List of food contamination incidents

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Food may be accidentally or deliberately contaminated by microbiological, chemical or physical hazards.

In contrast to microbiologically caused foodborne illness, the link between exposure and effect of chemical hazards in foods is usually complicated by cumulative low doses and the delay between exposure and the onset of symptoms. Chemical hazards include environmental contaminants, food ingredients (such as iodine), heavy metals, mycotoxins, natural toxins, improper storage, processing contaminants, and veterinary medicines.

Incidents have occurred because of poor harvesting or storage of grain, use of banned veterinary products, industrial discharges, human error and deliberate adulteration and fraud.[1]

Definition of an incident[edit]

An "incident" of chemical food contamination may be defined as an episodic occurrence of adverse health effects in humans (or animals that might be consumed by humans) following high exposure to particular chemicals, or instances where episodically high concentrations of chemical hazards were detected in the food chain, and traced back to a particular event.[1]

Socio-economic impacts[edit]

Information on the impacts of these incidents is fragmentary and unsystematic, ranging from thousands of dollars to meet the cost of monitoring analysis, to many millions of dollars due to court prosecutions, bankruptcy, product disposal, compensation for revenue loss, damage to brand or reputation, or loss of life.[1]

List of notable incidents[edit]

  • Roman Empire - There is speculation that the Romans, in particular the elite, suffered chronic to severe lead poisoning due to the ubiquity of this metal in e.g. lined pots in which acidic foodstuffs were boiled, over and above any mere exposure to lead in water pipes. They also used sugar of lead to sweeten their wines.[2]
  • 1880s - arsenical contamination of sugar in beer[3]
  • 1857 - Adulteration of bread with alum in London, causing rickets[4]
  • 1900 - Beer contaminated with arsenic. Traced to sugar manufactured with sulphuric acid that was naturally contaminated with arsenic from Spanish pyrites. An epidemic of 6070 cases in London, including 70 deaths[5]
  • 1910-1945 - Cadmium from mining waste contaminated rice irrigation water in Japan. Illness known as Itai-itai disease affected more than 20% of women aged over 50 years[6]
  • 1920 - In South Africa, 80 people suffered poisoning from eating bread contaminated with naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[7]
  • 1950s - Mercury poisoning in fish in Japan, contaminated by industrial discharge: Minamata disease. By 2010 more than 14,000 victims had received financial compensation.[8]
  • 1955 - Arsenic in milk powder in Japan. Disodium phosphate additive was inadvertently contaminated with sodium arsenate. The incident was known as the "Moringa dried milk poisoning". By 2002 there were an estimated 13,400 cases and over 100 deaths attributed to consumption of the milk powder.[10]
  • 1957 - Chicken feed and thence chickens were contaminated with dioxins from polychlorinated treated cow hides in the United States. 300,000 chickens were killed or destroyed to avoid consumption[11]
  • 1959 - Moroccan oil poisoning disaster: several thousand people in the city of Meknes suffer flaccid paralysis caused by deliberate contamination of cooking oil with jet engine lubricating oil containing tricresyl phosphate obtained as surplus from a US airbase at Nouaceur.[12]
  • 1972 - mercury poisoning in Iraq kills 100 to 400 as seeds treated with mercury as a fungicide that are meant for planting are used as food[13][14] "Informed travelers from Baghdad say Iraq is in the grip of a severe mercury-poisoning outbreak. The travelers, who arrived last night, reported that 100 to 400 people had died since the outbreak began early in February."
  • 1974-1976 - Afghanistan: widespread poisoning (an estimated 7800 people affected with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (liver damage)and about 1600 deaths) was attributed to wheat contaminated with weed seeds known as charmac (Heliotropium popovii. H Riedl) that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[7]
  • 1978 - Two pensioners in Yardley, South Birmingham, UK die after eating tinned John West Salmon, contaminated with botulism
  • 1981 - Spanish Toxic Oil Syndrome. Thousands official found to be permanently damaged due to contaminated olive as a result of refining condemned oil but strong suspicion cause was in fact insecticide in Spanish Tomatoes, incident claimed to be covered up by official agencies.
