List of generic and genericized trademarks

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The following three lists of generic and genericized trademarks are:

  • marks which were originally legally protected trademarks, but have been genericized and have lost their legal status due to becoming generic terms,
  • marks which have been abandoned and are now generic terms
  • marks which are still legally protected as trademarks, at least in some jurisdictions

List of former trademarks that have been genericized[edit]

The following list contains marks which were originally legally protected trademarks, but which have subsequently lost legal protection as trademarks by becoming the common name of the relevant product or service, as used both by the consuming public and commercial competitors. These marks were determined in court to have become generic. Some marks retain trademark protection in certain countries despite being declared generic in others.

Aspirin
Still a Bayer trademark name for acetylsalicylic acid in about 80 countries, including Canada and many countries in Europe, but declared generic in the U.S.[1]
Catseye
Originally a trademark for a specific type of retroreflective road safety installation.[2]
Cellophane
Still a registered trademark of Innovia Films Ltd in Europe and many other jurisdictions. Genericized in the U.S. Originally a trademark of DuPont.[3][4] A thin, transparent sheet made of regenerated cellulose.
Dry ice
Trademarked by the Dry Ice Corporation of America in 1925.[5][6] A solid form of carbon dioxide.
Escalator
Originally a trademark of Otis Elevator Company.
Heroin
Trademarked by Friedrich Bayer & Co in 1898.[7][8]
Kerosene
First used around 1852.[9]
Lanolin
Trademarked as the term for a preparation of water and the wax from sheep's wool.[10]
Laundromat
Coin laundry shop.[11] Westinghouse trademark, registered in the U.S. in the 1940s (automatic washing machine) and 1950s (coin laundry) but now expired.
Linoleum
Floor covering,[12] originally coined by Frederick Walton in 1864, and ruled as generic following a lawsuit for trademark infringement in 1878; probably the first product name to become a generic term.[13]
Mimeograph
Originally trademarked by Albert Dick.[14] A low-cost printing press that works by forcing ink through a stencil onto paper.
Sellotape
Sellotape is a British brand of transparent, cellulose-based, pressure-sensitive adhesive tape, and is the leading brand in the United Kingdom. Sellotape is generally used for joining, sealing, attaching and mending. The term has become a genericised trademark in the UK, Ireland, Australia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Israel, India, Serbia, Japan, Croatia, Greece, Turkey, Macedonia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, and is used much in the same way that Scotch Tape came to be used in Canada and the United States, in referring to any brand of clear adhesive tape.
Spidola
A brand created by the Latvian manufacturer VEF, but widely used in Russian to refer to all transistor radios.[15]
Thermos
Originally a Thermos GmbH[16] trademark name for a vacuum flask; declared generic in the U.S. in 1963.[17]
Trampoline
Originally a trademark of the Griswold-Nissen Trampoline & Tumbling Company[18]
Videotape
Originally trademarked by Ampex Corporation,[19] an early manufacturer of audio and video tape recorders.

List of former trademarks that have since become generic terms due to reasons other than genericization[edit]

The following list contains marks which were originally legally protected trademarks, but which have subsequently lost legal protection as trademarks due to abandonment, non-renewal or improper issuance (the generic term pre-dated the registration). Some marks retain trademark protection in certain countries despite being generic in others.


App
Trademark claimed by Apple, Inc.; cancelled.
App Store
Trademark claimed by Apple Inc. for their digital distribution platform. Apple filed a lawsuit against Amazon.com over Appstore for Amazon, but abandoned the trademark and the lawsuit after an early rejection of Apple's false advertising claim in the lawsuit by the judge.[20]
Multiball
Used to refer to a state on a pinball machine where two or more balls are present on the playfield simultaneously and can be accessed by the flippers. Trademarked by WMS Industries in 1981 as "Multi-ball" and by Templar Studios in 2000 as "Multiball." "Multiball" was abandoned as a trademark in 2001, and "Multi-ball" was canceled in 2002.[21][22]
Touch-tone
Dual tone multi-frequency telephone signaling; AT&T states "formerly a trademark of AT&T".[23]
Webster's Dictionary
The publishers with the strongest link to the original are Merriam-Webster, but they have a trademark only on "Merriam-Webster", and other dictionaries are legally published as "Webster's Dictionary".[24]
Yo-Yo
Still a Papa's Toy Co. Ltd. trademark name for a spinning toy in Canada, but was determined that the trademark was improperly issued.[25]
ZIP code
Originally registered as a servicemark but has since expired.[26]
Zipper
Originally a trademark of B.F. Goodrich for use in rubber boots.[27]

