List of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War

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The following list of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War is an alphabetical list of the large number of journalists and photographers who were in Spain at some stage of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). It only includes those who were specifically accredited as such, as opposed to writers who later wrote of their experiences, including Gustav Regler, George Orwell, and so on.

Foreign press coverage of the war was extensive, with around a thousand foreign newspaper correspondents working from Spain.[1]

Some journalists wrote for more than one newspaper and several papers had more than one journalist in Spain at the same time or at different times. In some cases, they were already seasoned war correspondents when they went to Spain. A few of them, such as Jay Allen, were already living in Spain when war broke out, and some of them, again like Allen, who wrote at various times for the Chicago Daily Tribune, News Chronicle, and The New York Times, wrote for more than one paper.

While some correspondents supported the rebel cause,[1] most notably William Carney, Edward Knoblaugh and Herbert Knickerbocker, according to the Hispanist Paul Preston, "The bulk of the reporters became so committed to the Republic, partly because of the horrible things they saw such as the bombing of civilians, but even more so because they felt that what was going on in Spain was everybody's fight."[2]

A case in point was that of Louis Delaprée, a Catholic correspondent sent to cover the rebel zone for Paris-Soir, who was killed as a result of his plane being shot down on his way back to Paris, furious at his newspaper not publishing his articles, as it clearly considered the "massacre of a hundred Spanish children is less interesting than a sigh from Mrs Simpson."[3]

Another, even more Catholic, correspondent was Noel Monks, an Australian journalist for the Daily Express, who had initially been sympathetic to Franco, wrote critically of the "so-called British experts" who would later visit Guernica and "deliver pompous judgements: 'Guernica was set on fire by the Reds,' My answer to them is unprintable... If the 'Reds' had destroyed Guernica, I for one could have blown the whole story... And how I would have blown it had it been true!"[4]

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Photographers[edit]

Photographers included Robert Capa, who was accompanied by his partner and photo-journalist Gerda Taro, who died at Brunete in July 1937,[45] Hans Namuth, and Georg Reisner[46] who covered the conflict for the French illustrated magazine Vu, the same journal that would publish Capa’s famous photograph of Federico Borrell García, known as The Falling Soldier.[46]

Incidents involving correspondents[edit]

