List of female United States presidential and vice-presidential candidates

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The following is a list of female U.S. presidential and vice-presidential nominees and invitees. Nominees are candidates nominated or otherwise selected by political parties for particular offices. Listed as nominees or nomination candidates are those women who achieved ballot access in at least one state (or, before the institution of government-printed ballots, had ballots circulated by their parties). They each may have won the nomination of one of the US political parties (either one of the two major parties or one of the third parties), or made the ballot as an Independent, and in either case must have votes in the election to qualify for this list. Exception is made for those few candidates whose parties lost ballot status for additional runs.

Not included in the first two tables are women who lost a nominating convention or primary election for their party's nomination (or who have not yet completed that process), write-in candidates, nonnotable potential candidates (suggested by media, objects of draft movements, etc.), or fictional candidates. The third table excludes all but the foremost.

Two women have won the nominations of major parties, both as vice-presidential candidates: Geraldine Ferraro for the Democratic Party in the 1984 election and Sarah Palin for the Republican Party in the 2008 election.

Presidential candidates: party nominees[edit]

Year Name Party Running Mate Votes Ballot Access
1872 Victoria Woodhull Equal Rights Party Frederick Douglass [1] 0 states
1884 Belva Ann Lockwood National Equal Rights Party Marietta Stow[2] 4,149 6 states [3]
1888 Belva Ann Lockwood National Equal Rights Party First: Alfred Love Second: Charles Stuart Wells[4] [5]
1940 Gracie Allen Surprise Party N.A. 42,000
1952 Ellen Linea W. Jensen Washington Peace Party
Mary Kennery[6] American Party
Agnes Waters American Woman's Party
1968 Charlene Mitchell Communist Party Michael Zagarell 1,076
1972 Linda Jenness Socialist Workers Party Andrew Pulley 83,380[7] 25 states
Evelyn Reed Socialist Workers Party Andrew Pulley 13,878
1976 Margaret Wright People’s Party Benjamin Spock 49,024
1980 Ellen McCormack Right to Life Party Carroll Driscoll 32,327
Maureen Smith Peace and Freedom Party Elizabeth Cervantes Barron 18,116
Deirdre Griswold Workers World Party Gavrielle Holmes.[8] 13,300
1984 Sonia Johnson Citizens Party Richard Walton 72,200 19 states [9]
Gavrielle Holmes[10] Workers World Party Gloria La Riva[11] 2,656[12] 2 states
1988 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Joyce Dattner 217,219 50 states
Willa Kenoyer Socialist Party, Liberty Union Party Ron Ehrenreich 3,928
1992 Lenora Fulani New Alliance Party Maria Elizabeth Munoz 73,714
Helen Halyard Socialist Equality Party Fred Mazelis 3,050
Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Walter Masters 327
Gloria La Riva Workers World Party Larry Holmes 181
1996 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 29,083
Marsha Feinland Peace and Freedom Party Kate McClatchy 25,332
Mary Cal Hollis Socialist Party, Liberty Union Party Eric Chester 4,766
Diane Beall Templin The American Party Gary Van Horn 1,847
Isabell Masters Looking Back Party Shirley Jean Masters 752
2000 Monica Moorehead Workers World Party Gloria La Riva 4,795
Cathy Gordon Brown Independent Sabrina R. Allen 1,606
2004 Diane Beall Templin The American Party Albert B. "Al" Moore (lost ballot status)
2008 Cynthia McKinney Green Party Rosa Clemente 161,603
Gloria La Riva Party for Socialism and Liberation Eugene Puryear[13] 7,427
Diane Beall Templin The American Party Linda Patterson (lost ballot status)
2012 Jill Stein Green Party Cheri Honkala 468,907
Roseanne Barr Peace and Freedom Party Cindy Sheehan 67,326
Peta Lindsay Party for Socialism and Liberation Yari Osorio 9,388
Year Name Party Running Mate Votes Ballot Access