List of protected trademarks frequently used as generic terms[edit]

Marks in this list are still legally protected as trademarks, at least in some jurisdictions, but are sometimes used by consumers in a generic sense. Unlike the names in the list above, these names are still widely known by the public as brand names, and are not used by competitors. Scholars disagree as to whether the use of a recognized trademark name for similar products can truly be called "generic", or if it is instead a form of synecdoche.[28]

The previous list contains trademarks that have completely lost their legal status in some countries, while the following list contains marks which have been registered as trademarks, continue in use, and are actively enforced by their trademark owners. Writing guides such as the AP Stylebook advise writers to "use a generic equivalent unless the trademark is essential to the story".

Trademarked name Generic name Trademark owner Notes
Adrenalin Epinephrine Parke-Davis Widely referred to as "adrenaline" outside of the U.S., and in the BAN and EP systems.[29][30]
Airfix Plastic injection-moulded scale model kits Hornby Railways Still used widely in the UK to describe a scale model as it was the dominant brand at that time.[31] This news article is one example of the brand being treated as a generic term.
Airshow In-flight entertainment moving map Rockwell Collins Not commonly used worldwide.[32][33][34]
AstroTurf Artificial turf Monsanto Company (formerly)
AstroTurf, LLC
[35] Also gave use to the term "astroturfing.
Armco Crash barrier AK Steel Holding Used widely in the UK to describe a crash barrier manufactured from corrugated steel.[36]
Auto-Tune Pitch correction Antares Audio Technologies
Bachelor Public Utility Bus Vallacar Transit Corporation In Butuan City, CARAGA region or in some parts of Mindanao, preferably children and rural citizens, usually they call buses as "Bachelor", including tourist buses, government buses, school buses and shuttle buses.
Band-Aid Adhesive bandage Johnson & Johnson Often used as though generic by consumers in Canada, the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand, though still legally trademarked.[28]
Biro Ballpoint pen Société Bic Used generically in colloquial British and Australian English, particularly for cheaper disposable pens, but remains a registered trademark. Derived from the name of the inventor, László Bíró.[37]
Bobcat Skid-steer loader Bobcat Company This usage is especially common in Australia. The Clark Equipment Company has successfully defended the trademark against dilution and genericization at least in two cases relating to domain names with the World Intellectual Property Organization.[38][39]
Bubble Wrap Inflated cushioning Sealed Air [40]
Bubbler Drinking fountain Kohler Company Sometimes used as a generic, particularly in Wisconsin, New England[41] and Australia.[42]
Cashpoint Automated teller machine, cash machine Lloyds Bank Commonly used in the UK to refer to any ATM or cash dispensing machine, regardless of which bank or company it is operated by.[43]
Chain gun Motor operated machine gun Alliant Techsystems [44] Also appear as a definition in the Oxford English Dictionary, describing it as "a machine gun that uses a motor-driven chain to power all moving parts"[45]
ChapStick Lip balm Wyeth Consumer Healthcare
Christmas Seals Christmas Seals The American Lung Association [46] A Charity label or fundraising seal issued at Christmas time to fight tuberculosis or other lung disease. Trademark was taken in 1987 by ALA, who has issued National Christmas Seals in the US continuously since 1907, to prevent other US National charities from competing.
Cigarette boat Go-fast boat Cigarette Racing The nickname derived from fast powerboats that were designed to smuggle cigarettes fast and outrun law enforcement personnel. Trademark was taken following a founding of a company named after the nickname.[47][48]
Clorox Bleach Clorox Company [49]
Coke Cola, soft drink, pop, soda Coca-Cola Company Predominantly used in the Southern United States to refer to any soft drink, not just a cola, or in some parts of the UK to refer to any cola (even that of another trademark). Still a trademark.[50]
Colt Revolver Colt's Manufacturing Company A common choice of gun during the Wild West, it was used to describe any revolvers during the 19th century, regardless of brand.[51]
Connollising As a verb, to restore automobile leather interior Connolly Leather Often used by automobile enthusiasts and medias, when to describe restoring leather interiors, thanks to the high international reputation of the company.[52][53]
Crayola Crayons Binney & Smith Company; Crayola LLC On some occasions and in some parts of the world, Crayola is also being referred to as any crayons of any brand.
Crescent wrench adjustable wrench Crescent Tool Company Crescent wrench is a term used to describe any adjustable wrench.
Crock-Pot Slow cooker Sunbeam Products "Crock pot" and "crockpot" are common synonyms used by cooks to describe any slow cooker.[54]
Cuisinart Food processor Conair Sometimes used in the U.S. to refer to any food processor, but still a trademark.[55]
Decora Rocker light switch Leviton Frequently used in the United States to refer to any rocker light switch regardless of manufacturer,[56][57] but still trademarked.[58]
Dictaphone Dictation machine Nuance Communications To date, one of the five oldest surviving U.S. brands.[40]
Ditto machine Spirit duplicator Starkey Chemical Process Co.
