List of fatwas

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A fatwa (Arabic: فتوى‎), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue.

Fatwa against Man sa yarbah al malyoon[edit]

In 2001, Egypt's Grand Mufti issued a fatwa stating that the show Man sa yarbah al malyoon ("Who will Win the Million?"), modelled on the British show Who Wants to be a Millionaire?, was un-Islamic.[1] The Sheikh of Cairo's Al-Azhar University later rejected the fatwa, finding that there was no objection to such shows since they spread general knowledge.

Fatwa regarding theology[edit]

"The Jafari fiqh of the Shi'a is a school of thought that is religiously correct to follow in worship as are other Sunni schools of thought."

The Fatwa against production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons[edit]

An official Iranian statement released on August 9, 2005 at the Vienna meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published that Ayatollah Ali Khamenei had issued a fatwa forbidding the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons.[2]

Fatwa against illegal hunting and wildlife trade[edit]

In March 2014 the Indonesian Council of Ulama (Indonesia's highest Islamic clerical body) issued a fatwa against illegal hunting and wildlife trafficking. The fatwa instructed Muslims to protect endangered species by conserving their habitat and stopping illegal trade. The World Wide Fund for Nature described the fatwa as a positive step.[3]

Fatwas against terrorism and the group "Al-Qaeda"[edit]

Spanish Muslims proclaimed a fatwa against Osama Bin Laden in March 2005[4] issued by Mansur Escudero Bedate, Secretary General of the Islamic Commission of Spain. The ruling says that Bin Laden and "his" al-Qaeda had abandoned their religion and should thus be called "al-Qaeda terrorists" without using the adjective "Islamic". The fatwa urges other Muslims to make similar proclamations. They were followed in July 2005 by the Fiqh Council of North America, a ruling council that issued a fatwa against providing support to "terrorist" groups that make up their own rules by unjustifiably referring to Islam (see Istihlal).

Fatwa on terrorism[edit]

Fatwa on Terrorism is 600-page Islamic decree against terrorism and suicide bombings released in March 2010. This fatwa is a direct refutation of the ideology of Al-Qaeda and Taliban. It is one of the most extensive ruling, an "absolute" condemnation of terrorism without "any excuses or pretexts" which goes further than ever and declares terrorism as kufr under Islamic law.[5] It was produced in Canada[6] by an influential Muslim scholar Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri and was launched in London on March 2, 2010. Dr Qadri said during the launch "Terrorism is terrorism, violence is violence and it has no place in Islamic teaching and no justification can be provided for it, or any kind of excuses or ifs or buts." According to CNN, experts see the fatwa as a significant blow to terrorist recruiting.[7]

On July 2, 2013 at Lahore (Pakistan) 50 Muslim Scholars of Sunni Ittehad Council (SIC) issued a collective fatwa (decree) against suicide bombings, killing of innocent people, bomb attacks, and targeted killings declaring them as Haram or forbidden.[8]

Fatwas promoting violence against a particular individual[edit]

Fatwas involving violence are more likely to be well known than other fatwas, especially to non-Muslims. One possible reason is that non-Muslims regard most fatwas as not affecting them, but fatwas involving violence can potentially affect them. Fatwas do not only affect non-Muslims. It is important to note that a Fatwa is meant to be issued by a legal scholar, not by any political entity. Generally, any given case may have many fatwas (legal opinions) written by the scholars of the region and time. The fatwa backed by the State is the one with legal power.[citation needed]

Shahin Najafi[edit]

An Iranian rapper who raps in Persian language has been forced into hiding after hardline clerics offered a $100,000 reward for his murder, incensed by his song (Naghi) which is satirising the Tehran regime and making allegedly irreverent remarks about the tenth Islamic imam (Naghi).[9]

Muammar al-Gaddafi[edit]

An Egyptian Muslim cleric, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, issued a fatwa that urged soldiers to kill Muammar al-Gaddafi, the leader of Libya, if they were able to do so.[9]

Geert Wilders[edit]

An Australian imam named Feiz Mohammad has issued a fatwa calling for the beheading of the Dutch politician Geert Wilders, as of 2010.[10]

Jerry Falwell[edit]

In an interview given on September 30, 2002, for the October 6 edition of 60 Minutes, American Christian minister Jerry Falwell said: "I think Muhammad was a terrorist. I read enough by both Muslims and non-Muslims, [to decide] that he was a violent man, a man of war."

The following Friday, Mohsen Mojtahed Shabestari, an Iranian cleric, issued a fatwa calling for Falwell's death, saying Falwell was a "mercenary and must be killed." He added, "The death of that man is a religious duty, but his case should not be tied to the Christian community."[11]

Salman Rushdie[edit]

One of the first well-known fatwas was proclaimed in 1989 by the Iranian Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, against Salman Rushdie over his novel The Satanic Verses. The reason was an allegedly blasphemous statement taken from an early biography of the Prophet Muhammad, regarding the incorporation of pagan goddesses into Islam’s strongly monotheistic structure. Khomeini died shortly after issuing the fatwa. In 1998 Iran stated it is no longer pursuing Rushdie’s death; however, that decree was again reversed in early 2005 by the present theocrat, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.