  • 1986 - Adulteration of Italian wines with ethylene glycol killed more than 18 people[18]
  • 1987 - Beech-Nut Nutrition Corporation paid $2.2 million, then the largest fine issued, for violating the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act by selling artificially flavored sugar water as apple juice. John F. Lavery, the company's vice president for operations was convicted in criminal court and sentenced to a year and a day in jail; Niels L. Hoyvald, the president of the company, also convicted, served six months of community service. Each of them also paid a $100,000 fine[19]
  • 1989 - Milk contamination with dioxin in Belgium[20]
  • 1994 - Ground paprika in Hungary was found to be adulterated with lead oxide, causing deaths of several people, while dozens of others became sick.[21]
  • 1998 - In New Delhi, India adulteration of edible mustard oil with Argemone mexicana seed oil caused epidemic dropsy in thousands of people.[22] Epidemic dropsy is a clinical state resulting from consumption of edible oils adulterated with Argemone mexicana seed oil that contains the toxic alkaloids saguinarine and dehydrosanguinarine. The epidemic in 1998 at New Delhi is the largest so far, in which over 60 persons lost their lives and more than 3000 victims were hospitalized.Even after that the epidemics occurred at alarming frequency at Gwalior (2000), Kannauj (2002) and Lucknow (2005) cities of India.[23]
  • 1998 - In Germany and the Netherlands, meat and milk were found with elevated dioxin concentrations. The dioxin was traced to citrus pulp from Brazil that had been neutralized with dioxin-contaminated lime. 92,000 tons of citrus pulp was discarded. The citrus pulp market collapsed in some European countries. A tolerance level for dioxins in citrus pulp was set by the European Commission.[24]
  • 1999 - In Belgium, animal feed contaminated with dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls affected more than 2500 poultry and pig farms. This incident led to the formation of the Belgium Federal Food Safety Agency. The loss to the Belgium economy was estimated at €1500-€2000M.[25][26]
  • 1999-2000 - In Afghanistan, there were an estimated 400 cases of liver damage and over 100 deaths due to pyrrolizidine poisoning. The food source was not identified.[7]
  • 2001 - Spanish olive pomace oil was contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Contaminated product was recalled.[27]
  • 2002 - In Northern Ireland, nitrofurans were detected in 5 (of 45) samples of chicken imported from Thailand and Brazil. The product was withdrawn and destroyed.[28]
  • 2002 - In the UK, nitrofurans were detected in 16 (of 77) samples of prawns and shrimps imported from SE Asia. Affected batches were withdrawn and destroyed.[29]
  • 2002 - In the UK and Canada, the banned antibiotic, chloramphenicol, was found in honey from China[30]
  • 2003 - dioxins were found in animal feed that was contaminated with bakery waste that had been dried by firing with waste wood.[1]
  • 2003 - The banned veterinary antibiotic nitrofurans were found in chicken from Portugal. Poultry from 43 farms was destroyed. Nitrofurans are banned from food because of concerns including a possible increased risk of cancer in humans through long-term consumption.[31]
  • 2004 - Organic free-range chicken was found to contain traces of the banned veterinary drug, nitrofuran. Up to 23 tonnes of affected chicken, originating from a farm in Northern Ireland was distributed to supermarkets across the UK resulting in a voluntary product recall and consumer warnings.[32]
  • 2004 - The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) detected chloramphenicol in honey labelled as product of Canada. Chloramphenicol is banned for use in food-producing animals, including honey bees, in Canada as well as in a number of other countries. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) informed Health Canada that five lots of honey labelled as "Product of Canada" were distributed in British Columbia and were found to contain residues of the banned drug chloramphenicol. A voluntary food recall occurred.[33]
  • 2004 - New Zealand soy milk manufactured with added kelp contained toxic levels of iodine. Consumption of this product was linked to five cases of thyrotoxicosos. The manufacturer ceased production and re-formulated the product line.[34][35]
  • 2004 - New Zealand cornflour and cornflour-containing products were contaminated with lead, thought to have occurred as a result of bulk shipping of corn (maize) contaminated by previous cargo in the same storage. Affected product was distributed in New Zealand, Fiji and Australia. Four products were recalled.[36]
  • 2005 - Worcester sauce in the UK was found to contain the banned food colouring, Sudan I dye, that was traced to imported adulterated chilli powder. 576 food products were recalled.[40][41]
  • 2005 - Farmed salmon in British Columbia, Canada was found to contain the banned fungicide malachite green. 54 tonnes of fish was recalled. The incident resulted in an estimated $2.4-13M (USD) lost revenue.[42]
  • 2006 - Pork, in China, containing clenbuterol when pigs were illegally fed the banned chemical to enhance fat burning and muscle growth, affected over 300 persons.[43]
  • 2007 - Pet food recalls occurred in North America, Europe, and South Africa as a result of Chinese protein export contamination using melamine as an adulterant.