Doll Instant Noodle Instant noodles Winner Food Products "Doll Instant Noodle" (公仔麵) is commonly referred in Hong Kong for instant noodles.[59] Winner Food Products (永南食品) has been acquired by its former arch-competitor Nissin Foods in 1989.[60]
Dormobile Motorhome Bedford Vehicles
then Dormobile (Folkestone) Ltd
Widely used in the United Kingdom to describe any motorhomes.[61] This article by the BBC is an example of the term being used generically.
Dumpster Front loader waste container Dempster Brothers, Inc. A registered trademark[62][63] of the Dempster Brothers in 1963, dumpster is originally a portmanteau of the word dump and the last name Dempster. It originally appeared in the 1951 product name Dempster Dumpster,[64] while related patents date back to 1937.[65][66]
Durex Adhesive tape (Australia, Brazil) 3M Used in Brazil ("fita durex")[67] and some areas of Australia[37][68][69] as a generic name for adhesive tape.
Durex Condoms (UK) SSL International In the UK and Spain, a brand of condom, which is often used generically.[70]
Esky Cooler Coleman Australian usage[71]
Fiberglas, Fiberglass Glass wool Owens Corning
Filofax Personal organizer Letts Filofax Group [72][73]
Fix-A-Flat Canned tire inflator Illinois Tool Works [74]
Formica Wood or plastic laminate Formica Corporation, part of Fletcher Building Widely used for the generic product. An attempt to have the trademark quashed failed in 1977.[75]
Freon Refrigerant DuPont Frequently used to refer to any type of refrigerant,[76] though Freon is specifically Dichlorodifluoromethane, or R-12.
Frisbee Flying disc Wham-O [77]
Gib board Drywall Winstone Wallboards Widely used term within New Zealand to refer to plasterboard, after the name of the country's market-leading product of its type (still trademarked).[78]
Glad Wrap Cling-film Glad (company) [79] Used in Australia, New Zealand.
Google internet search engine Google Inc. [80][81] See Google (verb)
Hacky Sack Footbag Wham-O [82][83]
Hills Hoist Rotary clothes line Hills Industries Australian usage[84]
Homebrand Generic branded product (house brand) Woolworths All generic and house branded products from any supermarket in Australia are often referred to as 'home brand', despite this being a trademark of Australia's largest supermarket chain Woolworths. The Coles equivalent is 'Coles Smart Buy', which is often mistakenly called 'home brand' due to Woolworth's market dominance.
Hoover Vacuum cleaner Hoover Company Widely used as a noun and verb.[75] De facto loss of trademark in the UK.[85]
Hula hoop Toy hoop Wham-O [86]
Jacuzzi Hot tub or whirlpool bath Jacuzzi [87]
Javex Bleach Clorox Company Used primarily in Canada, where bleach is "eau de javel" as a French-language generic. Acquired from Colgate-Palmolive in late 2006.[88]
JCB Backhoe loader J. C. Bamford Has become a generic term for an excavator mounted with both a front loader and a backhoe in British English, as recognized by the Oxford English Dictionary.[89] Invented by J C Bamford Excavators Ltd., which is still the largest supplier of backhoe loaders.[90]
Jeep Compact sport utility vehicle Chrysler Chrysler recently used "trademark awareness" advertisements to prevent the brand from becoming a generic noun or verb, including such statements as They invented ‘SUV’ because they can’t call them Jeep[91]
Jet Ski Stand-up personal watercraft Kawasaki Used universally to refer to any type of personal watercraft. This news article is one example of usage.
Jiffy bag padded mailing envelopes Sealed Air [92]
JumboTron Large-screen television Sony Still used, although Sony exited the market for this product in 2001.[93]
Kitty Litter Litter box filler Ralston Purina First marketed by Ed Lowe in 1947.
Kleenex Facial tissue Kimberly-Clark Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the U.S., France and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.[28]
Lava lamp Liquid motion lamp Mathmos [94][95]
Lexan Polycarbonate resin thermoplastic glass SABIC [96][citation needed]
Lilo air mattress Li-Lo In the UK and Australia
Mace Pepper spray Mace Security International [97]
Matchbox Die cast toy Mattel Used at its height of popularity to describe die cast cars.[98]
Memory Stick Flash memory storage device Sony [99]
Mighty Bond Cyanoacrylate adhesive Republic Chemical Industries Inc. Common in the Philippines as any Cyanoacrylate adhesive
Muzak Elevator music, background music Muzak Holdings An often derogatory term frequently used to describe any form of Easy Listening, smooth jazz, or Middle of the road music, or to the type of recordings once commonly heard on "beautiful music" radio stations.[100][101]
NOS (Nitrous Oxide Systems) Nitrous Holley Performance Products Widely used generically to describe nitrous systems used in motor vehicles.[102] One example of this was when it was used prominently in the 2001 film The Fast and the Furious.
Onesies Infant/Adult bodysuit (babygro) Gerber Products Company Often used by consumers in the U.S. as if it were generic; "Onesies" still a legally trademarked brand name of Gerber, which objects to its usage in the singular form as "Onesie" or as a generic product name.[103] Recently used to describe an adult bodysuit.[104]
Otter Pops Plastic tube filled frozen snack with flavored sugary liquid; ice pop (UK); frozo-pop (US) National Pax Often used as a name for a style of frozen snack consisting of a frozen tube in which frozen sugary liquid is pushed up through the top and eaten.[105]