In 1991, Rushdie's Japanese translator, Hitoshi Igarashi, was stabbed to death in Tokyo, and his Italian translator was beaten and stabbed in Milan. In 1993, Rushdie's Norwegian publisher William Nygaard was shot and severely injured in an attack outside his house in Oslo. Thirty-seven guests died when their hotel in Sivas, Turkey was torched by locals protesting against Aziz Nesin, Rushdie's Turkish translator.

Taslima Nasreen[edit]

Fundamentalists in Bangladesh proclaimed a similar fatwa against Taslima Nasreen in 1993, against a series of newspaper columns in which she was critical of the treatment of women under Islam. The next year she wrote Lajja (Shame) which described the abuse of women and minorities. Again there were calls for her death, and her passport was confiscated. Within the legal system, she felt that she might have faced a jail term of up to two years, where she was likely to be murdered. She managed to escape the country via Calcutta, was granted asylum in Sweden, and then lived in Paris, and finally came to India. Even in India, she had to flee the city of Kolkata and move to Delhi under Indian government's strict orders following riots in Kolkata.

Isioma Daniel[edit]

Mamuda Aliyu Shinkafi, the deputy governor of Zamfara state in Nigeria, issued a fatwa in November 2002 calling for the death of journalist Isioma Daniel for comments suggesting that Muhammad may have chosen a wife from one of the Miss World contest.[12] Other Muslim authorities have questioned the validity of the fatwa.[13]

Raheel Raza[edit]

Raheel Raza, a Muslim human rights activist who has advocated for gender equality, especially for Muslim women, became the first woman to lead mixed-gender Muslim prayers in Canada, in 2005, and said: "I already have a fatwa against me".[14][15][16][17][18][19]

Mariwan Halabjaee[edit]

In an audio file published on the Kurdish website Renesans.nu during September 2008, Mullah Krekar allegedly threatened to kill Mariwan Halabjaee, the Iraqi Kurdish author of Sex, Sharia and Women in the History of Islam, who also resided in Norway. "I swear that we will not live if you live. Either you go before us, or we go before you," said Krekar.[20] Krekar compared Halabjaee with Salman Rushdie and Ayaan Hirsi Ali.[21]

In February 2012, Krekar confirmed in the Oslo District Court that he had issued a twenty page fatwa against Halabjaee.[22] The fatwa was sent to several hundred Islamic scholars around the world. While Krekar said he thought he might be able to "guarantee the safety" of Halabjaee, Krekar confirmed that his fatwa "implies" that it is "permissible" to kill Halabjaee in Oslo or anywhere else.[23] Krekar compared Halabjaee to Theo van Gogh, the film director who was killed by an Islamist in the Netherlands in 2004.[24]

Ulil Abshar Abdalla[edit]

In 2003, a group of Indonesian Islamic cleric from Forum Ulama Umat Islam issued a death fatwa against Ulil[25] for an article that Ulil wrote in Kompas in 2002, "Menyegarkan Kembali Pemahaman Islam" (Rejuvenating the Islamic Understanding) [26][27] that is considered heretical by the clerics. In March 2011, a letter bomb addressed to Ulil at Komunitas Utan Kayu exploded, injuring a police officer.

Farag Foda[edit]

