830s)
  • Farquhar Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas sp. (Farquhar Group, Seychelles, 19th century)
Only known from early reports; possibly a subspecies of the Comoro or Seychelles Blue Pigeon.
A mysterious bird of unknown affinities, known from a few bones and, as it seems, two historical reports.
  • Dodo, Raphus cucullatus (Mauritius, Mascarenes, late 17th century)
Called Didus ineptus by Linnaeus. A meter-high flightless bird found on Mauritius. Its forest habitat was lost when Dutch settlers moved to the island and the dodo's nests were destroyed by the monkeys, pigs, and cats the Dutch brought with them. The last specimen was killed in 1681, only 80 years after the arrival of the new predators.

Psittaciformes[edit]

Parrots.

Mounted specimen of Conuropsis carolinensis, Museum Wiesbaden, Germany
Officially critically endangered, there have been no reliable reports of this bird since the early 20th century. It is, however, small and inconspicuous.
  • Norfolk Kaka, Nestor productus (Norfolk and Philip Islands, SW Pacific, 1851?)
  • Society Parakeet, Cyanoramphus ulietanus (Raiatea, Society Islands, late 18th century)
  • Black-fronted Parakeet, Cyanoramphus zealandicus (Tahiti, Society Islands, c. 1850)
  • Paradise Parrot, Psephotus pulcherrimus (Rockhampton area, Australia, late 1920s)
  • The Oceanic Eclectus Parrot, Eclectus infectus, known from subfossil bones found on Tonga, Vanuatu, and possibly Fiji, may have survived until the 18th century: a bird which seems to be a male Eclectus parrot was drawn in a report on the Tongan island of Vavaʻu by the Malaspina expedition. Also a 19th-century Tongan name ʻāʻā ("parrot") for "a beautiful bird found only at ʻEua" is attested (see here [3] under "Kaka"). This seems to refer either E. infectus which in Tonga is only known from Vavaʻu and ʻEua, or the extirpated population of the Collared Lory which also occurred there. It is possible but unlikely that the species survived on ʻEua until the 19th century.
  • Seychelles Parakeet, Psittacula wardi (Seychelles, W Indian Ocean, 1883)
  • Newton's Parakeet, Psittacula exsul (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, c. 1875)
  • Mascarene Grey Parakeet, Psittacula bensoni (Mauritius, possible Réunion as Psittacula cf bensoni). Formerly described as Mauritius Grey Parrot, Lophopsittacus bensoni. Known from a 1602 sketch by Captain Willem van Westzanen and by subfossil bones described by David Thomas Holyoak in 1973. Might have survived to the mid-18th century.
  • Mascarene Parrot, Mascarinus mascarinus (Réunion and possibly Mauritius, Mascarenes, 1834?)
Last known individual was a captive bird which was alive before 1834.
May have survived to the late 18th century.
  • Rodrigues Parrot, Necropsittacus rodericanus (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, late 18th century)
The species N. francicus is fictional, N. borbonicus most likely so.
  • Glaucous Macaw, Anodorhynchus glaucus (N Argentina, early 20th century)
Officially critically endangered due to persistent rumours of wild birds, but probably extinct.
  • Cuban Macaw, Ara tricolor (Cuba, West Indies, late 19th century)
A number of related species have been described from the West Indies, but are not based on good evidence. Several prehistoric forms are now known to have existed in the region, however.
Although the date of the last captive bird's death in the Cincinnati Zoo, 1918, is generally given as extinction date, there are convincing reports of some wild populations persisting until later. Two subspecies, C. c. carolinensis (east and south of the Appalachian range– extinct 1918 or c. 1930) and C. c. ludovicianus (Louisiana Parakeet, west of the Appalachian range– extinct early 1910s).
Only known from descriptions, the former existence of this bird is likely for biogeographic reasons and because details as described cannot be referred to known species.
The extinct amazon parrots were originally described after travelers' descriptions. Both are now considered valid extinct species closely related to the Imperial Amazon.

Cuculiformes[edit]

Cuckoos.

Falconiformes[edit]

Birds of prey.

Strigiformes[edit]

Typical owls and barn-owls.

  • Réunion Owl, Mascarenotus grucheti (Réunion, Mascarenes, late 17th century?)
  • Mauritius Owl, Mascarenotus sauzieri (Mauritius, Mascarenes, c. 1850)
  • Rodrigues Owl, Mascarenotus murivorus (Rodrigues, Mascarenes, mid-18th century)
The preceding two species were variously placed in Bubo, Athene, "Scops" (=Otus), Strix, and Tyto before their true affinity was realized.
  • New Caledonian Boobook, Ninox cf. novaeseelandiae (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
Known only from prehistoric bones, but might still survive.
Two subspecies, S. a. albifacies (South Island and Stewart Island, extinct 1914?) and S. a. rufifacies (North Island, extinct c. 1870s?)– circumstantial evidence suggests small remnants survived until the early/mid-20th century.
  • New Caledonian Boobook, Ninox cf. novaeseelandiae (New Caledonia, Melanesia)
  • The Puerto Rican Barn Owl, Tyto cavatica, known from prehistoric remains found in caves of Puerto Rico, West Indies, may still have existed in 1912 given reports of the presence of cave-roosting owls.
  • The Bahaman Barn Owl, Tyto pollens, known from prehistoric remains found on Andros (Bahamas), may have survived to the 16th century as indicated by the "Chickcharnie" legend.
  • Siau Scops Owl Otus siaoensis (20th century?)
Only known from the holotype collected in 1866. Endemic to the small volcanic island of Siau north of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Might still survive as there are ongoing rumours of scops-owls at Siau.

Caprimulgiformes[edit]

Caprimulgidae - Nightjars and nighthawks.
Reclusive ground-nesting birds that sally out at night to hunt for large insects and similar prey. They are easily located by the males' song, but this is not given all year. Habitat destruction represents currently the biggest threat, while island populations are threatened by introduced mammalian predators, notably dogs, cats, pigs and mongoose.

  • Jamaican Poorwill, Siphonorhis americana (Jamaica, West Indies, late 19th century?)
Reports of unidentifiable nightjars from the 1980s in habitat appropriate for S. americana suggest that this cryptic species may still exist. Research into this possibility is currently underway; pending further information, it is classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct.
  • Cuban Pauraque, Siphonorhis daiquiri (Cuba, West Indies, prehistoric?)
Described from subfossil bones in 1985. There are persistent rumors that this bird, which was never seen alive by scientists, may still survive. Compare Puerto Rican Nightjar and preceding.
  • Vaurie's Nightjar (Caprimulgus centralasicus) is only known from a single 1929 specimen from Xinjiang, China. It has never been found again, but the validity of this supposed species is seriously disputed. It was never refuted to be an immature female desert European Nightjar.

Apodiformes[edit]

Swifts and hummingbirds.

