List of extreme weather records in Pakistan

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 Lightning flashing just over the mountains in Murree, Pakistan
Lightning in Murree during the monsoon of 2005

The weather extremes in Pakistan include high and low temperatures, heaviest rainfall and flooding. The highest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan is 53.5 °C (128.3 °F) which was recorded in Mohenjo-daro, Sindh on 26 May 2010. It was not only the hottest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan but also the hottest reliably measured temperature ever recorded on the continent of Asia.[1][2] and the fourth highest temperature ever recorded on earth. The highest rainfall of 620 millimetres (24 in) was recorded in Islamabad during 24 hours on 23 July 2001. The record-breaking rain fell in just 10 hours. It was the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad in the previous 100 years.[3][4]

Record-breaking 2010 summer heat wave[edit]

The hottest temperature ever recorded in Asia and the fourth highest temperature ever recorded in the world was in Mohenjo-daro, Sindh at 53.5 °C (128.3 °F) on May 26, 2010. Twelve cities in Pakistan saw temperatures above 50 °C (122 °F) during the extreme heatwave of summer 2010, which lasted from May 22 to May 31, 2010.[5] On May 27, temperatures higher than 45 °C (113 °F) hit areas across Pakistan and at least 18 people died as a result.[6] Also, during the extreme heatwave season, 11 cities saw their highest ever recorded temperatures of 50 °C (122 °F) or above, and five cities saw temperatures of 53 °C (127 °F). 11 cities also saw extremes of more than 45 °C (113 °F) but below 50 °C (122 °F). The previous record for Pakistan and for Asia was on June 12, 1919 at 52.7°C (127°F) in Sindh.[7][8]

Recorded temperatures[edit]

List of cities where 50°C or above temperature was recorded[edit]

Temperature extremes in Pakistan over 50 °C (122 °F) based on data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department, 1931–2010[9] The standard measuring conditions for temperature are 1.2 meters above the ground out of direct sunlight.

Date Temperature °C City Province Notes References
26 May 2010 53.5 °C (128.3 °F)[A] Mohenjo-daro Sindh It was the fourth highest temperature ever recorded on earth and the hottest reliably measured temperature ever recorded in the continent of Asia.50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 4 days from 24 to 27 May 2010 [1][2]
26 May 2010 53 °C (127 °F)[A] Sibi Balouchistan 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 5 days from 22 to 26 May 2010. Previously 52.6 °C (126.7 °F) was recorded on June 5, 2003.[10] [2]
26 May 2010 53 °C (127 °F) Jacobabad Sindh 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 4 days, 24 to 27 May 2010.Event also occurred on 12 June 1919. [2]
26 May 2010 53 °C (127 °F)[A] Padidan Sindh 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 3 days from 24 to 26 May 2010. [2]
26 May 2010 53 °C (127 °F)[A] Larkana Sindh 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 4 days from 24 to 27 May 2010. [2]
26 May 2010 52 °C (126 °F)[A] Nawabshah Sindh 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 5 days from 22 to 26 May 2010. [2]
30 May 2009 52 °C (126 °F) Turbat Balouchistan 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 5 days from 26 to 29 May 2009. [2]
1 July 1990 51.4 °C (124.5 °F) Dalbandin Balouchistan
9 June 2007 51 °C (124 °F) Mianwali Punjab 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for 2 days, 9 and 10 June 2007. [2]
19 May 2013 51 °C (124 °F) Larkana Sindh [11]
1 June 1996 51 °C (124 °F) Rohri Sindh [12]
28 May 2010 51 °C (124 °F)[A] Dadu Sindh 50 °C (122 °F) was recorded for 2 days, 26 and 27 May 2010 . [2]
26 May 2010 51 °C (124 °F)[A] Noorpurthal Punjab 50 °C (122 °F) was recorded on May 19, 2011. [2][13]
25 May 2010 51 °C (124 °F)[A] Sukkar Sindh 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 3 days, 25 to 27 May 2010. [2]
10 June 2007 51 °C (124 °F) Sargodha Punjab 50 °C (122 °F) was recorded for 2 days, 9 and 10 June 2007. [2]
26 May 2010 50 °C (122 °F)[A] Rahim yar Khan Punjab 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for consecutive 3 days from 25 to 27 May 2010. [2]
15 May 2009 50 °C (122 °F) Lasbella Balochistan 50 °C (122 °F) was recorded for 2 days, 15 and 16 May 2009. 50 °C (122 °F) was also recorded on May 21, 2011. [2][14]
27 May 2010 50 °C (122 °F)[A] Multan Punjab Record temperature in Multan; previous highest 49 °C (120 °F) in 1956. [2]
26 May 2010 50 °C (122 °F)[A] Bahawalnagar Punjab [2]
20 May 2011 50 °C (122 °F) Pasni Balochistan [15]
18 June 1995 50 °C (122 °F) Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [16]
5 June 1978 50 °C (122 °F) Dera Ismail Khan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [17]
10 June 2007 50 °C (122 °F) Bannu Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 50 °C (122 °F) or above was recorded for two days, 9 and 10 June 2007. [2]

List of cities where 45°C or above but below 50°C temperature was recorded[edit]

Temperature extremes in Pakistan over 45 °C (113 °F) based on data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department, 1931–2010[9] and other sources.