In June 1992, Egyptian writer Farag Foda was murdered following a fatwa issued by ulamas from Al-Azhar who had adopted a previous fatwa by Sheikh al-Azhar, Jadd al-Haqq, accusing secularist writers such as Foda of being "enemies of Islam".[28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "'Millionaire' fatwa rejected". BBC News. 2001-07-26. 
  2. ^ "Iran issues anti-nuke fatwa". World War 4 Report. Retrieved 2006-06-24. 
  3. ^ "Muslim clerics ban illegal hunting and wildlife trade". BBC News. 2014-03-05. 
  4. ^ "Text of the Fatwa Declared Against Osama Bin Laden by the Islamic Commission of Spain". Retrieved 2006-06-24. 
  5. ^ Taylor, Jerome (3 March 2010). "Sheikh issues fatwa against all terrorists". London: The Independent. Retrieved 25 October 2011. 
  6. ^ "Influential Pakistani cleric based in GTA". CBC News. March 30, 2010. Retrieved October 25, 2011. 
  7. ^ Khalid, Kiran (March 3, 2010). "Some experts see fatwa as significant blow to terrorist recruiting". CNN. Retrieved October 25, 2011. 
  8. ^ "Fatwa issued against suicide bombings, targeted killings and terrorism". Lahore. 2 July 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "'Iranian Rapper Faces Death' Fatwa Issued". Naghi. NYT. May 14, 2012. Retrieved May 14, 2012. 
  10. ^ Berkowitz, Ben (September 3, 2010). "Muslim cleric calls for beheading of Dutch politician". Reuters. Retrieved October 25, 2011. 
  11. ^ Weekly Review, Harper's Magazine
  12. ^ Astill, James (November 27, 2002). "Fatwa is issued on Nigerian journalist". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2006-06-24. 
  13. ^ Somerville, Keith (November 27, 2002). "Controversy over Nigerian fatwa". BBC news. Retrieved 2006-06-24. 
  14. ^ Karla Bruning. "Muslims Debate Traditions that Deny Women the Right to Lead Prayer in Mosques", Lakeland Ledger, December 2, 2006, accessed August 10, 2010
  15. ^ Khalid Hasan (July 3, 2005). "Woman leads mixed Friday congregation in Canada". Daily Times. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  16. ^ Giles Tremlett (October 31, 2005). "Muslim women launch international 'gender jihad'". London: The Guardian. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  17. ^ Giles Tremlett (October 31, 2005). "Women's lib becomes a gender jihad for Muslims". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Three faiths in conversation". Orangeville Citizen. March 29, 2007. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  19. ^ McGregor, Charles (February 19, 2008). "Speaker looks to be No. 1 on world hate list". DurhamRegion.com. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  20. ^ Renesans.nu - Mariwan Halabjaee Threatened by Mullah Krekar on YouTube
    *Kristian Aale (27 Sep 2008). "Mener forfatter fortjener dødsstraff". Aftenposten. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
    *Martine Aurdal, Tore Gjerstad (27 September 2008). "Krekar drapstruet meg". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
    *"Krekar hardt ut mot forfatter". Namdalsavisa.no. 27 September 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
    *"Krekar mener forfatter fortjener dødsstraff - Vi forbyr oss selv livet dersom du lever". VG.no. 27 September 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  21. ^ Kristian Aale (27 Sep 2008). "Mener forfatter fortjener dødsstraff". Aftenposten. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
    *Martine Aurdal, Tore Gjerstad (27 September 2008). "Krekar drapstruet meg". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
    *"Krekar hardt ut mot forfatter". Namdalsavisa.no. 27 September 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
    *"Krekar mener forfatter fortjener dødsstraff - Vi forbyr oss selv livet dersom du lever". VG.no. 27 September 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2012. 
  22. ^ Harald S. Klungtveit (17 February 2012). "Jeg frykter hele tida at noen skal komme bakfra og drepe meg". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Eivind Fondenes (23 February 2012). "Jeg kommer til å halshugge deg, uansett hvor du er". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Kjell Persen (28 February 2012). "Vil ha fem års fengsel for Krekar". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Eivind Fondenes (25 February 2012). "Denne koranbrenningen fikk Krekar til å utstede fatwa mot to kurdere". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Anders Brekke (17 February 2012). "Avsa dødsdom mot forfatter". NRK.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Lilla Puddel (17 February 2012). "Krekar utsteder dødsdommer". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  23. ^ Harald S. Klungtveit (17 February 2012). "Jeg frykter hele tida at noen skal komme bakfra og drepe meg". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Eivind Fondenes (23 February 2012). "Jeg kommer til å halshugge deg, uansett hvor du er". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Kjell Persen (28 February 2012). "Vil ha fem års fengsel for Krekar". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Eivind Fondenes (25 February 2012). "Denne koranbrenningen fikk Krekar til å utstede fatwa mot to kurdere". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Anders Brekke (17 February 2012). "Avsa dødsdom mot forfatter". NRK.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Lilla Puddel (17 February 2012). "Krekar utsteder dødsdommer". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  24. ^ Harald S. Klungtveit (17 February 2012). "Jeg frykter hele tida at noen skal komme bakfra og drepe meg". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Eivind Fondenes (23 February 2012). "Jeg kommer til å halshugge deg, uansett hvor du er". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Kjell Persen (28 February 2012). "Vil ha fem års fengsel for Krekar". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Eivind Fondenes (25 February 2012). "Denne koranbrenningen fikk Krekar til å utstede fatwa mot to kurdere". TV2.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Anders Brekke (17 February 2012). "Avsa dødsdom mot forfatter". NRK.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
    *Lilla Puddel (17 February 2012). "Krekar utsteder dødsdommer". Dagbladet.no. Retrieved 25 April 2012. 
  25. ^ CNN
  26. ^ Kompas
  27. ^ Article in JIL website
  28. ^ Bar, Shmuel (2008). Warrant for Terror: The Fatwas of Radical Islam and the Duty to Jihad. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 16, footnote 8. 

External links[edit]