Pentel Pen Marker pen Pentel Often called to as any marker pens and even coloring pens in the Philippines.
Perspex Acrylic glass Lucite [106]
Philadelphia Cream cheese Kraft Foods According to Kraft Foods,[107] the first American cream cheese was made in New York in 1872 by American dairyman William Lawrence, and in 1880 'Philadelphia' was adopted as the brand name after the city that Americans consider to be the home of top quality food.
Photoshop Photo manipulation Adobe Systems Commonly used as a verb to generically describe digital manipulation or compositing of photographs.[108]
Ping Pong Table tennis Parker Brothers Originally trademarked by Jaques and Son, was later passed to Parker Bros. A number of U.S. organisations nowadays are required to refer its sport as table tennis as means of trademark protection.[109][110]
Plasticine Modelling clay Flair Leisure Products plc Often applied as a name for a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids. It is often used as modelling medium for art such as claymation.[111]
Plexiglas, Plexiglass Acrylic glass Altuglas International,
Rohm & Haas (formerly)
Often misspelled with a double "s", which appears to have become generic, possibly providing partial protection for the tradename "Plexiglas"[112][113]


Popsicle Ice Pop; ice lolly (UK) Good Humor-Breyers [114]
Portakabin Portable building Portakabin Ltd. Widely-used term for a portable modular building in the UK.[106][115][116]
Post-it Sticky note 3M Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the U.S. and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.[117]
Pot Noodle Instant noodles Unilever Used widely in the United Kingdom as it is the dominant brand.[106]
Powerpoint Slide show presentation program Microsoft [118]
Pritt Stick Glue stick Henkel A newspaper article by the Daily Mirror (on 27 March 2010) treated the brand as a generic name,[119] another example of use is by The Guardian on its 16 June 2007 article.[120]
Putt-Putt Golf Miniature golf Putt-Putt Fun Center
Q-tips Cotton swabs; cotton buds (UK) Unilever Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the U.S. and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.[121]
Realtor Real estate agent National Association of Realtors Often used by the public, the media, and even real estate agents to refer generally to any real estate agent, but the term is a legally recognized trademark of the National Association of Realtors. The terms "Realtor" and "Realtors" refer to members of this association, and not to real estate agents generally. The National Association of Realtors is engaged in ongoing efforts to prevent the mark from becoming generic. These efforts include, among other things, writing to members of the media to complain of improper usage, distribution of information and guidelines on correct usage, and the development of an educational video on the subject.[122]


Rizla Rolling paper Imperial Tobacco Often used to describe rolling papers which are used to contain rolled tobacco or marijuana.[123]
Rollerblade Inline skates Nordica Commonly used name by consumers in the U.S. and Canada, but the name is still a trademark.[124]
Rugby Rubber cement Bostik Philippines, Inc. Being the first rubber cement brand in the Philippines, eventually being referred as any rubber cement brands.[125] See also Rugby boy, a gang known for addiction of sniffing rubber cement.
Saran Wrap Plastic wrap; cling film (UK) S. C. Johnson & Son
Asahi Kasei