  • 2008 - Baby milk scandal, in China. 300,000 babies affected, 51,900 hospitalisations and 6 infant deaths. Lost revenue compensation~$30M, bankruptcy, trade restrictions imposed (by 68 countries, 60 or more arrests, two executions, one life sentence, and loss of consumer confidence.[44][45] Melamine from the contaminated protein worked into the food chain a year later[46]
  • 2008 - Irish pork and pork products exported to 23 countries was traced and much was recalled when animal feed was contaminated with dioxins in the feed drying process. The cost of cattle and pig culling exceeded €4M, compensation for lost revenue was estimated to be €200M.[47][48]
  • 2009 - Pork, in China, containing clenbuterol when pigs were illegally fed the banned chemical to enhance fat burning and muscle growth. 70 persons were hospitalised in Guangzhou with stomach pains and diarrhoea after eating contaminated pig organs[43]
  • 2009 - Hoola Pops from Mexico contaminated with lead[50]
  • 2009 - Soymilk in Australia, enriched with 'Kombu' seaweed resulted in high levels of iodine, and 48 cases of thyroid problems. The product was voluntarily recalled[51][52]
  • 2010 - Snakes in China were contaminated with clenbuterol when fed frogs treated with clenbuterol. 13 people were hospitalised after eating contaminated snake. There were 113 prosecutions in 2011 relating to clenbuterol, with sentences ranging from three years imprisonment to death.[53][54]
  • 2011 - Vinegar from China contaminated with ethylene glycol when stored in tanks that previously contained antifreeze, led to 11 deaths and an estimated 120 cases of illness.[56]
  • 2011 - Meat, eggs and egg products in Germany contaminated from animal feed containing fat contaminated with dioxins. 4,700 German farms affected. 8,000 hens and hundreds of pigs were culled. Imports from Germany to China were banned[57][58]
  • 2012 - More than a quarter of a million chicken eggs are being recalled in Germany after in-house testing discovered "excessive levels" of the poisonous chemical, dioxin.[59]
  • 2012, June - A Brazilian housewife discovered an apparently used condom at the bottom of a can of Knorr tomato paste. Unilever was fined £3,100 ($4,800) by the Supreme Federal Court. She was awarded £1,110 ($1,700) for moral damages, as she and her family had consumed a meal prepared with the paste.[60][61]
  • 2012, July - Around 1 million pots of herbs had to be destroyed in North Rhine-Westphalia after treatment with an apparently organic plant growth strengthener was found to contain DDAC (didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) which resulted in contamination levels above the EU MRL of 0.01 mg/kg. This has resulted in significant additional costs to member states across the EU who put in place a monitoring programme until February 2013 for DDAC and other quaternary ammonium compounds across a wide range of commodity groups.
  • 2012, August - September - Multiple American Licorice Company black licorice products recalled due to high lead levels in the products. Consuming a bag of product could give children lead levels as high as 13.2 micrograms/daily limit, double the amount regulators consider actionable.[62]
  • 2013, January - It was disclosed that horse meat contaminated beef burgers had been on sale in Britain and Ireland. Two companies, ABP Food Group and Liffey Meats, had supplied various supermarkets with contaminated own brand burgers from their meat factories in the U.K. and Ireland.
