List of extinct plants

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The following is a list of extinct plants only.

Prehistoric extinctions[edit]

Further information: Paleobotany

Carboniferous[edit]

Permian[edit]

Triassic[edit]

Jurassic[edit]

Cretaceous[edit]

Paleocene[edit]

Eocene[edit]

Oligocene[edit]

Miocene[edit]

Pliocene[edit]

Pleistocene[edit]

Modern extinctions[edit]

Africa[edit]

Saint Helena Olive (Nesiota elliptica)

Americas[edit]

Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Plants extinct in the wild[edit]

Encephalartos woodii
Cosmos atrosanguineus
Sophora toromiro

Africa[edit]

Americas[edit]

Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Extinct plant cultivars[edit]

Plants previously thought extinct and subsequently rediscovered[edit]

See Lazarus species

  • Badula ovalifolia – from Mauritius. Known in 1830's; collected in 1970 and 1997 but misidentified (Page and D'Argent 1997, IUCN report)/confirmed identity in 2008 (Florens et al., Kew Bulletin)
  • Café marron (Ramosmania rodriguesii) - rediscovered on Rodrigues in 1979
  • Jellyfish tree (Medusagyne oppositifolia) - rediscovered in Seychelles in the 1970s
  • Sichuan Thuja – (Thuja sutchuenensis) – rediscovered 1999 (Sichuan, China)
  • Gibraltar Campion (Silene tomentosa) - rediscovered on Gibraltar in 1994
  • Astragalus nitidiflorus (1909, Spain) - rediscovered 2004 (Cartagena, Spain)

