List of The Simpsons characters

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Some of the many recurring and regular characters in The Simpsons.

Along with the Simpson family, The Simpsons includes a large array of characters: co-workers, teachers, family friends, extended relatives, townspeople, local celebrities, and fictional characters. The creators originally intended many of these characters as one-time jokesters or for fulfilling needed functions in the town. A number of them have gained expanded roles and subsequently starred in their own episodes. According to creator Matt Groening, the show adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the Canadian sketch comedy show Second City Television.[1]

The main characters, the Simpson family, are listed first; all other characters are listed in alphabetical order. Only main, supporting, and recurring characters are listed. For one-time characters, see "List of one-time The Simpsons characters".

Characters[edit]

Character Voice actor(s) Character's role Episode debut Original air date
Homer Simpson Dan Castellaneta[2] Husband of Marge; father of Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. "Good Night" (The Simpsons shorts)[3] 1987/04/19
Marge Simpson Julie Kavner[2] Wife of Homer; mother of Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. "Good Night"[3] 1987/04/19
Bart Simpson Nancy Cartwright[2] Eldest child and only son of Homer and Marge; brother of Lisa and Maggie. "Good Night"[3] 1987/04/19
Lisa Simpson Yeardley Smith[2] Middle child and eldest daughter of Homer and Marge; sister of Bart and Maggie. "Good Night"[3] 1987/04/19
Maggie Simpson Liz Georges
Gabor Csupo
Harry Shearer
Yeardley Smith
Nancy Cartwright
Elizabeth Taylor
James Earl Jones
Jodie Foster
Youngest child and youngest daughter of Homer and Marge; sister of Bart and Lisa. "Good Night"[3] 1987/04/19
Akira George Takei,[4] Hank Azaria[2] Waiter at The Happy Sumo;[5] karate teacher.[6] "One Fish, Two Fish, Blowfish, Blue Fish" 1991/01/24
Ms. Albright Tress MacNeille[7] Sunday school teacher. "The Telltale Head" 1990/02/25
Aristotle Amadopolis Jon Lovitz,[8] Dan Castellaneta[2] Owner of the Shelbyville Nuclear Power Plant.[9] "Homer Defined" 1991/10/17
Atkins, State Comptroller Harry Shearer,[10] Hank Azaria[11] State comptroller.[12] "Lisa Gets an 'A'" 1998/11/22
Mary Bailey Maggie Roswell[7] Governor of Springfield's state. "Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish" 1990/11/01
Birchibald "Birch" T. Barlow Harry Shearer[7] Radio talk show host; Fox News anchor. "Sideshow Bob Roberts" 1994/10/09
Jasper Beardly Harry Shearer[7] Grampa's closest neighbor at the Retirement Castle. "Bart After Dark" 1990/01/21
Benjamin, Doug, and Gary Harry Shearer,[7] Hank Azaria,[2] and Dan Castellaneta[2] Springfield University students. "Homer Goes to College" 1993/10/14
Bill and Marty Dan Castellaneta[2] and Harry Shearer[7] KBBL Radio co-hosts. "Bart Gets an F" 1990/11/22
Blinky Unvoiced Three-eyed fish. "Homer's Odyssey" 1990/11/01
Blue Haired Lawyer[13] Dan Castellaneta[13] Attorney. "Bart Gets Hit by a Car" 1991/01/10
Boobarella Tress MacNeille Host of late night TV monster movies. "I'm Spelling as Fast as I Can" 2003/02/16
Wendell Borton Russi Taylor[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1990/01/21
Jacqueline Bouvier Julie Kavner[2] Mother of Selma and Patty Bouvier and Marge Simpson, Grandmother of Bart, Lisa, Maggie and Ling. "Moaning Lisa" 1990/11/22
