List of extinct indigenous peoples of Brazil
At the time of the discovery of Brazil by the Europeans, a total of 2,000 indigenous nations, divided into several thousands of tribes existed in Brazil. The total number of native tribes which inhabited the present day Brazil at the time of first contact is disputed, as well as difficult to ascertain. The names of large number of tribes who were exterminated as a result of inter-tribal warfare is not recorded anywhere and so is the case of several smaller tribes who were wiped out by the colonizers. Curt Nimuendajú gives a list of 1,400 nations in his monumental work Mapa etno-histórico do Brasil e regiões adjacentes, but he ignored many smaller (extinct) tribes in Eastern Brazil, and was unaware of some other tribes which were uncontacted at that time. Currently only 200 nations (790 tribes) are alive, with no survivors being reported for the remaining nations. However this doesn't mean all their bloodlines are extinct only their cultures. Brazilian Pardo and Mestizo population have mostly unknown indigenous backgrounds. Which can and probably have many of this indigenous peoples as ancestors. The Bandeirantes once hunted and enslaved indigenous peoples in the then unknown interior of Brazil from the 16th to the early 19th century. The indigenous peoples were eventually aculturated and integrated into european civilization.
Most of the recorded extinctions of the Brazilian tribes were caused by warfare with the neo-Brazilians and from the epidemics which were sometimes deliberately spread by the colonizers. However, inter-tribal warfare between various native Brazilian tribes also caused a significant number of extinctions. For example, the Matses, one of the tribes in the Vale do Javari region exterminated at least 4 smaller tribes during the 20th century.
Famous extinct Brazilian nations
Out of the more than 1,800 extinct nations and thousands of tribes, names are available for only a few of them.
- Abacaxis - Abacaxis River
- Abaeté - Tupian (?). Minas Gerais. Extinct since the 18th century
- Abaeté do Rio Madeira - Same as Abacátes (?). Rio Madeira, Amazonas
- Abarés - Northeast Brazil
- Acauas - Also known as Acauans - Lower Amazon
- Achouaris - Rio Jurua and Rio Solimoes
- Acroa - Bahia province - related to Xokleng people
- Addaraias - Rio Negro
- Adorias - Near Amazon River - extinct since the start of the 19th century
- Aipatsé - Previously inhabited the Xingu river region - became extinct during the 1980s
- Akontsu - Still alive but fated to be extinct in a few years. Only survivors are six people. Five are elders. Rondônia.
- Anumania - Previously inhabited the Xingu river region
- Aracadaini - Amazonas
- Araés - Goias
- Araraus - Rio Jatapu, Amazonas
- Ariquéns - Rio Jamari, Rondonia
- Amena-Diapá - Once inhabited the region around São Felipe river, in the Acre - Amazonas border
- Bacuéns - Minas Gerais
- Beaquéos - Mato Grosso do Sul
- Boimés - Sergipe
- Boraris - Para
- Burukäyo - Related to the Arikapú
- Cabixiana - Near Corumbiara, Rondônia. Became extinct during the 1940s.
- Caeté - Once inhabited the region near the mouth of river São Francisco to the island of Itamaracá.
- Camamu - Ceara
- Campe - Related to Makurap. From Rio Mequens, Rondonia. Extinct since early 20th century.
- Canela, Kenkateye - Part of the Canela nation. Originally from Serra das Alpercatas, Maranhao. According to Nimuendajú, this tribe became extinct after the ranchers massacred them in 1913.
- Cauixana - Arawakan. From Rio Mauapari. Extinct since early 20th century.
- Cataguéo - Related to Caduveo
- Coropó - Espirito Santo
- Cracmuns - Minas Gerais
- Crateús - Piaui
- Cucoecamecrãs - Maranhao
- Cujigeneris - Amazonas
- Cupinharós - Once lived in Piaui
- Goitacá - Previously inhabited a large stretch of the eastern Brazilian coast, from the São Mateus River to the Paraíba do Sul River.
- Guatiedéos - Mato Grosso do Sul.
- Guatiedéo - Related to Caduveo
- Gueguê - Piaui
- Guayanases - Are known to have inhabitted the Plains of Piratininga which is now the city of São Paulo.
- Irã-Amráire - One of the Kayapo nations. Numbered 3,000 in 1900, divided into five tribes ( Kren-re, Nhangagakrin, Kuben Ken Kam, Me Mranh & Mejôt´yr). Became extinct in the 20th century.
- Jeikó - Extinct since the 19th century.
- Kinikinao - Matro Grosso do Sul. Extinct in mid-20th century.
- Kutenabu (Kustenau) - Previously inhabited the Xingu river region. Became extinct in 20th century The last two survivors, a woman and her son, were assimilated into the Waura.
- Maxubí - Related to the Arikapú.
- Manitsawa - Previously inhabited the Xingu river region
- Naravute - Previously inhabited the Xingu river region. Became extinct during the 1940s.
- Purí - Previously resided in coastal Brazil.
- Tapajós - Amazonas
- Tupinambá - Once inhabited the Atlantic coast of Brazil.
- Urucu - Related to Botocudo, Minas Gerais.
- Western Bororo - Extinct since the end of 19th century.
According to Darcy Ribeiro, a total of 87 tribes became extinct during the 1900-57 period. Another 38 became Assimilated (detribalized and merged in to the general population).