Vice-Presidential candidates: party nominees[edit]

Year Name Party Running Mate Votes
1884 Marietta Stow[14] National Equal Rights Party Belva Ann Lockwood 4,149
1924 Marie Brehm Prohibition Party Herman P. Faris 56,289
1932 Florence Garvin National Party John Zahnd 1,645
1936 Florence Garvin Greenback Party John Zahnd
1948 Grace Carlson Socialist Workers Party Farrell Dobbs 13,614
1952 Charlotta Bass Progressive Party Vincent Hallinan 140,023
Myra Tanner Weiss Socialist Workers Party Farrell Dobbs 10,312
1956 Georgia Cozzini Socialist Labor Party Eric Hass 44,300
Myra Tanner Weiss Socialist Workers Party Farrell Dobbs 7,797
Ann Marie Yezo American Third Party Henry B. Krajewski 1,829
1960 Myra Tanner Weiss Socialist Workers Party Farrell Dobbs 60,166
Georgia Cozzini Socialist Labor Party Eric Hass 47,521
1968 Peggy Terry[15] Peace and Freedom Party Eldridge Cleaver
1972 Genevieve Gundersen Socialist Labor Party Louis Fisher 53,814
Tonie Nathan Libertarian Party John Hospers 3,674
1976 Willie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party Peter Camejo 90,986
Constance Blomen Socialist Labor Party Jules Levin 9,616
1980 La Donna Harris Citizens Party Barry Commoner 233,052
Wretha Hanson[16] Citizens Party Barry Commoner 8,564[17]
Angela Davis Communist Party Gus Hall 43,871
Eileen Shearer American Independent Party John Rarick 41,268
Matilde Zimmermann Socialist Workers Party Andrew Pulley[18] 40,105
Elizabeth Cervantes Barron Peace and Freedom Party Maureen Smith 18,106
Gavrielle Holmes Workers World Party Deirdre Griswold 13,213
Naomi Cohen Workers World Party Deirdre Griswold 3,790[19]
Diane Drufenbrock Socialist Party David McReynolds 6,898
1984 Geraldine Ferraro Democratic Party Walter Mondale 37,577,352
Maureen Kennedy Salaman Populist Party Bob Richards 66,168
Nancy Ross New Alliance Party Dennis L. Serrette 46,852
Angela Davis Communist Party Gus Hall 36,386
Andrea Gonzales[20] Socialist Workers Party Melvin T. Mason 24,672
Matilde Zimmermann Socialist Workers Party Melvin T. Mason
Gloria La Riva[11] Workers World Party Larry Holmes/Gavrielle Holmes 15,329
Helen Halyard[21] Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 10,801
Jean T. Brust[22] Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn
Emma Wong Mar Peace and Freedom Party Sonia Johnson
1988 Joyce Dattner New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani 217,219
Susan Gardner Consumer Party Eugene McCarthy 30,905
Joan Andrews Right to Life Party William A. Marra 20,504
Helen Halyard Socialist Equality Party Edward Winn 18,693
Kathleen Mickells Socialist Workers Party James "Mac" Warren 15,604
Vikki Murdock Peace and Freedom Party Herbert G. Lewin 10,370