Ling Bouvier Nancy Cartwright[2] Selma Bouvier's adopted daughter from China. "Goo Goo Gai Pan" 2005/03/13
Bouvier, PattyPatty Bouvier Julie Kavner[2] Twin sister of Selma and older sister of Marge. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Bouvier, SelmaSelma Bouvier Julie Kavner[2] Twin sister of Patty and older sister of Marge. Adoptive mother of Ling. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Brockman, KentKent Brockman Harry Shearer[7] Channel 6 News anchor. "Krusty Gets Busted" 1990/04/29
Bumblebee Man Hank Azaria[2] Star of slapstick sketch comedy show on Canal Ocho. "Itchy & Scratchy: The Movie" 1992/11/03
Burns, Charles Montgomery "Monty"Charles Montgomery "Monty" Burns Christopher Collins (early season 1), Harry Shearer[7] Owner of the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Capital City Goofball Tom Poston[14] Mascot of the Capital City Capitals baseball team.[15] "Dancin' Homer" 1990/11/08
Carlson, CarlCarl Carlson Hank Azaria[2] Springfield Nuclear Power Plant employee. "Homer's Night Out" 1990/03/25
Crazy Cat Lady[10] Tress MacNeille[10] Mentally ill owner of many cats. Name revealed as Eleanor Abernathy in "See Homer Run". "Girly Edition" 1998/04/19
Chalmers, Superintendent GarySuperintendent Gary Chalmers Hank Azaria[2] Public schools superintendent. "Whacking Day" 1993/04/29
Charlie Dan Castellaneta[16] Springfield Nuclear Power Plant employee. "Life on the Fast Lane" 1990/03/18
Chase Hank Azaria[13] Luann Van Houten's ex-boyfriend; American Gladiator. "A Milhouse Divided" 1996/12/01
Christian, ScottScott Christian Dan Castellaneta[2] News co-anchor. "Krusty Gets Busted" 1990/04/29
Comic Book Guy Hank Azaria[2] Proprietor of The Android's Dungeon comic book store. Name revealed to be Jeff Albertson in "Homer and Ned's Hail Mary Pass". "Three Men and a Comic Book" 1991/05/09
Costington, Mr.Mr. Costington Hank Azaria[11] President of Costington's Department Store. "Trash of the Titans" 1998/04/26
Database Nancy Cartwright[2] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Bart's Comet" 1995/02/05
Desmond, DeclanDeclan Desmond Eric Idle Documentary filmmaker. "'Scuse Me While I Miss the Sky" 2003/03/20
Disco Stu Hank Azaria[11] Disco aficionado. "Two Bad Neighbors" 1996/01/14
Dolph Tress MacNeille[7] Springfield Elementary School bully. "The Telltale Head" 1990/02/25
Doris, LunchladyLunchlady Doris Doris Grau[7] Springfield Elementary School lunch lady. "Lisa's Pony" 1991/11/07
Duffman Hank Azaria[13] Spokes-mascot for Duff Beer. "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson", later his real name is revealed to be Barry Duffman when he reads to recovering alcoholics. 1997/09/21
Eddie and Lou Harry Shearer[7] and Hank Azaria[2] Springfield police officers. "There's No Disgrace Like Home" 1990/01/28
Ernst and Gunter Harry Shearer[10] and Hank Azaria[13] Lion tamers. "$pringfield (Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Legalized Gambling)" 1993/12/16
Fat Tony Joe Mantegna Mob boss. "Bart the Murderer" 1991/10/10
Flanders, MaudeMaude Flanders Maggie Roswell[7] Ned Flanders's deceased wife. "Dead Putting Society" 1990/11/15
Flanders, NedNed Flanders Harry Shearer[7] The Simpson family's next door neighbor; owner of The Leftorium. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Flanders, RodRod Flanders Pamela Hayden[7] Ned and Maude Flanders's elder son. "The Call of the Simpsons" 1990/02/18