  • 2013, February - In Germany 200 farms are suspected of selling eggs as "organic" but not adhering to the conditions required for the label.[63]
  • 2013, March - A batch of 1800 almond cakes with butter cream and butterscotch from the Swedish supplier, Almondy on its way to the IKEA store in Shanghai were found by Chinese authorities to have a too high amount of coliform bacteria and were subsequently destroyed.[64]
  • 2013, March - A vegetable seller in western Germany, Rhine Main, realized that the lettuce he had been selling throughout the day contained rat poison. The poison appears as small blue kernels.[65]
  • 2013, May - A Chinese crime ring was found to have passed off rat, mink, and small mammal meat as mutton for more than 1 million USD in Shanghai and Jiangsu province markets.[66]
  • 2013, May - Halal Lamb Burgers contained samples of Pork DNA, affected schools 19 schools in Leicester, UK.[67]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Thomson, Barbara; Poms, Roland; Rose, Martin (2012). "Incidents and impacts of unwanted chemicals in food and feeds". Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 4 (2): 77. doi:10.1111/j.1757-837X.2012.00129.x. 
  2. ^ Veronese, Keith (Jan 20, 2012). "The first artificial sweetener poisoned lots of Romans". io9.com. 
  3. ^ Arsenic Toxicity What are the Physiologic Effects of Arsenic Exposure?
  4. ^ "On the adulteration of bread as a cause of rickets". Ph.ucla.edu. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  5. ^ Septimus Reynolds, Ernest (1901). "An Account of the Epidemic Outbreak of Arsenical Poisoning Occurring in Beer-Drinkers in the North of England and the Midland Counties in 1900". The Lancet 157 (4038): 409–52. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)81229-0. PMC 2036791. PMID 20896969. 
  6. ^ Kasuya, M; Teranishi, M; Aoshima, K; Katoh, T; Horiguchi, H; Morikawa, Y; Nishijo, M; Iwata, K (1992). "Water pollution by cadmium and the onset of Itai-itai disease". Water Science and Technology 26: 149–56. 
  7. ^ a b c d Kakar, Faizullah; Akbarian, Zarif; Leslie, Toby; Mustafa, Mir Lais; Watson, John; Van Egmond, Hans P.; Omar, Mohammad Fahim; Mofleh, Jawad (2010). "An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids". Journal of Toxicology 2010: 1. doi:10.1155/2010/313280. 
  8. ^ George, Timothy S. (2002). Minamata: Pollution and the Struggle for Democracy in Postwar Japan. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Asia Center. ISBN 0-674-00364-0. [page needed]
  9. ^ Shaw, CA; Bains, JS (1998). "Did consumption of flour bleached by the agene process contribute to the incidence of neurological disease?". Medical hypotheses 51 (6): 477–81. doi:10.1016/S0306-9877(98)90067-6. PMID 10052866. 
  10. ^ Dakeishi, Miwako; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe (2006). Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source 5: 31. doi:10.1186/1476-069X-5-31. 
  11. ^ Firestone, David (1973). "Etiology of chick edema disease". Environmental Health Perspectives 5: 59–66. doi:10.1289/ehp.730559. JSTOR 3428114. PMC 1474955. PMID 4201768. 
  12. ^ "Book Reviews: Triaryl-Phosphate Poisoning in Morocco 1959. Experiences and Findings". British Journal of Industrial Medicine. 25(4). 1968. PMC 1008817. 
  13. ^ "Mercury Poisoning in Iraq Is Said to Kill 100 to 400". New York Times. March 9, 1972. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  14. ^ Bakir, F.; Damluji, S. F.; Amin-Zaki, L.; Murtadha, M.; Khalidi, A.; Al-Rawi, N. Y.; Tikriti, S.; Dahahir, H. I.; Clarkson, T. W.; Smith, J. C.; Doherty, R. A. (1973). "Methylmercury Poisoning in Iraq". Science 181 (4096): 230–41. doi:10.1126/science.181.4096.230. PMID 4719063. 