Scalextric Slot car Hornby Railways Used commonly in the United Kingdom to describe slot cars and the hobbies itself.[126]
Scotch tape Clear adhesive tape (US) 3M Appears in dictionaries as both generic and trademarked.[127] "Trademark Law" advises that proper usage is "Scotch brand cellophane tape" to combat "generic tendencies".[128]
Ski-Doo Snowmobile Bombardier Recreational Products Usage in Canada, especially Quebec and British Columbia.[129]
Sea-Doo Sit-down personal watercraft Bombardier Recreational Products Used regionally in the U.S. (where the company holds 50.3% of the market share) to refer to any type of sit-down PWC. Usage is strongest in Canada, especially in Quebec, where the manufacturer is based.[130]
Sellotape Clear adhesive tape (UK) Sellotape Company, owned by Henkel Consumer Adhesives Often used generically as a verb and noun.[131][132][133] Appears in dictionaries as both generic and trademarked.[134]
Sharpie Permanent marker Sanford L.P., owned by Newell Rubbermaid James Faulkner, Sanford's marketing manager, has said "In America the Sharpie name is used as the generic for a permanent marker".[135]
Sivec Type of Marble Mermeren Kombinat Prilep [10] MERMEREN Kombinat was set-up in 1946 and since then it has been extracting and processing snow-white marble under the name of SIVEC®.[11]


Stetson Cowboy hat John B. Stetson Company Although John B. Stetson Company manufacturers other types of brimmed hats, the word Stetson has been long used[136] for a generic cowboy hat which features a high crown and wide brim.
Stanley knife Utility knife Stanley Works In Great Britain, the press and law enforcement officers have had referred to it as Stanley knife during incidents as the following two links indicates, regardless if said weapon is actually a utility knife. The trademark have since entered into a dictionary term.[137]
Stelvin closure Screw cap Rio Tinto Alcan Often used generically.[138]
Styrofoam extruded polystyrene foam Dow Chemical Company In the United States and Canada, "styrofoam" is often used as a generic term for disposable foam cups, plates, coolers and packing material, although these are made from a different polystyrene product than true Styrofoam Brand Foam,[139] which is made for thermal insulation and craft applications.[140]
Super Glue Cyanoacrylate adhesive Super Glue Corporation The term "superglue" is often used informally as a verb or noun, but is still a trademark (US)[141]
Super Heroes Superhero DC Comics, Marvel Comics The two-word version of the term is a trademark co-owned by DC Comics and Marvel Comics.[142]
Tannoy Public address system Tannoy Ltd. UK usage[143]
Targa top Semi-convertible hard roof panel Porsche Although first used in the 1960s, trademark was not claimed until the 1970s, when its popularity grew; hence, the name is treated as a generic trademark by the general public and the motoring press to describe a detachable hard roof panel.[144]
Tarmac Asphalt road surface. Tarmac Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the UK and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.[145]
Taser Electroshock weapon, stun gun Taser Systems
Taser International
Acronym for a fictional weapon: Thomas A. Swift's Electric Rifle.[146] Taser is a registered tradename, prompting a backformed verb "to tase" which means "to use a Taser on", although "to taser" is also commonly used.
Teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) DuPont Used generically to refer to PTFE or "non-stick" coatings.,[147][148]
Telecopier Facsimile machine Xerox [106]