Known only from 3 trade specimens of unknown origin. Might still exist.
  • Brace's Emerald, Chlorostilbon bracei (New Providence, Bahamas, late 19th century)
  • Gould's Emerald, Chlorostilbon elegans (Jamaica or northern Bahamas, West Indies, late 19th century)
  • Bogota Sunangel, Heliangelus zusii (Colombia?)
A mysterious bird known only from a single specimen of unknown origin. Long considered as hybrid but confirmed as valid species in 2009 through a DNA analysis.
Officially classified as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Known only from 6 pre-1900 specimens, the habitat at the only known site where it occurred has been destroyed. However, the bird's distribution remains unresolved.

Coraciiformes[edit]

Kingfishers and related birds.

Piciformes[edit]

Woodpeckers and related birds.

This 60-centimeter-long woodpecker is officially listed as critically endangered, possibly extinct. Occasional unconfirmed reports come up, the most recent in late 2005.
  • The Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis principalis) is most likely extinct, but there is uncertainty on whether it was or was not rediscovered in the White River National Wildlife Refuge of Arkansas in 2004, as intensive searching in the five following years has failed to confirm its survival. The Cuban Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Campephilus principalis bairdii) was last seen in 1987 and is generally considered extinct, but there are a few patches of habitat not yet surveyed.

Passeriformes[edit]

Perching birds.

The Stephens Island Wren, victim of feral cats

Acanthisittidae– New Zealand "wrens"

The species famously (but erroneously) claimed to have been made extinct by a single cat named "Tibbles".
  • Bushwren, Xenicus longipes (New Zealand, 1972)
3 subspecies: X. l. stokesi (North Island, extinct 1955); X. l. longipes (South Island, extinct 1968); X. l. variabilis (Stewart Island, extinct 1972).

Formicariidae – antpittas and antthrushes

Officially Critically Endangered, this species has not been recorded since 1956 and although some habitat still exists, it was not found in dedicated searches in the 1990s. Nevertheless, its voice – generally the primary mean for locating antpittas – remains unknown, making surveys difficult.

Mohoidae – Hawaiian "honeyeaters". Family established in 2008, previously in Meliphagidae.

  • Kioea, Chaetoptila angustipluma (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1860s)
  • Hawaiʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho nobilis (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1930s)
  • Oʻahu ʻŌʻō, Moho apicalis (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, mid-19th century)
  • Molokaʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho bishopi (Molokaʻi and probably Maui, Hawaiian Islands, c. 1910 or 1980s)
  • Kauaʻi ʻŌʻō, Moho braccatus (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1987)

Meliphagidae – honeyeaters and Australian chats

  • Chatham Bellbird, Anthornis melanocephala (Chatham Islands, Southwest Pacific, c. 1910)
Sometimes regarded as subspecies of the New Zealand Bellbird, Anthornis melanura. Unconfirmed records exist from the early-mid-1950s.

Acanthizidae – scrubwrens, thornbills, and gerygones

Pachycephalidae – whistlers, shrike-thrushes, pitohuis and allies

  • Mangarevan Whistler, ?Pachycephala gambierana (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, late 19th century?)
Tentatively placed here. A mysterious bird of which no specimen exists today. It was initially described as a shrike, then classified as an Eopsalteria "robin", and may actually be an Acrocephalus warbler.

Dicruridae – monarch flycatchers and allies

  • Maupiti Monarch, Pomarea pomarea (Maupiti, Society Islands, mid-19th century)
  • Eiao Monarch, Pomarea fluxa (Eiao, Marquesas, late 1970s)
Previously considered a subspecies of the Iphis Monarch, this is an early offspring of the Marquesan stock.
Previously considered a subspecies of the Marquesas Monarch, this is another early offspring of the Marquesan stock.
Previously considered another subspecies of the Marquesas Monarch, this was a distinct species most closely related to that bird and the Fatuhiva Monarch.

Turnagridae – piopios

Not reliably recorded since about 1900.
Two subspecies, T. c. minor from Stephens Island (extinct c. 1897) and the nominate T. c. capensis from the South Island mainland (last specimen taken in 1902, last unconfirmed record in 1963)
Male (front) and female (back) Huia

Callaeidae – New Zealand wattlebirds

  • Huia, Heteralocha acutirostris (North Island, New Zealand, early 20th century)

Hirundinidae – swallows and martins

Officially classified as critically endangered, this enigmatic species is only known from migrating birds and it was last seen in 1986 at its former roost site. Recent unconfirmed repors suggest it may occur in Cambodia.
Known from a single specimen, this enigmatic swallow probably still exists, but the lack of recent records is puzzling. It is alternatively placed in the genus Hirundo.

Acrocephalidae – marsh and tree warblers

known from just 2 specimens found from Mangareva Island in the western Pacific.

Muscicapidae – Old World flycatchers and chats

An enigmatic bird known from 2 or 4 possibly migrant specimens, last recorded in 1918. Might exist in NE Indochina and might be a subspecies of the Hainan Blue Flycatcher.

Megaluridae – megalurid warblers or grass warblers

  • Chatham Fernbird, Bowdleria rufescens (Chatham Islands, New Zealand, c. 1900)
Often placed in genus Megalurus, but this is based on an incomplete review of the evidence.

Cisticolidae – cisticolas and allies

A mysterious bird, found in the Tana River basin in small numbers at various dates, but not since 1972. Probably invalid, based on aberrant or hybrid specimens. An unconfirmed sighting was apparently made in 2007 in the Tana River Delta.

Zosteropidae – white-eyes. Probably belong into Timaliidae.

Timaliidae – Old World babblers

Known from a single mid-19th century specimen, this bird may be extinct or could still exist. If the specimen label, usually considered erroneous in claiming "Java" as the bird's origin, is correct, it may have gone extinct earlier.

Pycnonotidae – bulbuls

Known only from subfossil bones.

Sylvioidea incertae sedis

Known from subfossil bones. Provisionally assigned to Timaliidae, but placement highly doubtful.

Sturnidae – starlings

  • Kosrae Starling, Aplonis corvina (Kosrae, Carolines, mid-19th century)
  • Mysterious Starling, Aplonis mavornata (Mauke, Cook Islands, mid-19th century)
  • Tasman Starling, Aplonis fusca (Norfolk Island and Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1923)
Two subspecies, A. f. fuscaNorfolk Island Starling (extinct c. 1923); A. fusca hullianaLord Howe Starling (extinct c. 1919).
Only one reliable record since 1956, in 1995, leaves the species' survival seriously in doubt.
  • Bay Starling, Aplonis? ulietensis (Raiatea, Society Islands, between 1774 and 1850)
Usually called "Bay Thrush" (Turdus ulietensis); a mysterious bird from Raiatea, now only known from a painting and some descriptions of a (now lost) specimen. Its taxonomic position is thus unresolvable at present, although for biogeographic reasons and because of the surviving description, it has been suggested to have been a honeyeater. However, with the discovery of fossils of the prehistorically extinct starling Aplonis diluvialis on neighboring Huahine, it seems likely that this bird also belonged to this genus.
Tentatively assigned to Sturnidae
Tentatively assigned to Sturnidae. The bird variously described as Necropsar leguati or Orphanopsar leguati and considered to be identical with N. rodericanus (which is only known from subfossil bones) was found to be based on a misidentified albinistic specimen of the Martinique Trembler (Cinclocerthia gutturalis)

Turdidae – thrushes and allies

  • Grand Cayman Thrush, Turdus ravidus (Grand Cayman, West Indies, late 1940s)
  • Bonin Thrush, Zoothera terrestris (Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c. 1830s)
  • ʻĀmaui, Myadestes woahensis (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, mid-19th century)
  • Kāmaʻo, Myadestes myadestinus (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1990s)
  • Olomaʻo, Myadestes lanaiensis (Hawaiian Islands, 1980s?)
Officially classified as critically endangered because a possible location on Molokaʻi remains unsurveyed. Two subspecies are known from Lanaʻi (M. l. lanaiensis, extinct early 1930s), Molokaʻi (M. l. rutha, extinct 1980s?) and a possible third subspecies from Maui (extinct before late 19th century).