Flanders, ToddTodd Flanders Nancy Cartwright[2] Ned and Maude Flanders's younger son. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Francesca Maria Grazia Cucinotta[2] Sideshow Bob's Italian wife. "The Italian Bob" 2005/12/11
Frankie the Squealer Dan Castellaneta[11] Informant for Fat Tony.[17] "Insane Clown Poppy" 2000/11/12
Frink, Professor JohnProfessor John Frink Hank Azaria[2] Scientist, inventor. "Old Money" 1991/03/28
Gerald, BabyBaby Gerald Unvoiced One-eyebrowed baby. Arch-nemesis of Maggie Simpson. "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" 1994/04/28
Ginger Flanders Tress MacNeille[10] Ned Flanders's "Vegas wife."[18] "Viva Ned Flanders" 1999/01/10
Gino Tress MacNeille[10] Sideshow Bob's toddler son. "The Italian Bob" 2005/12/11
Glick, Mrs.Mrs. Glick Cloris Leachman,[19] Tress MacNielle Elderly. "Three Men and a Comic Book" 1991/05/09
Gloria Julia Louis-Dreyfus Snake's pregnant girlfriend. "A Hunka Hunka Burns in Love" 2001/12/02
Gumble, BarneyBarney Gumble Dan Castellaneta[2] Homer's drunken old pal. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Gunderson, GilGil Gunderson Dan Castellaneta[13] Unsuccessful salesman. "Realty Bites" 1997/12/07
The Happy Little Elves Dan Castellaneta,[11] Hank Azaria,[11] and Harry Shearer[20] Children's cartoon series characters. "Scary Movie" (The Simpsons shorts)[21] 1989/02/12
Harm, Judge ConstanceJudge Constance Harm Jane Kaczmarek Springfield judge. "The Parent Rap" 2001/11/11
Herman Hermann Harry Shearer[7] Owner of Herman's Military Antiques shop.[22] "Bart the General" 1990/02/04
Hibbert, BerniceBernice Hibbert Tress MacNeille[10] Dr. Hibbert's wife. "Bart's Dog Gets an F" 1991/03/07
Hibbert, Dr. JuliusDr. Julius Hibbert Harry Shearer[7] Medical doctor. "Bart the Daredevil" 1990/12/06
Hoover, ElizabethElizabeth Hoover Maggie Roswell[7] Lisa Simpson's teacher at Springfield Elementary School. "Brush with Greatness" 1991/04/11
Hutz, LionelLionel Hutz Phil Hartman[23] Attorney. "Bart Gets Hit by a Car" 1991/01/10
Itchy & Scratchy Dan Castellaneta[2] and Harry Shearer[7] Cartoon cat and mouse. "The Bart Simpson Show" (The Simpsons shorts)[24] 1988/11/20
Jacques Albert Brooks[25] Bowling instructor.[26] "Life on the Fast Lane" 1990/03/18
Jones, JimboJimbo Jones Pamela Hayden[7] Springfield Elementary School bully. "The Telltale Head" 1990/02/25
Jordan, RachelRachel Jordan Shawn Colvin[27] Lead singer of the Christian Rock band Kovenant.[28] "Alone Again, Natura-Diddily" 2000/02/13
Kang and Kodos Harry Shearer[7] and Dan Castellaneta[2] Extraterrestrials. "Treehouse of Horror" 1990/10/25
Kashmir, PrincessPrincess Kashmir Maggie Roswell[7] Belly dancer.[29] "Homer's Night Out" 1990/03/25
Kearney Zzyzwicz Nancy Cartwright[2] Springfield Elementary School bully. "The Telltale Head" 1990/02/25
Krabappel, EdnaEdna Krabappel Marcia Wallace[7] Bart Simpson's teacher at Springfield Elementary School. "Bart the Genius" 1990/01/14
Krustofski, Rabbi HymanRabbi Hyman Krustofski Jackie Mason and Dan Castellaneta Rabbi; father of Krusty the Clown.[30] "Like Father, Like Clown" 1991/10/24
Krusty the Clown Dan Castellaneta[2] TV show clown host, original name Herschel Shmoikel Pinchas Yerucham Krustofski.[31] "The Krusty the Clown Show" (The Simpsons shorts)[32] 1989/01/15
Kwan, CookieCookie Kwan Tress MacNeille[10] Real estate agent.[33] "Realty Bites" 1997/12/07
Largo, DeweyDewey Largo Harry Shearer[7] Springfield Elementary School's music teacher. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Legs and Louie Hank Azaria[2] and Dan Castellaneta[2] Fat Tony's henchmen. "Bart the Murderer" 1991/10/10