Tivoli Amusement park Tivoli A/S The Danish Tivoli Gardens amusement park has registered its colloquial name "Tivoli" as company name and trademark. In Danish language, the word "tivoli" has however been a generic term for "amusement park" from before the Tivoli Gardens opened in 1843[149] and is still used as such, for instance in the name of many other amusement parks all over Denmark[150] and other Scandinavian countries. This is currently the focal point of several legal disagreements,[151] with the first (Tivoli A/S vs Innocent Pictures ApS) leading to a win for Tivoli A/S in Denmark's Supreme Court in September 2010.[152]
Tupperware Plastic storage containers Earl Tupper Preparation, storage, containment, and serving products for the kitchen and home, which were first introduced to the public in 1946.[153]
Tylenol Paracetamol,

Acetaminophen in the US & Canada

McNeil Consumer Healthcare
Vaseline Petroleum jelly, petrolatum Unilever Often used by consumers as if it were generic in the U.S. and Canada, but still a legally recognized trademark.[121]
Velcro Hook-and-loop fastener Velcro company Used as generic, but still trademarked.[154] Often used as a verb.[155]
Vetsin Monosodium glutamate Tien Chun Ve-Tsin Philippine term for MSG / umami. It was popular back then, and even Ajinomoto leads the monosodium glutamate market nowadays, people still call it as Vetsin/Bitsin.[156]
Walkman Personal stereo Sony Corporation Was often used generically for any portable stereo player, and in 2002 an Austrian court ruled that it had passed into common usage,[157] but still a legally recognized trademark.[158]
WaveRunner Personal water craft Yamaha Motor Company Often used, along with Jet Ski, to refer to any type of personal watercraft.[159]
Windex Hard-surface cleaner S. C. Johnson & Son
Winnebago Class A recreational vehicle (UK) recreational vehicle (US) Winnebago Industries Used in the United Kingdom to describe a coach sized American motorhome. The term is also used generically in the United States describe pretty much any motorhome, but not to the same extent.[160]
Wite-Out Correction fluid Société Bic A white liquid applied with a brush used to hide mistakes, written or typed, with ink so they can be overwritten. (see also Tipp-Ex)[161] (US)
Xerox Photocopier or to make a photocopy Xerox Xerox has used "trademark awareness" advertisements to prevent the brand from becoming a generic noun or verb, including such statements as "You can't make a Xerox."[162] However, it is used in India and Russia as a generic word for 'photocopy'. In Brazilian Portuguese, xerocar, or less frequently xerocopiar, is a common verb for "to make a photocopy".
Zamboni Ice resurfacer Zamboni Company Also called a Zamboni machine. Frank J. Zamboni & Co., Inc. has taken a strong stance against its trademark dilution, the Zamboni name being used as a genericized trademark for ice resurfacers. On August 15, 2000, Frank J. Zamboni & Co, Inc. was awarded a registered trademark on the design and configuration of the Zamboni Ice Resurfacer by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.[163] The company asks that Zamboni not be used as a noun or a verb. Ice does not get Zambonied—and the vehicle is a Zamboni brand ice-resurfacing machine.[164]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bayer Co. v. United Drug Co., 272 F. 505 (S.D.N.Y. 1921), Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, accessed March 25th, 2011
  2. ^ The History of British Roadsigns, Dept. for Transport, 2nd Edition, 1999
  3. ^ "Trademarks". Mills, Turansky, & Griffith. Archived from the original on May 14, 2008. 
  4. ^ Cellophane: Definitions from Dictionary.com
  5. ^ Dry Ice – Who Invented Dry Ice?
  6. ^ dry ice. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
  7. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
  8. ^ heroin – Definitions from Dictionary.com