Mimidae – mockingbirds and thrashers

  • Cozumel Thrasher, Toxostoma guttatum (Cozumel, Caribbean, early first decade of the 21st century?)
It is still unknown whether the tiny population rediscovered in 2004 survived Hurricanes Emily and Wilma in 2005. Unconfirmed records in April 2006 and October and December 2007.

Estrildidae– estrildid finches (waxbills, munias, etc.)

An enigmatic waxbill not seen since 1950; because part of its habitat is in Upemba National Park it may survive.

Icteridae – grackles

Parulidae – New World warblers

Officially classified as critically endangered.
Officially classified as critically endangered. Suitable habitat remains, and there have been unconfirmed records within the last decade.

Ploceidae – Weavers

Formerly Foudia bruante, which might refer to a colour morph of the Red Fody.

Fringillidae – true finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers

  • Bonin Grosbeak, Chaunoproctus ferreorostris (Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, 1830s)
  • ʻŌʻū, Psittirostra psittacea (Hawaiian Islands, c. 2000?)
Officially classified as critically endangered, this was once the most widespread species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It has not been reliably recorded since 1987 or 1989.
  • Pila's Palila, Loxioides kikuichi (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands), possibly survived to the early 18th century.
  • Lesser Koa Finch, Rhodacanthus flaviceps (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1891)
  • Greater Koa Finch, Rhodacanthus palmeri (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1896)
  • Kona Grosbeak, Psittirostra kona (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1894)
  • Greater ʻAmakihi, Hemignathus sagittirostris (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1901)
  • Nukupuʻu, Hemignathus lucidus (Hawaiian Islands, c. 2000?)
The subspecies from Oʻahu (H. l. lucidus) has been extinct since the late 19th century, that of Kauaʻi (H. l. hanapepe) most probably since the late 1990s and that of Maui (H. l. affinis) has not been reliably seen since 1995. It is currently classified as critically endangered.
  • Hawaiʻi ʻAkialoa or Lesser ʻAkialoa, Hemignathus obscurus (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1940)
Sometimes placed in genus Akialoa (as A. obscura).
  • Greater ʻAkialoa, Hemignathus ellisianus (Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Lanaʻi and prehistorically probably Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1969)
Sometimes placed in genus Akialoa (as A. ellisiana). Often split into Maui Nui ʻAkialoa, H. lanaiensis or A. lanaiensis (Lanaʻi and prehistorically probably Maui and Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1892), Oʻahu ʻAkialoa, H. ellisianus or A. ellisiana (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1940) and Kauaʻi ʻAkialoa, H. stejnegeri or A. stejnegeri (Kauaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, extinct 1969).
  • Kakawahie, Paroreomyza flammea (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1963)
  • Oʻahu ʻAlauahio, Paroreomyza maculata (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, early 1990s?)
Officially classified as critically endangered. Last reliable record was in 1985, with an unconfirmed sighting in 1990.
  • ʻUla-ʻai-hawane, Ciridops anna (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1892 or 1937)
  • Black Mamo, Drepanis funerea (Molokaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1907)
  • Hawaiʻi Mamo, Drepanis pacifica (Big Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1898)
  • Poʻo-uli, Melamprosops phaeosoma (Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 2004?)
The most recent unequivocal extinction on this list. What was most likely the last known bird died in captivity on 28 November 2004.

Emberizidae – buntings and American sparrow

Officially classified as critically endangered. It is known only from a single male collected in 1823, and has variously been considered an aberrant Yellow-bellied Seedeater or a hybrid.
Officially classified as critically endangered. A mysterious bird, formerly misidentified as Slaty Brush Finch and only described in 2007. Not found in recent surveys; may be extinct due to rampant habitat destruction.

(Probably) Extinct subspecies of birds[edit]

Extinction of subspecies is a subject very dependent on guesswork. National and international conservation projects and research publications such as redlists usually focus on species as a whole. Reliable information on the status of threatened subspecies usually has to be assembled piecemeal from published observations such as regional checklists. Therefore, the following listing contains a high proportion of taxa that may just as well still exist, but are listed here due to any combination of absence of recent records, a known threat such as habitat destruction, and an observed decline.

Struthioniformes[edit]

The Ostrich and related ratites.

Tinamiformes[edit]

Tinamous

  • Magdalena Tinamou, Crypturellus (erythropus) saltuarius (Colombia, late 20th century?)
Variously considered a Red-legged Tinamou subspecies or a distinct species, this bird is currently only known with certainty from the 1943 type specimen. An additional specimen exists (or existed), but its present whereabouts is unknown. Recent research suggest it is still extant, and there was a likely – although as yet unconfirmed – record near the type locality by Colombian ornithologist Oswaldo Cortés in late 2008.

Anseriformes[edit]

Ducks, geese and swans.

  • Bering Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii asiatica (Komandorski and Kuril Islands, N Pacific, c. 1914 or 1929)
A subspecies of the Cackling Goose (formerly "Lesser Canada Goose") which is doubtfully distinct from the Aleutian one.
  • Rennell Island Teal, Anas gibberifrons remissa (Rennell, Solomon Islands, c. 1959)
A subspecies of the Sunda Teal which disappeared due to predation on young birds by the introduced tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.
  • Niceforo's Pintail, Anas georgica niceforoi (Colombia, 1950s)– Yellow-billed Pintail subspecies
  • Borrero's Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera borreroi (Colombia, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Cinnamon Teal known only from a restricted area in the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia, with a couple of records from Ecuador. It is either very rare or already extinct.

Galliformes[edit]

Quails and relatives.

  • Italian Grey Partridge, Perdix perdix italica (Italy, c.1990)
A subspecies of the Grey Partridge whose validity has been questioned; the last purebred individuals disappeared during the late 1980s due to hybridization with introduced birds.
  • Amik Gölü Black Francolin, Francolinus francolinus billypayni (S Turkey, possibly Lebanon, 1960s)
A doubtfully distinct subspecies of the Black Francolin.
  • Sicilian Black Francolin, Francolinus francolinus ssp. (Sicily, Mediterranean, c.1869)
Another doubtfully distinct Black Francolin subspecies.
  • Heath Hen, Tympanuchus cupido cupido, (New England, North America, 1932)
A subspecies of the Greater Prairie-Chicken or possibly a distinct species.
  • New Mexico Sharp-tailed Grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi (New Mexico, North America, 1954)
Sharp-tailed Grouse subspecies
  • Moroccan Guineafowl, Numida meleagris sabyi (Morocco, mid-20th century or early 1980s)
A subspecies of the Helmeted Guineafowl. Reportedly still kept in captivity in Morocco in late 1990s. Possibly extinct by 1950, three records from the 1970s may refer to feral-domestic hybrids.