Gloria La Riva Workers World Party Larry Holmes 7,846
Debra Freeman National Economic Recovery Party Lyndon LaRouche
1992 Nancy Lord Libertarian Party Andre Marrou 290,087
Maria Elizabeth Munoz New Alliance Party Lenora Fulani 73,714
Asiba Tupahache Peace and Freedom Party Ronald Daniels 27,961
Barbara Garson Socialist Party J. Quinn Brisben 3,057
Willie Mae Reid Socialist Workers Party James "Mac" Warren
Estelle DeBates Socialist Workers Party James "Mac" Warren
Doris Feimer The American Party Robert J. Smith 292
Joann Roland Third Party Eugene Arthur Hem
1996 Winona LaDuke Green Party Ralph Nader 596,780[23]
Muriel Tillinghast[24] Green Party Ralph Nader 75,956[25]
Anne Goeke[26] Green Party Ralph Nader 12,135[27]
Jo Jorgensen Libertarian Party Harry Browne 485,798
Kate McClatchy Peace and Freedom Party Marsha Feinland 25,332
Rosemary Giumarra Independent Charles E. Collins 8,952
Laura Garza Socialist Workers Party James Harris 8,476
Rachel Bubar Kelly Prohibition Party Earl Dodge 1,298
Connie Chandler Independent Party of Utah A. Peter Crane 1,101
Shirley Jean Masters Looking Back Party Isabell Masters 752
Anne Northrop AIDS Cure Party Steve Michael 408
2000 Winona LaDuke Green Party Ralph Nader 2,883,105
Ezola B. Foster Reform Party Pat Buchanan 449,225
Margaret Trowe Socialist Workers Party James Harris 7,378
Mary Cal Hollis Socialist Party David McReynolds 5,602
Gloria La Riva Workers World Party Monica Moorehead 4,795
Sabrina R. Allen Independent Cathy Gordon Brown 1,606
2004 Pat LaMarche Green Party David Cobb 119,859
Janice Jordan Peace and Freedom Party Leonard Peltier 27,607
Mary Alice Herbert Socialist Party Walt Brown 10,837
Margaret Trowe[28] Socialist Workers Party James Harris 7,102
Arrin Hawkins Socialist Workers Party Róger Calero 3,689
Karen Sanchirico[29] Independent Ralph Nader 6,168[30]
Jennifer A. Ryan Christian Freedom Party Thomas J. Harens 2,387
Teresa Gutierrez Workers World Party John Parker 1,646
Marilyn Chambers Personal Choice Party Charles Jay 946
Irene M. Deasy Independent Stanford Andress 804
2008 Sarah Palin Republican Party John McCain 57,371,284
Rosa Clemente Green Party Cynthia McKinney 161,603
Alyson Kennedy Socialist Workers Party Róger Calero 7,197
Andrea Marie Psoras[31] Vote Here Party Jeffrey H. Boss 604
Patricia Rubacky New American Independent Party Frank McEnulty [32]
2012 Cheri Honkala Green Party Jill Stein
Cindy Sheehan Peace and Freedom Party Roseanne Barr
Maura DeLuca Socialist Workers Party James Harris
Phyllis Scherrer Socialist Equality Party Jerry White
Virginia Abernethy American Third Position Party Merlin Miller
Year Name Party Running Mate Votes