Extinct algae[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ F. H. Knowlton (1889), "New species of fossil wood (Araucarioxylon arizonicum) from Arizona and New Mexico", Proceedings of the United States National Museum
  2. ^ a b c Mary Gordon Calder (1953). "A coniferous petrified forest in Patagonia". Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Geology (The British Museum) 2 (2): 97–138. 
  3. ^ Channing, A.; Zamuner, A.; Edwards, D.; Guido, D. (2011). "Equisetum thermale sp. nov. (Equisetales) from the Jurassic San Agustin hot spring deposit, Patagonia: Anatomy, paleoecology, and inferred paleoecophysiology.". American Journal of Botany 98 (4): 680–697. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000211. PMID 21613167. 
  4. ^ a b Bogner, J.; Johnson, K. R.; Kvacek, Z.; Upchurch, G. R. (2007). "New fossil leaves of Araceae from the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene of western North America". Zitteliana A (47): 133–147. ISSN 1612-412X. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Wolfe, J.A.; Tanai, T. (1987). "Systematics, Phylogeny, and Distribution of Acer (maples) in the Cenozoic of Western North America". Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy 22 (1): 1–246. 
  6. ^ Manchester, S.R.; Xiang, X-P.; Xiang, Q-Y (2010). "Fruits of Cornelian Cherries (Cornaceae: Cornus Subg. Cornus) in the Paleocene and Eocene of the Northern Hemisphere". International Journal of Plant Sciences 171 (8): 882–891. doi:10.1086/655771. 
  7. ^ a b c Hickey, Leo (1977). Stratigraphy and Paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation (Early Tertiary) of Western North Dakota. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America. ISBN 0-8137-1150-9. 
  8. ^ Zhou, Z.; Quan, C.; Liu, Y-S (2012). "Tertiary Ginkgo ovulate organs with associated leaves from North Dakota, U.S.A., and their evolutionary significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences 173 (1): 67–80. JSTOR 10.1086/662651. 
  9. ^ Stockey, R. A.; Rothwell, G. W.; Falder, A. B. (2001). "Diversity among Taxodioid Conifers: Metasequoia foxii sp. nov. from the Paleocene of Central Alberta, Canada". International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (1): 221–234. doi:10.1086/317914. 
  10. ^ a b Herrera, F.A.; Jaramillo, C.A.; Dilcher, S.L.; Wing; Gómez-N, C. (2007). "Fossil Araceae from a Paleocene neotropical rainforest in Colombia". American Journal of Botany 95: 1569–1583. doi:10.3732/ajb.0800172. PMID 21628164. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Manchester, S.R. (1994). "Fruits and Seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon". Palaeontographica Americana 58: 30-31. 
  12. ^ Arnold, C. A. (1955). "A Tertiary Azolla from British Columbia". Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan 12 (4): 37–45. 
  13. ^ Schorn, Howard; Wehr, Wesley (1986). "Abies milleri, sp. nov., from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington". Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History (1): 1–7. 
  14. ^ Kotyk, M.E.A.; Basinger, J.F.; McIlver, E.E. (2003). "Early Tertiary Chamaecyparis Spach from Axel Heiberg Island, Canadian High Arctic". Canadian Journal of Botany 81: 113–130. doi:10.1139/B03-007. 
  15. ^ a b Radtke, M.G.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2005). "Fossil Corylopsis and Fothergilla Leaves (Hamamelidaceae) from the Lower Eocene Flora of Republic, Washington, U.S.A., and Their Evolutionary and Biogeographic Significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences 166 (2): 347–356. doi:10.1086/427483. 
  16. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Manchester S.R. & Wehr W.C. (2003). "Corylus, Carpinus, and Palaeocarpinus (Betulaceae) from the Middle Eocene Klondike Mountain and Allenby Formations of Northwestern North America". International Journal of Plant Sciences 164 (5): 807–822. doi:10.1086/376816. 
  17. ^ Manchester, S.; Pigg, K. (2008). "The Eocene mystery flower of McAbee, British Columbia". Botany 86: 1034–1038. doi:10.1139/B08-044. 
  18. ^ a b c d Call, V.B.; Dilcher, D.L. (1997). "The fossil record of Eucommia (Eucommiaceae) in North America". American Journal of Botany 84 (6): 798–814. doi:10.2307/2445816. PMID 21708632. 
  19. ^ Mustoe, G.E. (2002). "Eocene Ginkgo leaf fossils from the Pacific Northwest". Canadian Journal of Botany 80: 1078–1087. doi:10.1139/b02-097. 
  20. ^ a b c d Wolfe, J.A.; Wehr, W.C. (1987). "Middle Eocene dicotyledonous plants from Republic, northeastern Washington". United states Geological Survey Bulletin 1597: 1–25. 
  21. ^ DeVore, M.L.; Moore, S.M.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2004). "Fossil Neviusia leaves (Rosaceae: Kerrieae) from the Lower Middle Eocene of Southern British Columbia". Rhodora 12 (927): 197–209. JSTOR 23314752. 
  22. ^ Stockey, R.S. (1983). "Pinus driftwoodensis sp.n. from the early Tertiary of British Columbia". Botanical gazette 144 (1): 148–156. doi:10.1086/337355. JSTOR 2474678. 
  23. ^ Wolfe, J.A.; Wehr, W.C. (1988). "Rosaceous Chamaebatiaria-like foliage from the Paleogene of western North America". Aliso 12 (1): 177–200. 
  24. ^ Pigg, K.B.; Dillhoff, R.M.; DeVore, M.L.; Wehr, W.C. (2007). "New diversity among the Trochodendraceae from the Early/Middle Eocene Okanogan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada, and Northeastern Washington State, United States". International Journal of Plant Sciences 168 (4): 521–532. doi:10.1086/512104. 
  25. ^ a b Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C.; Ickert-Bond, S.M. (2001). "Trochodendron and Nordenskioldia (Trochodendraceae) from the Middle Eocene of Washington State, U.S.A.". International Journal of Plant Sciences 162 (5): 1187–1198. doi:10.1086/321927. 
  26. ^ Manchester, S.R. (1987). "The fossil history of the Juglandaceae". Monographs in Systematic Botany 21: 1–137. 
  27. ^ a b Calvillo-Canadell, L.; Cevallos-Ferriz, S.R.S.; Rico-Arce, L. (2010). "Miocene Hymenaea flowers preserved in amber from Simojovel de Allende, Chiapas, Mexico". Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 160 (3-4): 126–134. doi:10.1016/j.revpalbo.2010.02.007. 
  28. ^ Miller, C.N. jr. (1982). "Osmunda wehrii, a New Species Based on Petrified Rhizomes from the Miocene of Washington". American Journal of Botany 69 (1): 116–121. JSTOR 2442836. 
  29. ^ a b Poinar, G. (2002). "Fossil palm flowers in Dominican and Baltic amber". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139 (4): 361–367. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00052.x. 
  30. ^ Axelrod, D. (1980). "Contributions to the Neogene paleobotany of central California". University of California publications in geological sciences 121: 1–212. 
  31. ^ McKown, A.D.; Stockey, R.A.; Schweger, C.E. (2002). "A New Species of Pinus Subgenus Pinus Subsection Contortae From Pliocene Sediments of Ch'ijee's Bluff, Yukon Territory, Canada". International Journal of Plant Sciences 163 (4): 687–697. doi:10.1086/340425. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an http://redlist.sanbi.org/index.php Red List of South African Plants
  33. ^ http://sabs.appstate.edu/sites/sabs.appstate.edu/files/chinquapin-issues/Chinq%2016-4.pdf Newsletter of the Southern Appalachia Botanical Society

External links[edit]