  15. ^ Rachael Gleason Poisoning Michigan: Author revisits PBB crisis 30 years later Jun 4 2010, Great Lakes Echo
  16. ^ Dunckel, AE (1975). "An updating on the polybrominated biphenyl disaster in Michigan". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 167 (9): 838–41. PMID 1184446. 
  17. ^ Fries, George F.; Kimbrough, Renate D. (1985). "The Pbb Episode in Michigan: An Overall Appraisal". Critical Reviews in Toxicology 16 (2): 105–56. doi:10.3109/10408448509056268. PMID 3002722. 
  18. ^ a b Schanche, Don A. (April 9, 1986). "Death Toll Stands at 18 Italy Jolted by Poisoning, Halts All Exports of Wine". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-07-20. An industry source in Rome said he doubts that any of the polluted wine has reached the United States. The Italian Wine and Food Institute, which represents Italian wine exporters in New York, was quoted here as saying that all Italian wine shipped to the United States is subjected to strict quality control in order to win the Italian government's seal of approval. Italy ships more wine to the United States than any other wine-producing nation, but most of its wine exports go to France and Germany, in that order, much of it in bulk for use in cutting domestic wines with higher-alcohol Italian varieties. It is far worse in scale than the scandal that virtually eliminated Austrian wines from the market last year. Some Austrian wine makers were found to have added ethylene glycol, a toxic, sweetening element, to their wines, and the discovery wiped out export sales. Ethylene glycol is also used in antifreeze. There were no known fatalities from the tainted Austrian wine. 
  19. ^ Traub, James (July 24, 1988). "Into the Mouths of Babes". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-28. It is well within the reach of most white-collar criminals to assume an air of irreproachable virtue, especially when they're about to be sentenced. But there was something unusually compelling about the bearing of Niels L. Hoyvald and John F. Lavery as they stood before Judge Thomas C. Platt of the United States District Court in Brooklyn last month - especially in light of what they were being sentenced for. As president and vice president of the Beech-Nut Nutrition Corporation, Hoyvald and Lavery had sold millions of bottles of apple juice that they knew to contain little or no apple juice at all - only sugars, water, flavoring and coloring. The consumers of this bogus product were babies. 
  20. ^ Bernard, A; Broeckaert, F; De Poorter, G; De Cock, A; Hermans, C; Saegerman, C; Houins, G (2002). "The Belgian PCB/Dioxin Incident: Analysis of the Food Chain Contamination and Health Risk Evaluation". Environmental Research 88 (1): 1–18. doi:10.1006/enrs.2001.4274. PMID 11896663. 
  21. ^ "Adulteration of Paprika in Hungary". Lead.org.au. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  22. ^ Sharma, B D; Malhotra, S.; Bhatia, V.; Rathee, M. (1999). "Classic diseases revisited: Epidemic dropsy in India". Postgraduate Medical Journal 75 (889): 657–61. doi:10.1136/pgmj.75.889.657. PMC 1741391. PMID 10621875. 
  23. ^ Das, M; Babu, K; Reddy, N; Srivastava, L (2005). "Oxidative damage of plasma proteins and lipids in epidemic dropsy patients: Alterations in antioxidant status". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 1722 (2): 209–17. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2004.12.014. PMID 15715957. 
  24. ^ Malisch, Rainer (2000). "Increase of the PCDD/F-contamination of milk, butter and meat samples by use of contaminated citrus pulp". Chemosphere 40 (9–11): 1041–53. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00352-5. PMID 10739045. 
  25. ^ Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan; Schepens, Paul; Jorens, Philippe; Blust, Ronny; Neels, Hugo (2008). "The Belgian PCB/dioxin crisis—8 years later". Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 25 (2): 164–70. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2007.10.003. PMID 21783853. 
  26. ^ Van Larebeke, Nik; Hens, Luc; Schepens, Paul; Covaci, Adrian; Baeyens, Jan; Everaert, Kim; Bernheim, Jan L.; Vlietinck, Robert et al. (2001). "The Belgian PCB and Dioxin Incident of January-June 1999: Exposure Data and Potential Impact on Health". Environmental Health Perspectives 109 (3): 265–73. doi:10.1289/ehp.01109265. PMC 1240245. PMID 11333188. 