Date Temperature °C City Province Notes References
4 June 2014 49.5 °C (121.1 °F)* Gawadar Balochistan Highest temperature on Makran Coast
20 June 2010 49 °C (120 °F)* Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab [2]
7 June 1991 48.5 °C (119.3 °F) Hyderabad Sindh [18] so
26 May 2010 48.5 °C (119.3 °F)[A] Bhakkar Punjab [2]
30 May 1944 48.3 °C (118.9 °F) Lahore Punjab 48 °C (118 °F) was recorded in Lahore on 10 June 2007. [19][20]
8 June 2014 48.0 °C (118.4 °F)* Gawadar Balochistan Same temperature was also recorded on 9 June 2014
10 June 2007 48 °C (118 °F) Attock Punjab
26 May 2010 48 °C (118 °F) Faisalabad Punjab This temperature was also recorded on 24 June 2005. [2][21]
8 June 1979 48 °C (118 °F) Jiwani Balouchistan [22]
26 May 2010 48 °C (118 °F)[A] Jhelum Punjab [2]
25 May 2010 48 °C (118 °F)[A] Bhawalpur Punjab [2]
9 June 2007 48 °C (118 °F) Mandi Bahauddin Punjab [2]
26 May 2010 48 °C (118 °F)[A] Kohat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [2]
25 May 2010 48 °C (118 °F)[A] Bhawalpur Punjab [2]
26 May 2010 48 °C (118 °F) Nok Kundi Balouchistan [2]
11 June 2007 48 °C (118 °F) Thatta Sindh
9 June 1938 47.8 °C (118.0 °F) Karachi Sindh [23]
24 May 2013 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) Lahore Punjab This is the highest recorded temperature of May in Lahore since 1954.[11]
24 June 1990 47.3 °C (117.1 °F) Drosh Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [24]
22 June 2007 47 °C (117 °F) Chorr Sindh
25 May 2010 47 °C (117 °F)[A] Okara Punjab [2]
25 May 2010 47 °C (117 °F)[A] Sahiwal Punjab [2]
24 May 2010 47 °C (117 °F)[A] Khanpur Punjab [2]
07 June 2014 48.1 °C (118.6 °F) Sialkot Punjab
24 May 2010 47 °C (117 °F)[A] Tobatak sing Punjab [2]
23 June 2005 46.6 °C (115.9 °F) Rawalpindi/Islamabad Punjab/Islamabad Capital Territory [25]
31 May 1988 46.5 °C (115.7 °F) Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir [26]
17 July 1997 46.3 °C (115.3 °F) Gilgit Gilgit Baltistan [27]
26 May 2010 46 °C (115 °F)[A] Gujranwala Punjab [2]
10 June 2007 46 °C (115 °F) Rawalpindi Punjab This temperature was also recorded on 29 June 2009. [28]

List of cities with lowest temperatures[edit]

Date Temperature °C City Province Notes References
07 January 1995 −24.1 °C (−11.4 °F) Skardu Gilgit–Baltistan [29]
08 January 1970 −18.3 °C (−0.9 °F) Quetta Balochistan [30]
01 February 1970 −16.7 °C (1.9 °F) Quetta Balochistan [31]
30 December 2013 −15 °C (5 °F) Kalat Balochistan [32]
05 February 2008 −15 °C (5 °F) Quetta Balochistan [33]
30 December 2013 −13 °C (9 °F) Quetta Balochistan [34]
26 December 2011 −12 °C (10 °F) Kalat Balochistan
17 January 1967 −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) Islamabad Islamabad Capital Territory [35]
07 January 1970 −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [36]
17 January 1967 −2.5 °C (27.5 °F) Rawalpindi Punjab
17 January 1935 −2.2 °C (28.0 °F) Lahore Punjab [37]
21 January1934 0.0 °C (32.0 °F) Karachi Sindh [38]

Heaviest rainfalls recorded during 24 hours[edit]

Record rainfall extremes in Pakistan over 200 millimetres (7.9 in) in 24 hours, based on data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department, 1931–2010[9] and other sources.