Leopold Dan Castellaneta[7] Superintendent Chalmers' assistant. "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" 1994/04/28
Leonard, LennyLenny Leonard Harry Shearer[7] Springfield Nuclear Power Plant employee; one of Homer Simpson's friends. "Life on the Fast Lane" 1990/03/18
Lewis Russi Taylor[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Lovejoy, HelenHelen Lovejoy Maggie Roswell[7] Reverend Lovejoy's wife. "Life on the Fast Lane" 1990/03/18
Lovejoy, Reverend TimothyReverend Timothy Lovejoy Harry Shearer[7] Minister of the First Church of Springfield. "The Telltale Head" 1990/02/25
Coach Lugash Dan Castellaneta[11] Gymnastics instructor.[34] "Children of a Lesser Clod" 2001/05/13
Luigi Hank Azaria[13] Italian restaurant proprietor. "Sweet Seymour Skinner's Baadasssss Song" 1994/04/28
Lumpkin, LurleenLurleen Lumpkin Beverly D'Angelo,[35] Doris Grau[7] Country music singer/songwriter. "Colonel Homer" 1992/03/26
Mann, OttoOtto Mann Harry Shearer[7] Springfield Elementary School bus driver. "Homer's Odyssey" 1990/01/21
McCallister, Captain HoratioCaptain Horatio McCallister Hank Azaria[2] Sea captain. "New Kid on the Block" 1992/11/12
Meyers, Jr., RogerRoger Meyers, Jr. Alex Rocco,[36] Dan Castellaneta[2] Chairman of Itchy & Scratchy International. "Itchy & Scratchy & Marge" 1990/12/20
McClure, TroyTroy McClure Phil Hartman[37] Actor. "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" 1991/02/07
Moleman, HansHans Moleman Dan Castellaneta[2] Misfortunate man. "Principal Charming" 1991/02/14
Monroe, Dr. MarvinDr. Marvin Monroe Harry Shearer[7] Psychotherapist. "There's No Disgrace Like Home" 1990/01/28
Nelson Muntz Julie Kavner
Russi Taylor
Nancy Cartwright
Bully. "Bart the General" 1990/02/04
Murdock, Captain LanceCaptain Lance Murdock Dan Castellaneta[2] Daredevil. "Bart the Daredevil" 1990/12/06
Murphy, Bleeding GumsBleeding Gums Murphy Ron Taylor[38] Blues musician.[39] "Moaning Lisa" 1990/02/11
Naegle, LindseyLindsey Naegle Tress MacNeille[10] Corporate executive. "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show" 1997/02/09
Nahasapeemapetilon, ApuApu Nahasapeemapetilon Hank Azaria[2] Operator of the Kwik-E-Mart. "The Telltale Head" 1990/02/25
Nahasapeemapetilon, ManjulaManjula Nahasapeemapetilon Jan Hooks[40] Apu Nahasapeemapetilon's wife. "Much Apu About Nothing" 1997/11/16
Nahasapeemapetilon, SanjaySanjay Nahasapeemapetilon Harry Shearer[10] Apu Nahasapeemapetilon's older brother. "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" 1991/02/07
Old Barber[41] Dan Castellaneta,[41] Harry Shearer[20] Barber. "Bart's Haircut" (The Simpsons shorts)[42] 1987/11/15
Old Jewish Man Hank Azaria[13] Springfield Retirement Castle resident. "Old Money" 1993/05/13
Patches and Poor Violet Pamela Hayden[10] and Tress MacNeille[10] Orphans.[43] "Miracle on Evergreen Terrace" 1997/12/21
Pye, ArnieArnie Pye Dan Castellaneta[2] Channel 6 helicopter reporter. "Homer Alone" 1992/02/06
Poochie Homer Simpson (in turn voiced by Dan Castellaneta[2]) Cartoon dog formerly on The Itchy & Scratchy Show. "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show" 1997/02/09
Powell, HerbertHerbert Powell Danny DeVito[44] Homer Simpson's half-brother.[45] "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" 1991/02/21
Powell, JaneyJaney Powell Pamela Hayden[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Bart the General" 1990/02/04