Presidential candidates for party nomination[edit]

Candidates who failed to receive their parties' nomination. Candidates who won the nomination belong in the above tables only.

Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1884 Abigail Scott Duniway Equal Rights Party Rejected nomination. Belva Ann Lockwood
1920 Laura Clay Democratic Party James M. Cox
Cora Wilson Stewart
1924 Cora Wilson Stewart Democratic Party 1 vote on 1st and 15th ballots John W. Davis
1940 Anna Milburn[33] National Greenback Party Declined nomination John Zahnd
1964 Margaret Chase Smith[34] Republican Party Received 227,007 votes in Republican Primary and won 27 delegates at the 1964 Republican Convention Barry Goldwater
Fay T. Carpenter Swain Democratic Party 7,140 votes in Indiana primary[35] Lyndon B. Johnson
1972 Shirley Chisholm[34] Democratic Party 152 votes at National convention George McGovern
Patsy Takamoto Mink[34]
Bella Savitzky Abzug[34]
1976 Barbara Jordan Democratic Party 1 vote at National convention Jimmy Carter
Ellen McCormack[34]
1980 Koryne Kaneski Horbal Democratic Party 5 votes at National convention Jimmy Carter
Alice Tripp 2 votes at National convention
1984 Martha Kirkland Democratic Party 1 vote at National convention Walter Mondale
1988 Patricia Schroeder Democratic Party Michael Dukakis
1992 Tennie Rogers Republican Party 754 votes in Texas primary[36] George H.W. Bush
Patricia Schroeder 152 votes (12th place) in New Hampshire primary
Georgiana Doerschuck 58 votes in New Hampshire primary[37]
Caroline Killeen Democratic Party 96 votes in New Hampshire primary[38] Bill Clinton
1996 Elvena E. Lloyd-Duffie Democratic Party 13,025 votes in Arkansas primary;[39] 10,876 votes (6th place) in Texas primary;[36] 40,758 in Oklahoma primary (3rd place);[40] 11,620 votes (3rd place) in Louisiana primary;[41] 15,650 votes (2nd place) in Illinois primary[41] Bill Clinton
Dr. Heather Anne Harder 28,772 votes (3rd place) in Texas primary;[36] 376 votes in New Hampshire primary[42] and two write-in votes as a Republican; 6 votes in Illinois primary[39]
Caroline Killeen 118 votes in New Hampshire primary[38]
Susan Gail Ducey Republican Party 539 votes in (9th place) at Arizona primary;[39] 152 votes (12th place) at New Hampshire primary;[43] 1,092 votes (8th place) at Texas primary[36] Bob Dole
Isabell Masters 1052 votes (7th place) at Oklahoma primary[44]
Mary "France" LeTulle 650 votes (9th place) at Texas primary;[36] 290 votes in Nevada primary[41]
Georgiana Doerschuck 140 votes in New Hampshire primary[37]
Tennie Rogers 35 votes at Mississippi primary; 12 votes inNew Hampshire primary[39]
2000 Dr. Heather Anne Harder Democratic Party 1,358 votes in AZ primary; 192 votes (8th place) in New Hampshire primary, 1 Republican write-in vote [45][46] Al Gore
Elizabeth Dole Republican Party 231 write-in votes in NH primary[45] George W. Bush
Dorian Yeager 98 votes (10th place) in New Hampshire primary[47]
Angel Joy Chavis Rocker[48] 6 votes in Alabama straw poll [49]
2004 Lorna Salzman Green Party 40 votes at National convention (5th place) David Cobb
JoAnne Bier Beeman 14 votes at National convention
Carol A. Miller 10 votes at National convention
Sheila Bilyeu 2 votes at National convention
Florence Walker Democratic Party 246 votes (6th place) in Washington, D.C. primary[50] John Kerry
Katherine Bateman 68 votes (14th place) in New Hampshire primary[50]
Jeanne Chebib 43 votes (12th place) in the Washington, D.C. primary[50]
Caroline Killeen 31 votes (19th place) in New Hampshire primary[50]
Mildred T. Glover 11 votes (22nd place) in New Hampshire primary; 4,039 votes (8th place) in Maryland primary[50]
Carol Moseley Braun Withdrew in January 2004
Millie Howard Republican Party 239 votes (13th place) in New Hampshire primary George W. Bush
2008 Hillary Rodham Clinton Democratic Party Reached second place in the Democratic Party primaries, winning 1,726½ Delegate votes and more primaries than any other woman in history, with 21 states won and more than 18 million votes, the race between Clinton and Obama was among the closest in history with her winning 48.03% of the popular vote to his 47.43% between caucus and primary states. Barack Obama
Caroline Killeen 11 votes in New Hampshire primary
Mary Ruwart Libertarian Party 152 votes at National Convention (2nd place; reached 1st place on 5th ballot before being defeated on 6th ballot) Bob Barr
Christine Smith 6 votes at National Convention (8th place)
Kat Swift Green Party 38 votes at National Convention (3rd place) Cynthia McKinney
Elaine Brown Withdrew in December 2007; 9 pledged delegates (6th place)
Nan Garrett Withdrew in February 2007[51]
Susan Gail Ducey Republican Party 2 votes (3-way tie for 8th place) in Tulsa, Oklahoma straw poll John McCain
2012 Roseanne Barr Green Party 72 votes at National Convention (2nd place) Jill Stein
Michele Bachmann Republican Party Withdrew in January 2012. Mitt Romney
Year Name Party Details Nomination winner