Date Rainfall (mm) Rainfall (in) City Province Notes References
24 July 2001 620 24.4 Islamabad Islamabad Capital Territory 620 millimetres (24 in) rainfall was recorded in 12 hours, on 23 July 2001 in Islamabad as a result of a cloudburst. It is the heaviest rainfall in Islamabad. [3][4]
11 August 2011 350 13.7 Tando Ghulam Ali Sindh Record-breaking rainfall in Tando Ghulam Ali [39]
24 July 2001 335 13.1 Rawalpindi Punjab Record-breaking rainfall in Rawalpindi due to cloudburst
7 September 2011 312 12.2 Diplo Sindh Record-breaking rainfall in Diplo [40]
10 August 2011 291 11.5 Mithi Sindh Record-breaking rainfall in Mithi [41][42][43]
29 July 2010 280 11.0 Risalpur Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

[44]

7 August 1953 278.1 10.95 Karachi Sindh [45]
29 July2010 274 10.7 Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Record-breaking rainfall in Peshawar, previously 187 millimetres (7.4 in) mm was recorded on 10 April 2009. [16][44]
5 September 1961 264.2 10.4 Fasilabad Punjab [21]
30 July 2010 257 10.1 Islamabad Islamabad Capital Territory [44]
29 July 2010 257 10.1 Cherat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
2 July 1972 256.5 10.1 Nawabshah Sindh [46]
10 September 1992 255 10.0 Murree Punjab [47]
12 September 1962 250.7 9.8 Hyderabad Sindh [18]
18 July 2009 245 9.6 Karachi Sindh The rainfall occurred in just 4 hours

[48]

30 July 2010 240 9.4 Kamra Punjab [44] 26 August 2011 240 9.4 Kohat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [49]
31 August 2011 238 9.37 Padidan Sindh [49][50]
27 August 1997 233.8 9.2 Murree Punjab [47]
29 July 2010 233 9.1 Kohat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
30 July 2010 231 9.1 Murree Punjab [44]
6 June 2010 227 8.9 Gawadar Balouchistan Record-breaking rainfall in Gwadar. [51]
7 September 2011 225 8.85 Mithi Sindh [52][53]
13 August 2008 221 8.7 Lahore Punjab [54]
20 July 2013 217 8.6 Islamabad Punjab [55]
1 August 1976 211 8.3 Lahore Punjab [20]
8 July 2003 209 8.2 Larkana Sindh
10 September 1992 208 8.2 Muzaffarabad Azad Kashmir [56]
1 July 1977 207.6 8.1 Karachi Sindh [2]
29 July 2007 205 8.0 Sargodha Punjab
4 August 2010 202 7.9 Dera Ismail Khan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Record-breaking rainfall in Dera Ismail Khan previously 116 millimetres (4.6 in) was recorded on 4 July 1994. [2][17]
11 August 2011 200 7.8 Tando Mohammad Khan Sindh Record-breaking rainfall in Tando Mohammad Khan [57]
11 August 2011 200 7.8 Tando Ghulam Haider Sindh Record-breaking rainfall in Tando Ghulam Haider [57]
24 July 2001 200 7.8 Islamabad Islamabad Capital Territory [25]
27 August 1997 200 7.8 Islamabad Islamabad Capital Territory [25]

Record-breaking torrential rainfall of July 2010[edit]

Unprecedented heavy monsoon rain began in the last week of July 2010 in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir regions of Pakistan which causes floods in Balochistan and Sindh.[58] The floods which were caused by monsoon rains, and were forecast to continue into early August, were described as the worst in the last 80 years.[59] The Pakistan Meteorological Department said that over 200 mm (7.88 inches) of rain fell over a 24-hour period over a number of places of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab and more was expected.[60] A record-breaking 274 mm (10.7 inches) rain fell in Peshawar during 24 hours,[61] previously 187 mm (7.36 inches) of rain was recorded in April 2009.[16] Other record-breaking rains were recorded in Risalpur, Cherat, Saidu Sharif, Mianwali, and Kohat regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Heavy rainfalls recorded during the wet spell of July 2010[edit]

Heavy rainfalls of more than 200 millimetres (7.9 in) recorded during the four day wet spell of July 27 to July 30, 2010 in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Punjab based on data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department.[44]

City Rainfall (mm) Rainfall (in) Province Notes References
Risalpur 415[B] 16.3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Islamabad 394 15.5 Islamabad Capital Territory [44]
Murree 373 14.6 Punjab [44]
Cherat 372[B] 14.6 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Garhi Dopatta 346 13.6 Azad Kashmir [44]
Saidu Sharif 338[B] 13.3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Peshawar 333[B] 13.1 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Kamra 308 12.1 Punjab [44]
Rawalakot 297 11.7 Azad Kashmir [44]
Muzaffarabad 292 11.5 Azad Kashmir [44]
Lahore 288 11.3 Punjab [44]
Mianwali 271[B] 10.6 Punjab [44]
Lower Dir 263 10.3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Kohat 262[B] 10.3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Balakot 256 10.0 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Sialkot 255 10.0 Punjab [44]
Pattan 242 9.5 Azad Kashmir [44]
DIR 231 9.10 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Gujranwala 222 8.7 Punjab [44]
Dera Ismail Khan 220 8.6 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa [44]
Rawalpindi 219 8.6 Punjab [44]