Charadriiformes[edit]

Shorebirds, gulls and auks.

  • Kiritimati Sandpiper, Prosobonia cancellata cancellata (Kiritimati, Kiribati, 19th century?)
The doubtfully distinct nominate subspecies of the Tuamotu Sandpiper, sometimes considered a distinct species, but only known from a painting.
  • Andalusian Hemipode, Turnix sylvatica sylvatica (Mediterranean region, late 20th century?)
The nominate subspecies of the Small Buttonquail, last recorded in Spain in 1981. A few birds might persist in Morocco.
  • Tawitawi Small Buttonquail, Turnix sylvatica suluensis (Tawitawi, Philippines, mid-20th century)
Small Buttonquail subspecies.
  • New Caledonia Painted Buttonquail, Turnix varius novaecaledoniae (New Caledonia, Melanesia, early 20th century)
A subspecies of the Painted Buttonquail of somewhat unclear status, it is variously considered anything between a hybrid between introduced species to a full species. Plentiful subfossil bones indicate that it was indeed a good endemic form.

Gruiformes[edit]

Rails and allies. Probably paraphyletic.

  • Goldman's Yellow Rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani (Mexico, late 1960s)– Yellow Rail subspecies
  • Macquarie Rail, Gallirallus philippensis macquariensis (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific, 1880s)– Buff-banded Rail subspecies
  • Raoul Island Banded Rail, Gallirallus philippensis ssp. (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, SW Pacific, late 19th century?)
Reports of the former occurrence of the species on Raoul seem plausible enough, but they may relate to vagrant individuals of another Buff-banded Rail subspecies.
  • Peruvian Rail, Rallus semiplumbeus peruvianus (Peru, 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Bogota Rail which is known from a single specimen collected in the 1880s. It may still be extant.
  • Western Lewin's Rail, Lewinia pectoralis clelandi (SW Australia, late 1930s)– Lewin's Rail subspecies
  • Assumption White-throated Rail, Dryolimnas cuvieri abbotti (Assumption, Astove and Cosmoledo, Aldabra Islands, early 20th century)– White-throated Rail subspecies.
  • Jamaican Uniform Crake, Amaurolimnas concolor concolor (Jamaica, West Indies, 1890)– Uniform Crake nominate subspecies
  • Intact Rail, Gymnocrex plumbeiventris intactus (Melanesia, 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Bare-eyed Rail which is known from a single specimen, c. mid-19th century, from the Solomon Islands or New Ireland. The taxon may be extant.
  • Bornean Baillon's Crake, Porzana pusilla mira (Borneo, 20th century?)
A subspecies of Baillon's Crake known from a single 1912 specimen and not found since; may be extinct, but species is hard to find.
  • Moroccan Bustard, Ardeotis Arabs lynesi (Morocco, 1990s)
A subspecies of the Arabian Bustard. Last observed in 1993 at Lac Merzouga/Lac Tamezguidat.
  • Luzon Sarus Crane, Grus antigone luzonica (Luzon, Philippines, late 1960s)
A subspecies of the Sarus Crane which is not always accepted as valid, probably mainly because the specimens have never been thoroughly studied since the subspecies' description.

Ciconiiformes[edit]

Herons and related birds. Possibly paraphyletic.

An Olive Ibis subspecies, or (as B. bocagei rothschildi) one of the São Tomé Ibis if this is considered a distinct species. A probable sighting in 1994 was the first (and only) of these birds since the early 20th century; a population may yet survive.

Columbiformes[edit]

Pigeons, doves and dodos.

Wood Pigeon subspecies
  • Ogasawara Japanese Wood Pigeon, Columba janthina nitens (Ogasawara Islands, Northwest Pacific, 1980s)
Japanese Wood Pigeon subspecies
  • Lord Howe Pigeon, Columba vitiensis godmanae (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1853)
Metallic Pigeon subspecies
  • Tongan Metallic Pigeon, Columba vitiensis ssp. (Vava'u, Tonga, late 18th century?)
This subspecies of the Metallic Pigeon is only known from a footnote in John Latham's "General History of Birds", and seems to have died out some time before 1800; possibly, the location is erroneous and the note really refers to the extant population of Fiji.
  • Catanduanes Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba luzonica rubiventris (Catanduanes, Philippines, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Luzon Bleeding-heart known from a single specimen collected in 1971. It is either near extinction or already extinct.
  • Basilan Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba crinigera bartletti (Basilan, Philippines, mid-20th century?)
A subspecies of the Mindanao Bleeding-heart, it was last reported in 1925 and given the massive habitat destruction is likely extinct.
  • Vella Lavella Ground Dove, Gallicolumba jobiensis chalconota (Vella Lavella, Makira and Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the White-breasted Ground Dove or possibly a distinct species. Known from only 4 specimens, there are no recent records and the local population report it has disappeared.
  • White-headed Polynesian Ground Dove, Gallicolumba erythroptera albicollis (Central Tuamotu Islands, 20th century)
The Central Tuamotu subspecies of the Polynesian Ground Dove, often referred to as G. e. pectoralis, disappeared at an undetermined date, but might still exist on some unsurveyed atolls. The identity of Northern Tuamotu populations, possibly still extant, is undetermined.
  • Ebon Crimson-crowned Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus porphyraceus marshallianus (Ebon, Marshall Islands?, late 19th century?)
Crimson-crowned Fruit Dove subspecies of doubtful validity. Known from a single specimen collected in 1859, it is not certain whether this bird actually occurred on Ebon. All that can be said is that this subspecies is no longer found anywhere.
  • Mauke Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus rarotongensis "byronensis" (Mauke, Cook Islands, mid- or late 19th century)
A subspecies of the Lilac-crowned Fruit Dove, known only from the description of a now-lost specimen. the prehistorically extinct population on Mangaia is likely to belong to another distinct subspecies too.
  • Negros Spotted Imperial Pigeon, Ducula carola nigrorum (Negros and probably Siquijor, late 20th century)
Spotted Imperial Pigeon subspecies
  • Norfolk Kererū, Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, mid-19th century)
A subspecies of the Kererū or New Zealand Pigeon. Similar birds were reported from Lord Howe Island; these seem to represent another extinct subspecies but are undescribed to date.
  • Raoul Island Kererū, Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae ssp. nov (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, 19th century)
Another undescribed subspecies (or possibly species) of the Kererū, known from bones and a brief report.

Psittaciformes[edit]

Parrots.

