Statistics is the mathematical science involving the collection, analysis and interpretation of data. A number of specialties have evolved to apply statistical theory and methods to various disciplines. Certain topics have "statistical" in their name but relate to manipulations of probability distributions rather than to statistical analysis.
- Business analytics is a rapidly developing business process that applies statistical methods to data sets (often very large) to develop new insights and understanding of business performance & opportunities
- Chemometrics is the science of relating measurements made on a chemical system or process to the state of the system via application of mathematical or statistical methods.
- Demography is the statistical study of all populations. It can be a very general science that can be applied to any kind of dynamic population, that is, one that changes over time or space.
- Econometrics is a branch of economics that applies statistical methods to the empirical study of economic theories and relationships.
- Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine.
- Operations research (or Operational Research) is an interdisciplinary branch of applied mathematics and formal science that uses methods such as mathematical modeling, statistics, and algorithms to arrive at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex problems.
- Psychometrics is the theory and technique of educational and psychological measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits.
- Quantitative psychology is the science of statistically explaining and changing mental processes and behaviors in humans.
- Reliability Engineering is the study of the ability of a system or component to perform its required functions under stated conditions for a specified period of time
- Statistical finance, an area of econophysics, is an empirical attempt to shift finance from its normative roots to a positivist framework using exemplars from statistical physics with an emphasis on emergent or collective properties of financial markets.
- Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force.
See also