Vice-Presidential candidates for party nomination[edit]

Year Name Party Details Nomination winner
1848 Lucretia Mott[52] Liberty Party 4 of 84 votes C.C. Foote
1884 Clemence S. Lozier Equal Rights Party Declined nomination. Marietta Stow
1924 Lena Springs Democratic Party several to 50 votes in National convention Charles W. Bryan
1928 Nellie Tayloe Ross Democratic Party 31 votes in National convention Joseph T. Robinson
1952 India Edwards Democratic Party John Sparkman
Sarah T. Hughes
1972 Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 20 votes in National convention Thomas Eagleton
Frances Farenthold 405 votes in National convention
Martha Griffiths 1 vote in National convention
Patricia Harris 1 vote in National convention
Eleanor McGovern 1 vote in National convention
Martha Mitchell 1 vote in National convention
Maggie Kuhn People's Party declined nomination Benjamin Spock
1976 Anne Armstrong Republican Party subject of draft campaign; 6 votes in National convention Bob Dole
Barbara Jordan Democratic Party 17 votes in National convention Walter Mondale
Nancy Palm Republican Party 1 vote in National convention Bob Dole
1984 Shirley Chisholm Democratic Party 3 votes in National convention Geraldine Ferraro
Jeane J. Kirkpatrick Republican Party 1 vote in primary George H. W. Bush
1992 Susan K.Y. Shargal Democratic Party 1,097 votes (2nd place) in New Hampshire primary Al Gore
2008 Mary Alice Herbert Socialist Party Stewart Alexander

Presidency and Vice-Presidency: women considered for candidacies[edit]

Year of Election Office Name Inviter
1960 Presidency Oveta Culp Hobby Dwight D. Eisenhower