  • Sangir Red and Blue Lory, Eos histrio histrio (Sangir Archipelago, Indonesia, c. 1997)
The nominate subspecies of the Red-and-blue Lory was hybridized out of existence by escaped trade individuals of the subspecies talautensis, the last purebred individuals disappearing in the 1990s or even much earlier.
  • Sinú Parakeet, Pyrrhura picta subandina (Colombia, mid-20th century?)
Formerly recognized as a distinct species, this bird has a very restricted distribution and was last reliably recorded in 1949. It was not found during searches in 2004 and 2006 and seems to be extinct; efforts to find it again continue but are hampered by the threat of armed conflict.
  • Challenger's Lory, Eos histrio challengeri (Nenusa Islands, Talaud Archipelago, early 20th century?)
A supposed subspecies of the Red and Blue Lory, but probably invalid.
  • Macquarie Parakeet, Cyanoramphus erythrotis (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific, c. 1891)
  • Lord Howe Parakeet, Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens (Lord Howe Island, SW Pacific, c. 1870)
Red-crowned Parakeet subspecies
Known only from a painting and descriptions; if it is accepted as valid, it would become the nominate subspecies of the Mauritius Parakeet, extant on Mauritius, which would then have to be called P. eques echo.
  • Siquijor Colasisi, Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis (Siqujoor, Philippines, 1990s)
A subspecies of the Colasisi or Philippine Hanging Parrot, either very rare or already extinct.
  • Puerto Rican Conure, Aratinga chloroptera maugei (Mona and possibly Puerto Rico, West Indies, 1890s)
A weakly differentiated subspecies of the Hispaniolan Parakeet.
  • Sinú Brown-throated Parakeet, Aratinga pertinax griseipecta (Colombia, mid- or late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Brown-throated Parakeet known from only two specimens collected in 1949 and of unclear taxonomical and conservation status.
  • Culebra Amazon, Amazona vittata gracilipes (Culebra, West Indies, 20th century)
A weakly differentiated subspecies of the Puerto Rican Amazon which is itself highly endangered.

Cuculiformes[edit]

Cuckoos.

  • Greater Crested Coua, Coua cristata maxima (SE Madagascar, late 20th century?)
Crested Coua subspecies, known only from a single specimen taken in 1950. It may be a hybrid, but if not it is probably extinct.
  • Assumption Island Coucal, Centropus toulou assumptionis (Assumption Island, Seychelles, c. 1920s)
A Madagascar Coucal subspecies often considered synonymous with the Aldabra form insularis, which has recolonized Assumption Island at a later date.
  • Cabo San Lucas Groove-billed Ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris pallidula (Mexico, c. 1940)
A weakly differentiated and probably invalid subspecies of the Groove-billed Ani
  • Bahia Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo, Neomorphus geoffroyi maximiliani (E Brazil, mid-20th century?)– Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo subspecies.

Falconiformes[edit]

Birds of prey.

  • Cape Verde Kite, Milvus (milvus) fasciicauda (Cape Verde Islands, E Atlantic, 2000)
Considered either a subspecies of the Red Kite, a distinct species, or a hybrid between Red and Black Kites, the validity of this taxon has recently being questioned on the basis of molecular analysis. However, hybridization and a confusing molecular phylogeny of Red Kite populations coupled with the distinct phenotype of the Cape Verde birds suggest that the taxonomic status of this form is far from resolved.
  • Car Nicobar Sparrowhawk, Accipiter butleri butleri (Car Nicobar, Nicobar Islands, 20th century?)
The nominate subspecies of the Nicobar Sparrowhawk– which is currently listed as vulnerable– is possibly extinct. It was last reliably recorded in 1901 and despite searches, has not been sighted after an unconfirmed record in 1977.
  • Volcano Islands Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus furuitii. (Ogasawara Islands, 1940s)
Peregrine falcon subspecies from the Ogasawara Islands. No sightings since 1945. A survey in 1982 failed to find this bird. Only known from Iwo Jima and Torishima.

Strigiformes[edit]

Typical owls and barn-owls.

  • Sulu Reddish Scops Owl, Otus rufescens burbidgei (Sulu, Philippines, mid-20th century)
A subspecies of the Reddish Scops Owl. Known from a single questionable specimen and may not be valid.
  • Virgin Islands Screech Owl, Megascops nudipes newtoni (Virgin Islands, Caribbean, 1860s)
A subspecies of the Puerto Rican Screech Owl of somewhat doubtful validity which occurred on several of the Virgin Islands, West Indies. The last reliable records are in 1860; it was not found in thorough surveys in 1995.
  • Socorro Elf Owl, Micrathene whitneyi graysoni (Socorro, Revillagigedo Islands, c. 1970)
A subspecies of the Elf Owl. Officially listed as critically endangered, the last specimen was taken in 1932, but there apparently still was a large population in 1958; it was not found by subsequent searches and appears to be extinct.
  • Antiguan Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia amaura (Antigua, St Kitts and Nevis, West Indies, c. 1905)– Burrowing Owl subspecies
  • Guadeloupe Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia guadeloupensis (Guadeloupe and Marie-Galante, West Indies, c. 1890)– Burrowing Owl subspecies
  • Lord Howe Boobook, Ninox novaeseelandiae albaria (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1950s)– Southern Boobook subspecies
  • Norfolk Boobook, Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, 1996)
Individuals of the nominate subspecies were introduced in a last-ditch effort to save the local owl population. There now exists a hybrid population of a few dozen birds; the last individual of N. n. undulata, a female named Miamiti died in 1996.
  • Cave-nesting Masked Owl, Tyto novaehollandiae troughtoni (Nullarbor Plain, Australia, 1960s)
Doubtfully distinct from nominate subspecies, but differed behaviorally.
  • Buru Masked Owl, Tyto sororcula cayelii (Buru, Indonesia, mid-20th century?)
Subspecies of Lesser Masked Owl. Last recorded in 1921; the identity of a similar bird found on Seram remains to be determined. Seems to survive as an owl matching this bird's description was encountered in August, 2006.
  • Peleng Masked Owl, Tyto rosenbergii pelengensis (Peleng, Banggai Islands, mid-20th century)
Subspecies of Sulawesi Owl or separate species. Possibly extant, but only specimen known taken in 1938 and no further records.
  • Samar Bay Owl, Phodilus badius riverae (Samar, Philippines, mid-20th century)
Subspecies of Oriental Bay Owl or possibly distinct species. Taxonomy doubtful but only specimen lost in 1945 bombing raid so validity cannot be verified; no population exists on Samar today.

Caprimulgiformes[edit]

Nightjars and allies.

  • New Caledonian White-throated Nightjar, Eurostopodus mystacalis exsul (New Caledonia, Melanesia, mid-20th century)
This distinct subspecies of the White-throated Nightjar is possibly a separate species. It was found only once; due to its cryptic habits, it possibly still exists, but this is now considered unlikely.

Apodiformes[edit]

Swifts and hummingbirds.

  • Alejandro Selkirk Firecrown, Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi (Alejandro Selkirk Island, Juan Fernández Islands, Southeast Pacific, 1908)– Juan Fernández Firecrown subspecies
  • Luzon Whitehead's Swiftlet, Collocalia whiteheadi whiteheadi (Luzon, Philippines, 20th century?)
The nominate subspecies of Whitehead's Swiftlet is only known from four specimens collected at Mount Data in 1895 and from the lack of further records and the massive habitat destruction, it is usually considered extinct. Given the size of the island, it might still exist though.