Pennycandy, LoisLois Pennycandy Pamela Hayden[46] Krusty's attractive secretary. "Like Father, Like Clown" 1991/9/24
Powers, RuthRuth Powers Pamela Reed[46] The Simpsons' next door neighbor.[47] "New Kid on the Block" 1992/11/12
Prince, MartinMartin Prince Russi Taylor[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Bart the Genius" 1990/01/14
Pryor, Dr. J. LorenDr. J. Loren Pryor Harry Shearer[7] Springfield Elementary's school psychologist. "Bart the Genius" 1990/01/14
Quimby, Mayor "Diamond Joe"Mayor "Diamond Joe" Quimby Dan Castellaneta[2] Mayor of Springfield. "The Call of the Simpsons" 1990/10/11
Radioactive Man Harry Shearer Comic book superhero. "Bart the Genius" 1990/01/14
Rich Texan, TheThe Rich Texan Dan Castellaneta[13] Philanthropist. "$pringfield (Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Legalized Gambling)" 1993/12/16
Richard Pamela Hayden,[7] Nancy Cartwright[2] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Bart the Genius" 1990/01/14
Dr. Nick Riviera Hank Azaria[2] Incompetent medical doctor. Injured at the end of the movie by a falling chunk of glass, and brought back in the twentieth season. "Bart Gets Hit by a Car" 1991/01/10
Santa's Little Helper Dan Castellaneta,[2] Frank Welker[20] The Simpson family's pet dog. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Sherri and Terri Russi Taylor[7] Identical twins; Students at Springfield Elementary Schools. "Homer's Odyssey" 1990/01/21
Shutton, DaveDave Shutton Harry Shearer[7] Reporter for The Springfield Shopper. "Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish" 1990/11/01
Sideshow Bob Kelsey Grammer[48] Criminal mastermind and Krusty the Clown Show ex-operator and sidekick. "The Telltale Head" 1990/02/25
Sideshow Mel Dan Castellaneta[2] The Krusty the Clown Show sidekick. "Itchy & Scratchy & Marge" 1990/12/20
Simpson, Grampa AbrahamGrampa Abraham Simpson Dan Castellaneta[2] Homer Simpson's father; Bart, Lisa, and Maggie Simpson's grandfather. "Grampa and the Kids" (The Simpsons shorts)[49] 1988/01/10
Simpson, AmberAmber Simpson Pamela Hayden[10] Homer Simpson's deceased "Vegas wife."[18] "Viva Ned Flanders" 1999/01/10
Simpson, MonaMona Simpson Glenn Close,[50] Tress MacNeille,[10] Maggie Roswell[51] Estranged mother of Homer Simpson and wife of Abe Simpson. "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?" 1991/02/21
Skinner, AgnesAgnes Skinner Tress MacNeille[7] Seymour Skinner's mother. "The Crepes of Wrath" 1990/04/15
Skinner, Principal SeymourPrincipal Seymour Skinner Harry Shearer[7] Principal of Springfield Elementary School. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Smithers, WaylonWaylon Smithers Harry Shearer[7] Mr. Burns's personal assistant. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1990/01/21
Snake Jailbird Hank Azaria[2] Recidivist. "The War of the Simpsons" 1991/05/02
Snowball Frank Welker The Simpson family's pet cats. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Snyder, Judge RoyJudge Roy Snyder Harry Shearer[10] Springfield judge. "Krusty Gets Busted" 1990/04/29
Springfield, JebediahJebediah Springfield Harry Shearer[7] Founder of Springfield; local hero. "The Telltale Head" 1990/02/25
Spuckler, CletusCletus Spuckler Hank Azaria[2] Slack-Jawed Yokel. "Bart Gets an Elephant" 1994/03/31
Spuckler, BrandineBrandine Spuckler Tress MacNeille[7] Cletus Spuckler's wife and sister. "Scenes from the Class Struggle in Springfield" 1996/02/04