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Victoria Woodhull's votes don't appear to have been counted. See, e.g. Victoria Woodhull, the Spirit to Run the White House for more information.
  2. ^ Belva Ann Lockwood’s 1884 running mate’s name is variously given as Marietta Stow, Marietta L. B. Stow, Marietta Lizzie Bell Stow, Marietta Snow, Marietta Snowman, and Harriet Stow.
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Lockwood first ran with Love, but when he dropped out of the race, she ended up choosing Wells as the final candidate.
  5. ^ Belva Ann Lockwood won an unspecified number of votes in 1888 that was fewer than her 1884 total of 4,149. See Belva Ann Lockwood: For Peace, Justice, and President By Frances A. Cook
  6. ^ The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1952, page 583.
  7. ^ In 1972 in Arizona, Pima and Yavapai counties had a ballot malfunction that counted many votes for both a major party candidate and Linda Jenness of the Socialist Workers Party. A court ordered that the ballots be counted for both. As a consequence, Jenness received 16% and 8% of the vote in Pima and Yavapai, respectively. 30,579 of her 30,945 Arizona votes are from those two counties. Some sources don't count these votes for Jenness.
  8. ^ Naomi Cohen appeared on the ballot in Ohio in place of Deirdre Griswold's running mate Gavrielle Holmes
  9. ^ http://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/829/157/226559/
  10. ^ Gavrielle Holmes was an alternate candidate for Larry Holmes.
  11. ^ a b Milton Vera was an alternate candidate for Gloria La Riva in some states, including Iowa and Ohio.
  12. ^ The vote total is for the Gavrielle Holmes ticket only.
  13. ^ Robert Moses was on the ballot in some states.
  14. ^ Belva Ann Lockwood’s 1884 running mate’s name is variously given as Marietta Stow, Marietta L. B. Stow, Marietta Lizzie Bell Stow, Marietta Snow, Marietta Snowman, and Harriet Stow.
  15. ^ Douglas Fitzgerald Dowd was Cleaver's running mate in some states, and Jerry Rubin had also been nominated. http://www.peaceandfreedom.org/home/index.php/about-us/historical-information/presidential-candidates
  16. ^ Wretha Hanson appeared on a ballot line in Ohio in place of Barry Commoner's official running mate La Donna Harris.
  17. ^ The vote total is for the Commoner-Hanson ticket in Ohio only."General Election, November 4, 1980" Ohio Secretary of State
  18. ^ Richard H. Congress or Clifton DeBerry were the Socialist Workers Party's Presidential candidate in some states, but Zimmerman was on all three tickets as the Vice-Presidential candidate.
  19. ^ The vote total is for the Griswold-Cohen ticket in Ohio only."General Election, November 4, 1980" Ohio Secretary of State
  20. ^ Matilde Zimmerman was an alternate candidate for Andrea Gonzales in some states, including Ohio.
  21. ^ Edward Bergonzi was an alternate candidate for Helen Halyard in some states, including Ohio.
  22. ^ [2]
  23. ^ Excludes votes for Nader in Iowa, New York, and Vermont.
  24. ^ Muriel Tillinghast appeared on a ballot line in New York in place of Ralph Nader's official running mate Winona LaDuke.
  25. ^ Vote total for the Nader-Tillinghast ticket for New York only.
  26. ^ Anne Goeke appeared on a ballot line in Iowa and Vermont in place of Ralph Nader's official running mate Winona LaDuke.
  27. ^ Vote total for the Nader-Goeke ticket in Iowa and Vermont only.
  28. ^ Margaret Trowe was an alternate for Arrin Hawkins
  29. ^ Karen Sanchirico appeared on a ballot line in Montana in place of Ralph Nader's official running mate Peter Camejo.
  30. ^ The vote total is for the Nader-Sanchirico ticket in Montana only.
  31. ^ [3]
  32. ^ Rubacky was McEnulty's running mate in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maine, though the party had no ballot access in any state except Colorado. McEnulty had nine other running mates.[4]
  33. ^ Facts about the States By Joseph Nathan Kane
  34. ^ a b c d e "Female presidential candidates 1870-1990", Guide To Women Leaders. Retrieved 1/11/08.
  35. ^ MARK BENNETT: The Indiana Primary carries a interesting background into this » Mark Bennett Opinion » News From Terre Haute, Indiana. Tribstar.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  36. ^ a b c d e Texas Vote in Presidential Elections, Primaries: 1848–2004
  37. ^ a b New Hampshire Almanac< - First-in-the-Nation Fringe Candidates. NH.gov. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  38. ^ a b New Hampshire Almanac< - First-in-the-Nation Fringe Candidates. NH.gov. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  39. ^ a b c d 1996 Presidential primary election results
  40. ^ 2008 presidential primaries. Tulsa World (2008-01-07). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  41. ^ a b c Ballot Access News - April 3, 1996. Ballot-access.org. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  42. ^ New Hampshire Almanac< - First-in-the-Nation Fringe Candidates. NH.gov. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  43. ^ 2008 Republican Presidential Candidates (P2008). Politics1. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  44. ^ [5][dead link]
  45. ^ a b Federal Elections 2000: Presidential Primary Election Results by State. Fec.gov. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  46. ^ [6][dead link]
  47. ^ [7][dead link]
  48. ^ "White House bid wants serious attention", St. Petersburg Times, March 24, 1999. Accessed 07/08/08.
  49. ^ [8][dead link]
  50. ^ a b c d e [9][dead link]
  51. ^ Nan Garrett for President, 2008. Nangarrett.org (2007-02-05). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  52. ^ "Proceedings of the National Liberty Convention, held at Buffalo, N.Y.". Retrieved June 13, 2008.

External links[edit]