  27. ^ http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/faq/olivepomoilqa/ [Accessed 16 February 2010].
  28. ^ http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodlaw/news/uk-02035.htm [Accessed 17 December 2012]
  29. ^ http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/faq/51434/[Accessed 17 December 2012]
  30. ^ http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/vet/faq/faq_chloramphenicol_honey-miel-eng.php#a4 [Accessed 17 December 2012]
  31. ^ http://www.reading.ac.uk/foodlaw/news/uk-03018.htm [Accessed 17 December 2012]
  32. ^ Accessed 16 July 2012
  33. ^ http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/vet/faq/faq_chloramphenicol_honey-miel-eng.php [Accessed 16 July 2012]
  34. ^ O'Connell, Rebecca; Parkin, Lianne; Manning, Patrick; Bell, Derek; Herbison, Peter; Holmes, John (2005). "A cluster of thyrotoxicosis associated with consumption of a soy milk product". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 29 (6): 511–2. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.2005.tb00240.x. PMID 16366059. 
  35. ^ "NZFSA releases Total Diet Survey and other residue monitoring programme results". Ministry for Primary Industries. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  36. ^ http://www.foodsafety.govt.nz/elibrary/industry/Source_Lead-Nzfsa_Confident.htm [Accessed 16 July 2012]
  37. ^ Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Lindblade, Kimberly; Gieseker, Karen; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Kieszak, Stephanie; Njapau, Henry; Schleicher, Rosemary; McCoy, Leslie F.; Misore, Ambrose; Decock, Kevin; Rubin, Carol; Slutsker, Laurence; The Aflatoxin Investigative Group (2005). "Case–Control Study of an Acute Aflatoxicosis Outbreak, Kenya, 2004". Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (12): 1779–83. doi:10.1289/ehp.8384. PMC 1314920. PMID 16330363. 
  38. ^ Bae, Woo Kyun; Lee, Youn Kyoung; Cho, Min Seok; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul (2006). "A Case of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Caused by Escherichia coli O104:H4". Yonsei Medical Journal 47 (3): 437–9. doi:10.3349/ymj.2006.47.3.437. PMC 2688167. PMID 16807997. 
  39. ^ Kim, Junyoung (2011). "Escherichia coli O104:H4 from 2011 European Outbreak and Strain from Republic of Korea". Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (9). doi:10.3201/eid1709.110879. 
  40. ^ FSA. (2005a) Action taken to remove illegal dye found in wide range of foods on sale in UK. Available at http://www.food.gov.uk/news/newsarchive/2005/feb/worcester [Last accessed 13 January 2011]
  41. ^ FSA. (2005b) Sudan I consolidated product list. Available at http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/sudanlistno.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2011]
  42. ^ Friends of Clayoquot Sound (2005) Cancer-contaminated BC farmed salmon must be destroyed. Available at http://www.focs.ca/news/050604.asp[Accessed 21 March 2012]
  43. ^ a b Manila Bulletin. (2012) Skinny pigs, poison pork: China battles farm drugs. Available at http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/300535/skinny-pigs-poison-pork-china-battles-farm-drugs [Last accessed 09 May 2012].
  44. ^ Gossner, Céline Marie-Elise; Schlundt, Jørgen; Ben Embarek, Peter; Hird, Susan; Lo-Fo-Wong, Danilo; Beltran, Jose Javier Ocampo; Teoh, Keng Ngee; Tritscher, Angelika (2009). "The Melamine Incident: Implications for International Food and Feed Safety". Environmental Health Perspectives 117 (12): 1803–8. doi:10.1289/ehp.0900949. PMC 2799451. PMID 20049196. 
  45. ^ Yang, Ruijia; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Lishi; Thomas, Miles; Pei, Xiaofang (2009). "Milk adulteration with melamine in China: Crisis and response". Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods 1 (2): 111. doi:10.1111/j.1757-837X.2009.00018.x. 