Coraciiformes[edit]

Kingfishers and related birds.

  • Sangihe Dwarf Kingfisher, Ceyx fallax sangirensis (Sngihe, Indonesia, 1998?)
This subspecies of the Sulawesi Dwarf Kingfisher was last seen in 1997 but not during a thorough survey one year later; it is either close to extinction or already extinct. Sometimes it is said to occur on Talaud Islands also, but this is erroneous.
  • Rarotonga Kingfisher, Todiramphus cf. tutus (Rarotonga, Cook Islands, mid-1980s?)
There exist reports of locals that kingfishers– probably a subspecies of the Chattering Kingfisher which is found on neighboring islands, but possibly vagrants from there– were found until around 1979, and there is a last record from 1984. Presently, no kingfishers are known to exist on Rarotonga.
  • Mangareva Kingfisher, Todiramphus gambieri gambieri (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, late 19th century)
Only known from a single 1844 specimen, the nominate subspecies of the Tuamotu Kingfisher was not found anymore when it was next searched for in 1922.
  • Ryūkyū Kingfisher, Todiramphus cinnamominus miyakoensis (Miyako-jima, Ryukyu Islands, late 19th century)
Previously considered as full species but better regarded as subspecies of the Micronesian Kingfisher Todiramphus cinnamominus. Only seen once by scientists, in 1887; the specimen taken is somewhat damaged, making identification by other than molecular analysis difficult.
  • Javan Blue-banded Kingfisher, Alcedo euryzona euryzona (Java, Indonesia, mid-20th century)
The nominate subspecies of the Blue-banded Kingfisher; the last specimen was taken in 1937 and the last unconfirmed records are from the 1950s.
  • Guadalcanal Little Kingfisher, Alcedo pusilla aolae (Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands)– Little Kingfisher subspecies
  • Sakarha Pygmy Kingfisher, Ispidina madagascariensis dilutus (Southwest Madagascar, late 20th century?)
This subspecies of the Madagascar Pygmy Kingfisher is only known from one specimen taken in 1974 in an area where most habitat had already been lost.
  • Ticao Hornbill, Penelopides panini ticaensis (Ticao, Philippines, 1970s)
A subspecies of the Visayan Hornbill of somewhat uncertain status– possibly a distinct species, possibly a color morph– the last confirmed report was in 1971 and it became extinct shortly thereafter.

Piciformes[edit]

Woodpeckers and related birds.

A West Indian Woodpecker subspecies of somewhat uncertain validity
The nominate subspecies of the Buff-rumped Woodpecker became rare during the 19th century due to destruction of habitat. The last confirmed record was in 1880, and it obviously became extinct in the early 20th century.
A subspecies of the Red-shafted Flicker (or the Northern Flicker, as C. auratus rufipileus), it was last recorded in 1906 and not found anymore in 1911 and 1922. Recently, vagrant birds of a mainland subspecies have begun recolonizing the island as the habitat improves after the removal of feral goats.
The nominate subspecies of the White-mantled Barbet has not been seen since the late 1940s and its habitat has been almost completely destroyed.
Another subspecies of the White-mantled Barbet, last seen in 1950.
  • Todd's Jacamar, Brachygalba lugubris phaeonota (Brazil, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Brown Jacamar, or possibly a hybrid, color morph or full species. Might survive as it is only known from a remote and seldom visited
Only known by 3 specimens collected before 1900.

Passeriformes[edit]

Perching birds.

Pittidae – Pittas

  • Bougainville Black-faced Pitta, Pitta anerythra pallida (Bougainville, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century)
A subspecies of the Black-faced Pitta. Once common on Bougainville, but not recorded since 1938.
  • Choiseul Black-faced Pitta, Pitta anerythra nigrifrons (Choiseul, Solomon Islands, late 20th century?)
Another subspecies of the Black-faced Pitta. Not found anymore during recent searches; doubtful records from nearby islands.

Tyrannidae – Tyrant flycatchers

  • Bogotá Bearded Tachuri, Polystictus pectoralis bogotensis (C Colombia, late 20th century?)
A Bearded Tachuri subspecies or possibly a distinct species that has not been recorded for some time and is probably extinct.
  • Grenadan Euler's Flycatcher– Lathrotriccus euleri flaviventris (Grenada, West Indies, early 1950s)
A subspecies of Euler's Flycatcher, formerly known as Empidonax euleri johnstonei.
A subspecies of Vermilion Flycatcher, described as extremely rare by David W. Steadman in the 1980s and not found despite a six-month survey in 1998. Sometimes considered as full species.

Furnariidae – Ovenbirds

  • Peruvian Scale-throated Earthcreeper, Upucerthia dumetaria peruana (Peru, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Scale-throated Earthcreeper, it is only known from 2 specimens taken in the early 1950s at Puno, Peru, and has never been found since. It might still exist, or have become extinct due to habitat destruction in the meantime.
  • Northern Stripe-crowned Spinetail, Cranioleuca pyrrhophia rufipennis (N Bolivia, late 20th century?)
A Stripe-crowned Spinetail subspecies known from a few specimens and not recorded since the 1950s; may be endangered or even extinct.

Formicariidae – Antpittas and antthrushes

  • Northern Giant Antpitta, Grallaria gigantea lehmanni (Colombia, late 20th century?)
A Giant Antpitta (or possibly Great Antpitta) subspecies apparently not recorded since the 1940s. Might still survive in Puracé National Natural Park.

Pardalotidae – Pardalotes, scrubwrens, thornbills, and gerygones

A Brown Thornbill subspecies which was last found in 1971, but there was an unconfirmed report in 2002 suggesting a small number is still extant.

Petroicidae – Australasian "robins"

  • Tiwi Island Hooded Robin, Melanodryas cucullata melvillensis (Tiwi Islands, Australia, 1992)
Subspecies of the Hooded Robin, last observed in 1992

Cinclosomatidae – Whipbirds and allies

  • Mount Lofty Spotted Quail-thrush, Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Australia, mid-1980s)
A subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, last recorded in 1984.

Monarchidae – Monarch flycatchers

  • Negros Celestial Monarch, Hypothymis coelestis rabori (Negros and possibly Sibuyan, Philippines, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Celestial Monarch, not uncommon on Negros in 1959, but never recorded afterwards. A single Sibuyan specimen from an unspecified locality taken in the 19th century is the only record for this island.
  • Hiva Oa Monarch, Pomarea mendozae mendozae (Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas, late 1970s) – Marquesas Monarch nominate subspecies
  • Manu'a Shrikebill, Clytorhynchus vitiensis powelli (Manu'a Islands, Samoa, 1990s?)
Usually treated as a subspecies of the Fiji Shrikebill but probably a distinct species, the American Samoan population declined due to habitat destruction and may have become extinct following the cyclones Ofa and Val.