Recorded extinctions of Brazilian tribes during the 1900-1957 time period:
|Aipatse||Carib||Rio Culuene, MG|
|Aminape||Tupi||Rio Mequens, RO|
|Apaniekra||Je||Rio Porquinhos, Maranhao|
|Apiaka||Tupi||Upper Rio Tapajos|
|Arara do Xingu [Pariri, Timirem.etc]||Carib||Between Xingu and Tocantins|
|Arara [4 different tribes]||NA||1. Jamaxim 2. Manicore 3. Rio Preto 4. Rio Guaraibas, PA/AM|
|Arawine||Tupi||Rio 7 de Setembro, MG|
|Ariken||Tupi||Between Rio Candeia and Rio Jamari, RO|
|Arua||Tupi||Rio Branco, RO|
|Baenan||Baenan||Left bank of Rio Pardo, Bahia|
|Botocudos [Pojixa, Nakreehe, Minajirum, Jiporok, Gutkrak, Krenak]||Botocudos||Bahia & Minas Gerais|
|Emerilon||Tupi||Far North Amapa|
|Espinhos||Pano||Rio Corumaha, Acre|
|Guarategaja||Tupi||Rio Mequens, RO|
|Guato||Guato||Rio Paraguai, MG|
|Huari||Huari||Rio Corumbiara, RO|
|Itogapuk||Tupi||Rio Madeirinha, AM|
|Ipotewat||Tupi||Upper Cacoal, RO|
|Jabutifed||Tupi||Between Rio Cacoal & Rio Riosinho, RO|
|Jabuti||NA||Upper Rio Branco|
|Kabixiana||Tupi||Upper Rio Corumbiara, RO|
|Kanamari||Katukina||Upper Inauini, AM|
|Karipuna do Rondonia||Pano||Rio Capivari, RO|
|Karitiana||Tupi||Alto Rio Candeias, AM|
|Katiana||Aruak||Upper Rio Purus|
|Kaxarari||Aruak||Upper Rio Curuquete, AM-AC|
|Kayapo-Kradau||Je||N. Araguaia, S.Para|
|Kayapo do Sul||Je||Boundary of Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo|
|Kayuixana||Aruak||Between Rio Japura and Rio Solimoes, AM|
|Kenkateye||Je||Rio Alpercatas, Maranhao|
|Kepkiriwat||Tupi||Rio Pimenta Bueno, RO|
|Kokama||Tupi||Rio Solimoes, AM|
|Krem Ye||Je||Maranhao - Para|
|Kujijineri||Aruak||Between Upper Envira and Curumaha, Acre|
|Kuniba||Aruak||Between Juruasinho and Jutai, AM|
|Kurina||Pano||Rio Jutai & Rio Jandiatuba, AM|
|Kuruaya||Tupi||Rio Jamaxim, S Para|
|Kustenao||Aruak||Rio Batovi and Rio Ronuro, MG|
|Layana||Aruak||Rio Miranda, MGdS|
|Makurap||Tupi||Rio Branco, RO|
|Maniteneri||Aruak||Rio Purus, Acre|
|Manitsawa||Tupi||Upper Xingu, MG|
|Marakana||NA||Mountains south of Rio Uraricoera, Roraima|
|Marawa||Aruak||Lower Jutai, AM|
|Matanawi||Matanawi||Lower Marmelos, AM|
|Mayoruna||Pano||Rio Javari, AM|
|Mialat||Tupi||Upper Leitao, RO|
|Miranha||Witoto||Rio Tefe, Rio Caicara, AM|
|Monde or Sanamaika||Tupi||Right of Pimenta Bueno, RO|
|Naravute||Carib||Middle Culuene, MG|
|Oti||Oti||Campos Novos, Sao Paulo|
|Oyanpik or Wayampi||Tupi||Oiapoque, Amapa|
|Palmelas||Carib||Right of Rio Guapore, RO|
|Parawa [Hon, Maro-Djapa]||Katukina||Left of Upper Jurua, AM|
|Pase||Aruak||Lower Rio Ica, AM|
|Pauxi||Carib||Right of Middle Cumina, Para|
|Pauxiana||Carib||Between Rio Mocajai and Rio Catrimani, Roraima|
|Poyanawa||Pano||Upper Rio Moa, Acre|
|Purukoto||Carib||Maraca Island, Rio Uraricoera, Roraima|
|Rama Rama||Tupi||Rio Anari & Rio Machadinho, RO|
|Sakuya||Pano||Extreme NW Acre|
|Sanamaika||Tupi||Left of Pimenta Bueno, RO|
|Takuatep||Tupi||Rio Tamuripa, RO|
|Tora||Chapacura||Lower Marmelos, AM|
|Tsuva||Carib||Middle Culuene, MG|
|Txakamekra||Je||Rio das Flores, Maranhao|
|Urumi||Tupi||Right of Rio Jiparana, RO|
|Wainuma||Aruak||Middle Japura, Amazonas - Colombia border|
|Warekena||Aruak||Rio Icana and Rio Xie, NW AM|
|Wayoro||NA||Upper Rio Branco, RO|
|Xipaya||Tupi||Rio Iriri & Rio Curua, Para|
|Yuberi||Aruak||Lower Tapaua & Middle Purus, AM|
|Yuma||NA||Upper Ipixuna & Tabocal, AM|
|Yuri||Yuri||Between Ica, Japura & Solimoes|
*Ribeiro grouped several nations in to one in certain cases. For example, the Arara are actually 4 different tribes, which may or may not be linguistically and ethnically related. In such cases, the names of the known individual nations are given in Square Brackets.
In some cases, the tribes which were classified as extinct, later re-emerged and exerted their identity. Examples are Krenak and Apiacá
In cetrain other cases, tribes which went extinct in Brasil existed as a living nation else where, such as the Oyanpik
- Ribeiro, D. (1967). Indigenous cultures and languages of Brazil. In J. H. Hopper (Ed.), Indians of Brazil in the Twentieth Century (pp. 77–166). Washington D.C.: Institute for cross-cultural research.