  46. ^ David Barboza (26 October 2008). "Tainted Eggs From China Discovered in Hong Kong". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/27/world/asia/27china.htm.
  47. ^ BBC News. (2010) Minister heard feed toxic on TV. Available at http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/8567267.stm?ad=1 [Last accessed 10 March 2011]
  48. ^ FSAI Food Safety Authority of Ireland. (2009) FSAI News, January/February '09, Irish Dioxin Crisis. Available at http://www.fsai.ie/uploadedFiles/News_Centre/Newsletters/Newsletters_Listing/FINAL(8).pdf [Last accessed 18 October 2010]
  49. ^ Italian wine under investigation for adulteration, 2008-04-04, timesofmalta.com
  50. ^ "Food firm recalls lead-contaminated lollipops". MSNBC (Calexico, California). May 2, 2009. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/30530838/. Retrieved 2009-07-19. "King Midas Inc. said Friday it is warning stores to stop selling Hola Pop, a caramel lollipop with a salted apricot in the center. The candy also comes in other fruit flavors."
  51. ^ The Australian. (October 04, 2010) Bonsoy scare triggers calls for iodine oversight. Available at http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/bonsoy-scare-triggers-calls-for-iodine-oversight/story-fn59niix-1225933558885 [Last accessed 18 July 2011]
  52. ^ Crawford, BA; Cowell, CT; Emder, PJ; Learoyd, DL; Chua, EL; Sinn, J; Jack, MM (2010). "Iodine toxicity from soy milk and seaweed ingestion is associated with serious thyroid dysfunction". The Medical journal of Australia 193 (7): 413–5. PMID 20919974. 
  53. ^ Manila Bulletin. (2012) Skinny pigs, poison pork: China battles farm drugs. Available at http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/300535/skinny-pigs-poison-pork-china-battles-farm-drugs [Last accessed 09 May 2012]
  54. ^ China Central Television. (2011) China-Clenbuterol. Available at http://newscontent.cctv.com/news.jsp?fileId=122517 [Last accessed 9 May 2012].
  55. ^ BBC News. (2011) Who, what, why : Why are Indians dying from alcohol poisoning? Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-16197280?print=true [Last accessed 28 February 2011]
  56. ^ The China Times. (2011) Eleven people died from poison in vinegar. Available at http://www.thechinatimes.com/online/2011/08/1121.html [Last accessed 09 May 2011]
  57. ^ Harrington, R. (January 2011) Dioxin-contaminated liquid egg distributed in UK, Contamination worse than feared in German dioxin scandal. Available at http://www.foodnavigator.com/content/view/print/351701 (2011-01-07) [Last accessed January 11, 2011].
  58. ^ "BBC News - More farms closed in Germany as dioxin scare continues". BBC UK. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  59. ^ Astley, Mark (21 Jun 2012). "Over 250,000 eggs recalled in Germany in latest dioxin scare". Food Quality News. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  60. ^ Roper, Matt (UPDATED: 13:55 GMT, 26 June 2012). "British firm Unilever fined £3,100 after Brazilian housewife finds rubber CONDOM in a tin of tomato paste". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 3 July 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  61. ^ Staff, NR (June 26, 2012). "Unilever Fined $4,800 After Housewife Finds Condom In Tin of Tomato Paste". Naija Resource. Retrieved 3 July 2012. 
  62. ^ Aleccia, JoNel. "Black licorice recall grows; high lead levels blamed". NBC News. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
  63. ^ "Probe launched into German 'organic' eggs". globalpost.com. 2013-02-25. Retrieved 2013-02-25. 
  64. ^ "IKEA Stops Cake Sales After Bacteria Found". online.wsj.com. 2013-03-05. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  65. ^ "Vegetable vendor finds rat poison in lettuce". thelocal.de. 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2013-03-11. 
  66. ^ "China: Rat meat sold as lamb in latest food scandal - International". scotsman.com. 2013-05-03. Retrieved 2013-05-08. 
  67. ^ "Pork found in school halal lamb burgers". The Guardian (London). 9 May 2013. 
  68. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-23390972[full citation needed]