Squeaky-Voiced Teen Dan Castellaneta[13] Service industry. "Dog of Death" 1991/02/14
Szyslak, MoeMoe Szyslak Hank Azaria[2] Owner of Moe's Tavern. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Tatum, DrederickDrederick Tatum Hank Azaria[2] Professional boxer, a caricature of Mike Tyson.[52] Classic look: "Homer vs Lisa and the 8th Commandment"
Current look: "The Homer They Fall"
1991/02/07
Taylor, AllisonAllison Taylor Winona Ryder, Pamela Hayden Springfield Elementary Student. "Lisa's Rival" 1994/09/11
Teeny, Mr.Mr. Teeny Dan Castellaneta[13] The Krusty the Clown Show trained monkey. "Like Father, Like Clown" 1991/10/24
Terwilliger, CecilCecil Terwilliger David Hyde Pierce[53] Sideshow Bob's younger brother.[54] "Brother from Another Series" 1997/02/23
Tightlips, JohnnyJohnny Tightlips Hank Azaria[11] One of Fat Tony's henchmen.[17] "Insane Clown Poppy" 2000/11/12
Üter Russi Taylor[7] Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Treehouse of Horror IV" 1993/10/28
Van Houten, KirkKirk Van Houten Hank Azaria[2] Milhouse Van Houten's father; factory worker. "Bart's Friend Falls in Love" 1992/05/07
Van Houten, LuannLuann Van Houten Maggie Roswell[7] Kirk Van Houten's wife; Milhouse's mother. "Homer Defined" 1991/10/17
Van Houten, MilhouseMilhouse Van Houten Pamela Hayden[7] Bart Simpson's best friend; Student at Springfield Elementary School. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" 1989/12/17
Dr. Velimirovic Hank Azaria[11] Plastic surgeon.[55] "Pygmoelian" 2000/02/27
Veterinarian Hank Azaria[2] Veterinarian.[56] "Dog of Death" 1992/03/12
Wiggum, Chief ClancyChief Clancy Wiggum Hank Azaria[2] Springfield Chief of Police. "Homer's Odyssey" 1990/01/21
Wiggum, RalphRalph Wiggum Nancy Cartwright[2] Son of Police Chief Clancy Wiggum. "Homer vs Lisa and the 8th Commandment" 1991/02/07
Wiggum, SarahSarah Wiggum Pamela Hayden[10] Chief Wiggum's wife; Ralph Wiggum's mother. "Duffless" 1993/02/18
Groundskeeper Willie Dan Castellaneta[2] Janitor of Springfield Elementary School. "Principal Charming" 1991/02/14
Wiseguy Hank Azaria[11] Service industry. "The Way We Was" 1991/01/31
Wolfcastle, RainierRainier Wolfcastle Harry Shearer[7] Actor; star of McBain films. "The Way We Was" 1991/01/31
Yes Guy[11] Dan Castellaneta[11] Service industry. "Mayored to the Mob" 1998/12/20
Ziff, ArtieArtie Ziff Jon Lovitz,[57] Dan Castellaneta[41] Former billionaire.[58] "The Way We Was" 1991/01/31

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rabin, Nathan (26 April 2006). "Matt Groening: Interview". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 178.
  3. ^ a b c d e Groening, Matt (19 April 1987). "Good Night". The Simpsons shorts. Season 1. Episode 1. Fox.
  4. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 45.
  5. ^ Scovell, Nell; Archer, Wesley (24 January 1991). "One Fish, Two Fish, Blowfish, Blue Fish". The Simpsons. Season 2. Episode 11. Fox.
  6. ^ Vitti, Jon; Reardon, Jim (3 October 1991). "When Flanders Failed". The Simpsons. Season 3. Episode 3. Fox.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 179.
  8. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 66.
  9. ^ Gewirtz, Howard; Kirkland, Mark (17 October 1991). "Homer Defined". The Simpsons. Season 3. Episode 40. Fox.
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  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McCann, p. 116
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