Heavy rainfalls recorded in August and September, 2011 in Sindh[edit]

Heavy rainfalls of more than 200 millimetres (7.9 in) recorded in the heaviest monsoon spell in different areas of sindh province in the months of August and September, 2011 based on data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department.[62]

City Rainfall (mm) Rainfall (in) Monsoon Spell Notes References
Mithi 760 30.0 September 1 to 14* Record breaking rainfall in Mithi. [63][64][65]
Mirpur Khas 603 23.7 September 1 to 14 Record breaking rainfall in Mirpur Khas. [63][64][65]
Padidan 356 14.0 August 30 to September 4* Record breaking rainfall in Padidan. [63][64][65]
Nawabshah 353.2 13.9 September 1 to 14 Record breaking rainfall in Nawabshah. [63][64][65]
Dadu 348.1 13.7 September 1 to 14 Record breaking rainfall in Dadu. [63][64][65]
Badin 302.1 11.8 August 10 to 14* Record breaking rainfall in Badin. [63][64][65]
Chhor 268 10.6 September 1 to 14 Record breaking rainfall in Chhor. [63][64][65]
Hyderabad 244.2 9.6 September 1 to 14 [63][64][65]
Karachi 212.2 8.3 September 1 to 14 [63][64][65]
  • September 1 to 14, 2011 four consecutive spells of monsoon rains.
  • August 1 to 14, 2011 first spell of monsoon rains in sindh.
  • August 30 to September 4 second spell of monsoon rains in sindh.

Floods[edit]

 A NASA satellite image of Pakistan showing flood situation of the river Indus during 2010 Pakistan floods
A NASA satellite image showing the Indus River at the time of 2010 floods

Pakistan has seen many floods, the worst and most destructive is the recent 2010 Pakistan floods, which swept away the 20% of Pakistan's land, the flood is the result of unprecedented Monsoon rains which lasted from 28 July to 31 July 2010. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and North eastern Punjab were badly affected during the monsoon rains when dams, rivers and lakes overflowed. By mid-August, according to the governmental Federal Flood Commission (FFC), the floods had caused the deaths of at least 1,540 people, while 2,088 people had received injuries, 557,226 houses had been destroyed, and over 6 million people had been displaced.[66] One month later, the data had been updated to reveal 1,781 deaths, 2,966 people with injuries, and more than 1.89 million homes destroyed.[67] The flood affected more than 20 million people exceeding the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.[68][69] The flood is considered as worst in Pakistan's history affecting people of all four provinces and Gilgit Baltistan and Azad Kashmir region of Pakistan.[70]

The 2011 Sindh floods began during the monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, Eastern Balochistan, and Southern Punjab.[71] The floods have caused considerable damage; an estimated 270 civilians have been killed, with 5.3 millio­n people and 1.2 millio­n homes affect­ed.[72] Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy is said to be extensive. At least 1.7 million acres of arable land has been inundated as a result of the flooding.[72] The flooding has been described as the worst since the 2010 Pakistan floods, which devastated the entire country.[72] Unprecedented torrential monsoon rains caused severe flooding in 16 districts of Sindh province.[65]

The other floods which caused destruction in the history of Pakistan, includes the flood of 1950, which killed 2910 people, On 1 July 1977 heavy rains and flooding in Karachi, killed 248 people, according to Pakistan meteorological department 207 millimetres (8.1 in) of rain fell in 24 hours.[73] In 1992 flooding during Monsoon season killed 1,834 people across the country, in 1993 flooding during Monsoon rains killed 3,084 people, in 2003 Sindh province was badly affected due to monsoon rains causing damages in billions, killed 178 people, while in 2007 Cyclone Yemyin submerged lower part of Balochistan Province in sea water killing 380 people. Before that it killed 213 people in Karachi on its way to Balochistan.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

A. ^ Indicates new record. Record-breaking extreme heat wave observed in the plain areas of Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan where 50 °C (122 °F) or more was observed in 12 cities between 22 to 27 May 2010. Previous extreme heat wave conditions were observed in 1998, 2002 and 2007.
B. ^ Indicates new record. Record-breaking monsoon rains observed during the month of July, 2010 in northeastern Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Azad Kashmir.

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