Rhipiduridae – fantails

  • Lord Howe Fantail, Rhipidura fuliginosa cervina (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1925)– New Zealand Fantail subspecies
  • Guam Rufous Fantail, Rhipidura rufifrons uraniae (Guam, Marianas, 1984) – Rufous Fantail subspecies

Campephagidae – Cuckoo-shrikes and trillers

  • Cebu Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike, Coracina striata cebuensis (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century) – Bar-bellied Cuckooshrike subspecies
  • Maros Cicadabird, Coracina tenuirostris edithae (Sulawesi, mid-20th century)
A subspecies of the Cicadabird known from a single specimen collected in 1931; quite possibly just a vagrant individual.
  • Cebu Blackish Cuckooshrike, Coracina coerulescens altera (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century?)
A Blackish Cuckooshrike subspecies; possibly extant as the birds are rather unmistakable and a 1999 record therefore likely to be valid.
  • Marinduque Blackish Cuckooshrike, Coracina coerulescens deschauenseei (Marinduque, Philippines, late 20th century?)
Another Blackish Cuckooshrike subspecies, described from specimens collected in 1971, but apparently not seen since.
  • Norfolk Long-tailed Triller, Lalage leucopyga leucopyga (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, 1942)
A subspecies of the Long-tailed Triller, possibly a distinct species.

Oriolidae – Orioles and Figbird

  • Cebu Dark-throated Oriole, Oriolus xanthonotus assimilis (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century)– Dark-throated Oriole subspecies

Corvidae – Crows, ravens, magpies and jays

  • Pied Raven, Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus (Faroe Islands, 1948)
A distinct local variety of the Icelandic subspecies of the Common Raven.

Callaeidae – New Zealand wattlebirds

The nominate subspecies of the Kōkako is usually considered extinct, as it has not been reliably recorded for decades. However, there are recent reports from Fiordland suggesting a population still exists.

Regulidae – Kinglets

  • Guadalupe Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula obscurus (Guadalupe, East Pacific, 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Ruby-crowned Kinglet that has not been found in recent times.

Hirundinidae – Swallows and martins

  • Jamaican Golden Swallow, Tachycineta euchrysea euchrysea (Jamaica, West Indies, c. 1990?)
The nominate subspecies of the Golden Swallow, endemic to Jamaica. The last major roost-site was destroyed in 1987, and the last confirmed sighting was in 1989. May still exist in the Cockpit Country, but probably extinct.

Phylloscopidae – phylloscopid warblers or leaf-warblers

A subspecies of the Canary Islands Chiffchaff, it became extinct in 1986 at latest, but probably much earlier, at some time in the first half of the 20th century.

Cettiidae – cettiid warblers or typical bush-warblers

  • Babar Stubtail, Urosphena subulata advena (Babar, Indonesia, mid-20th century) – Timor Stubtail subspecies
  • Western Turner's Eremomela, Eremomela turneri kalindei (Congo Basin, early 1980s)
The West African subspecies of Turner's Eremomela has not been recorded since the end of the 1970s and habitat at the locations where it was once found is much reduced or destroyed. Placement in Cettiidae requires confirmation.

Acrocephalidae – acrocephalid warblers or marsh- and tree warblers

Usually considered a subspecies of the Tahiti Reed Warbler. Last reliable sighting was in 1981. Survey in 1986/1987 remained unsuccessful. A photograph of a warbler from Moorea in 1998 or 1999 taken by Philippe Bacchet remains uncertain.
  • Marshall Islands Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus rehsei ssp.? (Marshall Islands, Micronesia, c.1880?)
Oral tradition and some early reports mention a bird called annañ which inhabited some of the Marshall Islands. The best match is the Nauru Reed Warbler; the annañ might have been an undescribed subspecies of that species, or a distant but related species of reed warbler.[2]
  • Laysan Millerbird, Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris (Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands, late 1910s)
Millerbird nominate subspecies
  • Huahine Polynesian Warbler, Acrocephalus caffer garretti (Huahine, Society Islands, 19th century?)
A poorly known subspecies of the Tahiti Reed Warbler.

Pycnonotidae – Bulbuls

  • Sumatra Blue-wattled Bulbul, Pycnonotus nieuwenhuisii inexspectatus (Sumatra, Indonesia, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Blue-wattled Bulbul known from a single 1937 specimen. The entire "species" may be a hybrid.

Cisticolidae – Cisticolas and allies

  • Northern White-winged Apalis, Apalis chariessa chariessa (Kenya, 1960s?)
The nominate subspecies of the White-winged Apalis remains known only from the Tana River, a center of endemism. It was last recorded in 1961.

Sylviidae – sylviid ("true") warblers and parrotbills

  • Vanua Levu Long-legged Warbler, Trichocichla rufa clunei (Vanua Levu, Fiji, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Long-legged Warbler; it was only found once, but there was an unconfirmed sighting in 1990. Placement in Sylviidae doubtful.
  • Fayyum Warbler, Sylvia melanocephala/momus norissae (Egypt, c. 1940)
A doubtfully distinct Sardinian Warbler subspecies.

Zosteropidae – White-eyes. Probably belong into Timaliidae

  • Guam Bridled White-eye, Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus (Guam, Marianas, 1983)
Bridled White-eye nominate subspecies or possibly monotypic species.
  • Mukojima White-eye, Apalopteron familiare familiare (Mukojima Group, Ogasawara Islands, 1930s)
Bonin White-eye ("Bonin Honeyeater") subspecies

Timaliidae – Old World babblers

  • Vanderbilt's Babbler, Malacocincla sepiarium vanderbilti (Sumatra, Indonesia, late 20th century?)
An enigmatic subspecies of the Horsfield's Babbler, known from a single specimen. Not seen since the 1940s at the latest.
  • Burmese Jerdon's Babbler, Chrysomma altirostre altirostre (Myanmar, 1940s)
The nominate subspecies of Jerdon's Babbler was last seen in 1941, but due to the lack of recent fieldwork, it might still exist.

"African warblers"

  • Chapin's Crombec, Sylvietta leucophrys chapini (Congo Basin, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the White-browed Crombec, sometimes listed as a separate species. Restricted to the Lendu Plateau, it is either rare or already extinct.

Sylvioidea incertae sedis

  • Amik Gölü Bearded Reedling, Panurus biarmicus kosswigi (S Turkey, 1970s)
Bearded Reedling subspecies

Troglodytidae – Wrens

A subspecies of the Rock Wren which became extinct around 9 AM, August 1, 1952, when its island habitat was devastated by a massive volcanic eruption.
  • Guadalupe Bewick's Wren, Thryomanes bewickii brevicauda (Guadalupe, East Pacific, late 1890s?)
Bewick's Wren subspecies. An extinction date of "1903" seems to be in error[verification needed]; the last unquestionable record is apparently of 1897.
  • San Clemente Bewick's Wren, Thryomanes bewickii leucophrys (San Clemente, East Pacific, 1940s)
Another Bewick's Wren subspecies.
  • Daito Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes orii (Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, c. 1940)
A disputed Eurasian Wren subspecies; as it is known from a single specimen that may have been a vagrant individual, it is possibly invalid.
  • Guadeloupe Wren, Troglodytes aedon guadeloupensis (Guadeloupe, Caribbean, late 20th century?)
Found in 1914, 1969, 1970s; very rare or already extinct. Taxonomy unresolved. Part of the House Wren complex; other scientific names include T. musculus guadeloupensis and T. guadeloupensis
  • Martinique Wren, Troglodytes aedon martinicensis (Martinique, Caribbean, c. 1890)
Last found in 1886. Another House Wren complex taxon; other scientific names include T. musculus martinicensis and T. martinicensis.