  • Gerda Taro dies on 26 July 1937, after an "accident" during the battle of Brunete, Spain
  • In December 1937, near Teruel, a shell exploded just in front of the car in which Kim Philby, The Times' accredited special correspondent with the Nationalist forces, was travelling with the correspondents Edward J. (Eddie) Neil of Associated Press, Bradish Johnson of Newsweek, and Ernest Sheepshanks of Reuters.[5] While Philby suffered only a minor head wound, Johnson was killed outright, and Neil and Sheepshanks soon died of their wounds.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Preston, Paul. We Saw Spain Die: Foreign Correspondents in the Spanish Civil War. Constable. 2008
  2. ^ a b c "Spain civil war exhibition probes role of reporters" Reuters
  3. ^ Preston, Paul. We Saw Spain Die: Foreign Correspondents in the Spanish Civil War., p. 43. Constable. 2008
  4. ^ Preston, Paul. We Saw Spain Die: Foreign Correspondents in the Spanish Civil War., p. 69. Constable. 2008
  5. ^ a b "When Reporters Chose Sides: Spain Looks Back at Its Civil War" The New York Times
  6. ^ a b c Payne, Stanley G. Fascism in Spain, 1923-1977 Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2000 ISBN 0-299-16564-7, ISBN 978-0-299-16564-2
  7. ^ "War in Spain: Sore Socialists" TIME November 29, 1937
  8. ^ a b c d e Thomas, Hugh "Heinkels over Guernica"
  9. ^ a b c d Boston University Theology Library Archives
  10. ^ Bolloten at WAIS Stanford
  11. ^ a b c Southworth, Herbert Rutledge Conspiracy and the Spanish Civil War: the brainwashing of Francisco Franco Routledge, 2002 ISBN 0-415-22781-X, 9780415227810 at Google Books
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Paul Preston Foreign Correspondents in the Spanish Civil War Instituto Cervantes (in Spanish)
  13. ^ a b Stradling, R. A. The Irish and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-39: crusades in conflict Manchester University Press, 1999 ISBN 1-901341-13-5, ISBN 978-1-901341-13-3 at Google Books
  14. ^ "A Call to Arms" The Economist
  15. ^ "War in Spain - Famine" TIME October 31, 1938
  16. ^ "Spain Checks Army Rising as Morocco Forces Rebel; 2 Cities in Africa Bombed" New York Times July 18, 1936
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Roth, Mitchel P. Historical dictionary of war journalism Greenwood Publishing Group, 1997 ISBN 0-313-29171-3, ISBN 978-0-313-29171-5 at Google Books
  18. ^ Patterson, Ian Guernica and total war Harvard University Press, 2007 ISBN 0-674-02484-2, ISBN 978-0-674-02484-7 at Google Books
  19. ^ a b c Sorel, Nancy Caldwell The women who wrote the war Arcade Publishing, 1999 ISBN 1-55970-493-4, ISBN 978-1-55970-493-9
  20. ^ a b Obituary: Times
  21. ^ Graham, Helen The Spanish Republic at war, 1936-1939 Cambridge University Press, 2002 ISBN 0-521-45932-X, 9780521459327 at Google Books
  22. ^ a b c Jackson, Angela British women and the Spanish Civil War Routledge, 2002 ISBN 0-415-27797-3, ISBN 978-0-415-27797-6
  23. ^ "Unrest Reported in Franco's Forces; Captured Spanish Rebels Are Quoted as Predicting Early Change in Command" The New York Times September 23, 1938
  24. ^ Horgan , John Irish media: a critical history since 1922 Routledge, 2001 ISBN 0-415-21641-9, ISBN 978-0-415-21641-8
  25. ^ McGarry, Fearghal Irish politics and the Spanish Civil War Cork University Press, 1999 ISBN 1-85918-239-9, ISBN 978-1-85918-239-0 at Google Books
  26. ^ Henry T. Gorrell's wartime memoir, Soldier of the Press, Covering the Front From Europe to North Africa, 1936-1943 was completed in 1943 but published for the first time in 2009 by the University of Missouri Press. The first chapters cover Gorrell's experiences in and around Madrid.[1]
  27. ^ a b c d Bowers, Claude G. My Mission to Spain Simon and Schuster New York 1954 Claude G. Bowers, former United States Ambassador to Spain
  28. ^ a b c d e Gannes, Harry & Repard, Theodore Spain in Revolt 1936 Left Book Club Edition, Victor Gollancz Ltd
  29. ^ a b c d Buchanan, Tom The impact of the Spanish Civil War on Britain: war, loss and memory Sussex Academic Press, 2007 ISBN 1-84519-127-7, ISBN 978-1-84519-127-6 at Google Books
  30. ^ Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives
  31. ^ a b c "Foreign News: A Bar of Chocolate" Time January 10, 1938
  32. ^ a b c Edwin Rolfe: a biographical essay and guide to the Rolfe archive at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Library University of Illinois Press, 1990 ISBN 0-252-06179-9, ISBN 978-0-252-06179-0
  33. ^ Hemingway, Ernest & Federal Bureau of Investigation Ernest Hemingway: The FBI Files Filiquarian Publishing, LLC., 2007 ISBN 1-59986-244-1, ISBN 978-1-59986-244-6 at Google Books
  34. ^ Reportage Press - Behind the Spanish Barricades - John Langdon-Davies
  35. ^ a b Cahill, R. “Rupert Lockwood abroad, 1935-38: genesis of a Cold War journalist” in Conference Proceedings, Australian Society for the Study of Labour History
  36. ^ Studies Issue 390, vol.98, Summer 2009
  37. ^ a b c d Catalogue at National Library of Australia
  38. ^ Obituary in The Independent
  39. ^ TIME June 10, 1940
  40. ^ Review of Telegram from Guernica: the extraordinary life of George Steer, war correspondent in the New Statesman 24 March 2003.
  41. ^ Esenwein, George Richard The Spanish Civil War: a modern tragedy Routledge, 2005 ISBN 0-415-20417-8, ISBN 978-0-415-20417-0 at Google Books
  42. ^ Levy, Jonathan The Intermarium: Wilson, Madison, & East Central European Federalism Universal-Publishers, 2007 ISBN 1-58112-369-8, ISBN 978-1-58112-369-2
  43. ^ Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives, King's College London Index summary
  44. ^ Boston Globe Obituary
  45. ^ Source: The Digital Journalist Internet site. [2]
  46. ^ a b Whelan, Richard. "Proving that Robert Capa’s “Falling Soldier” is Genuine: A Detective Story"