Petroicidae – Australasian Robins Paridae – Tits, chickadees and titmice

  • Daito Varied Tit, Poecile varia orii (Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, c. 1940)
A Varied Tit subspecies, variously placed in genus Sittiparus and Parus also. Not found in subsequent surveys in 1984 and 1986.
  • Zagros Coal Tit, Periparus ater phaeonotus (Zagros Mountains, South-western Iran)
A Coal Tit subspecies, only known by the type specimen from 1870

Cinclidae – Dippers

  • Cyprus Dipper, Cinclus cinclus olympicus (Cyprus, Northeast Mediterranean, 1950s)
A subspecies of the White-throated Dipper of questionable validity.

Muscicapidae – Old World Flycatchers and chats

  • Tonkean Henna-tailed Jungle Flycatcher, Rhinomyias colonus subsolanus (Sulawesi, Indonesia, late 20th century?)
A Henna-tailed Jungle Flycatcher subspecies that is known from a single specimen; it may not be valid.
  • Chinijo Chat, Saxicola dacotiae murielae (Chinijo Archipelago, Canary Islands, early 20th century)
Canary Islands Stonechat subspecies

Turdidae – Thrushes and allies

  • Norfolk Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, c. 1975)
Island Thrush subspecies
  • Maré Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus mareensis (Maré, Melanesia, early 20th century)
Another subspecies of the Island Thrush, last collected in 1911 or 1912 and not found anymore in 1939.
  • Lord Howe Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1920s)
Yet another Island Thrush subspecies
  • Lifou Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus pritzbueri (Lifou, Melanesia, early 20th century)
Yet another subspecies of the Island Thrush. Similar birds still exist on Tanna, New Hebrides, but given the fact that the species readily differentiates into subspecies and that the distance between Tanna and Lifou is considerable, it is far from certain that the Tanna birds belong to this subspecies.
  • Peleng Red-and-black Thrush, Zoothera mendeni mendeni (Peleng, Indonesia, mid-20th century?)
Red-and-black Thrush nominate subspecies
  • Kibale Black-eared Ground Thrush, Zoothera camaronensis kibalensis (SW Uganda, late 20th century?)
A Black-eared Ground Thrush subspecies known only from two 1966 specimens. Rare or possibly already extinct.
  • Choiseul Russet-tailed Thrush, Zoothera heinei choiseuli (Choiseul, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century?)
A subspecies of the Russet-tailed Thrush known from a single specimen found in 1924 and probably killed off by introduced cats, most likely in the 1940s.
  • Saint Lucia Forest Thrush, Cichlherminia lherminieri sanctaeluciae (St Lucia, West Indies, 1980s)
A subspecies of the Forest Thrush, last seen in 1980.
  • Pines Solitaire, Myadestes elisabeth retrusus (Isla de la Juventud, West Indies, late 1930s?)
A subspecies of the Cuban Solitaire. Unconfirmed records suggest it did still exist in the early 1970s.

Mimidae – Mockingbirds and thrashers

  • Barbados Scaly-breasted Thrasher, Allenia fusca atlantica (Barbados, West Indies, c. 1990)
Scaly-breasted Thrasher subspecies

Estrildidae – Estrildid finches (waxbills, munias, etc.)

  • Southern Star Finch, Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda (Australia, c. 2000)
A subspecies of the Star Finch; officially critically endangered but probably recently extinct. Not known to survive in captivity.

Fringillidae – True finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers

  • San Benito House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori (San Benito, East Pacific, c. 1940s)
House Finch subspecies
  • Lanaʻi ʻAlauahio, Paroreomyza Montana montana (Lanaʻi, Hawaiian Islands, 1937)
A subspecies of the Maui ʻAlauahio (or properly Maui Nui ʻAlauahio).
  • Maui ʻAkepa, Loxops coccineus ochraceus (Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 1988)
ʻAkepa subspecies
  • Oʻahu ʻAkepa, Loxops coccineus wolstenholmei (Oʻahu, Hawaiian Islands, 1990s)
Another ʻAkepa subspecies
  • Laysan ʻApapane, Himatione (sanguinea) freethi (Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1923)
The last individuals of this subspecies of the ʻApapane, possibly a distinct species, disappeared in a sandstorm, probably on the night of April 23/April 24, 1923.

Icteridae – Grackles

  • Grand Cayman Oriole, Icterus leucopteryx bairdi (Grand Cayman, West Indies, mid-20th century)
A subspecies of the Jamaican Oriole, last reliably recorded in 1938.

Parulidae – New World warblers

  • New Providence Yellowthroat, Geothlypis rostrata rostrata (New Providence, Bahamas, 1990?)
The nominate subspecies of the Bahama Yellowthroat is either almost or completely extinct.

Thraupidae – Tanagers

  • Gonâve Western Chat-tanager, Calyptophilus tertius abbotti (Gonâve, West Indies, c. 1980?)
A Western Chat-tanager subspecies last recorded in 1977 and probably extinct.
  • Samaná Eastern Chat-tanager, Calyptophilus frugivorus frugivorus (E Hispaniola, West Indies, 1980s?)
An Eastern Chat-tanager subspecies; the last (unconfirmed?) record was in 1982.
  • Darwin's Large Ground Finch, Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris (Floreana?, Galapagos Islands, 1957?)
The subspecies of the Large Ground Finch collected by Charles Darwin in 1835; he gave no precise locality. A similar bird was found in 1957, but no others have ever been seen.
  • Saint Kitts Bullfinch, Loxigilla portoricensis grandis (Saint Kitts and prehistorically Barbuda, West Indies, 1930)
Puerto Rican Bullfinch subspecies

Emberizidae – Buntings and American sparrows

  • Todos Santos Rufous-crowned Sparrow, Aimophila ruficeps sanctorum (Islas Todos Santos, E Pacific, 1970s)
Rufous-crowned Sparrow subspecies
  • Santa Barbara Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia graminea (Santa Barbara Island, late 1960s). Last seen in 1967, became extinct due to a severe wild fire in 1959 and subsequent feral cat predation. Officially declared extinct by the USFWS in 1983.
  • Dusky Seaside Sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens (Florida, 1987)
Seaside Sparrow subspecies
  • Guadalupe Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus consobrinus (Guadalupe Island, East Pacific, c. 1900)
Spotted Towhee subspecies

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Chilton, Glen (2009): The Curse of the Labrador Duck: My Obsessive Quest to the Edge of Extinction. Simon and Schuster, ISBN 1-43910247-3.
  2. ^ a b Spennemann (2006)
  3. ^ nzetc.org

References[edit]

External links[edit]