  9. ^ kerosene – Definitions from Dictionary.com
  10. ^ Jaffe v. Evans & Sons, Ltd., U.S. (New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division, First Department March 21, 1902).
  11. ^ Livermore, Beth (1999). "The Way We Are - time capsules - Brief Article". Natural History. Retrieved 2008-06-28. 
  12. ^ linoleum. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
  13. ^ Powell, Jane; Linda Svendsen (2003). Linoleum. Gibbs Smith. p. 23. ISBN 1-58685-303-1. 
  14. ^ mimeograph. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000[dead link]
  15. ^ «Спидолу» писали с маленькой буквы…//Телеграф, № 56 (294) от 22 марта 2004
  16. ^ Thermos.com
  17. ^ King-Seeley Thermos Co. v. Aladdin Indus., Inc., 321 F.2d 577 (2d Cir. 1963); see also this PDF
  18. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=s85tbw_N6hcC&pg=PA125&lpg=PA125&dq=%22rebound+tumbler%22&source=web&ots=ECkPR651id&sig=NKWvO7nxkFAT62GJ6e3WMKFLnvk&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result
  19. ^ "Ampex Corporation - GHN: IEEE Global History Network". Ieeeghn.org. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  20. ^ Mullin, Joe (July 7, 2013). "Apple gives up on failing App Store v. Appstore trademark lawsuit". Ars Technica (Condé Nast Publications). 
  21. ^ "Trademark Status & Document Retrieval - Multiball". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  22. ^ "Trademark Status & Document Retrieval - Multi-ball". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved 25 April 2014. 
  23. ^ "Centrex Service". Retrieved 2008-01-24. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Merriam-Webster FAQ". Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  25. ^ "343 F.2d 655: Donald F. Duncan, Inc., Plaintiff-appellee, v. Royal Tops Manufacturing Company, Inc., and Randy Brown, Defendants-appellants". Justia US Law. Retrieved May 23, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Latest Status Info". United States Patent and Trademark Office. Retrieved July 10, 2009. 
  27. ^ zipper – Definitions from Dictionary.com
  28. ^ a b c Butters, Ronald R. and Jennifer Westerhaus. "Linguistic change in words one owns: How trademarks become 'generic'" in Studies in the History of the English Language II, Anne Curzan and Kimberly Emmons, eds. Walter de Gruyter, 2004 Retrieved August 21, 2008
  29. ^ Aronson, J. K. (2000). ""Where name and image meet"--the argument for "adrenaline"". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 320 (7233): 506–509. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7233.506. PMC 1127537. PMID 10678871.  edit
  30. ^ "Medic Guide: What's the difference between adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)?". Medicguide.blogspot.com. 2008-07-19. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  31. ^ Caddick-Adams, Peter (2006-09-01). "Airfix made me the man I am". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  32. ^ "Cathay disables Airshow (moving map) - PPRuNe Forums". Pprune.org. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  33. ^ gethins-ifec.com
  34. ^ "AIrshow Map Delta - FlyerTalk Forums". Flyertalk.com. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  35. ^ "Copyrights & Campaigns: 'AstroTurf' vs. 'astroturf': can a trademark owner control uses of its mark in a news article?". Copyrightsandcampaigns.blogspot.com. 2009-04-13. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  36. ^ "Armco Barrier, Armco Crash Barriers, Road Safety Crash Barrier - Cenpart Ltd - Oldbury". Ogbit.com. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  37. ^ a b Room, Adrian (1983). Dictionary of Trade Name Origins. Routledge. ISBN 0-7102-0174-5. 
  38. ^ "Administrative Panel Decision: Clark Equipment Company v. AllJap Machinery Pty Ltd Case No. DAU2011-0042". World Intellectual Property Organization. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  39. ^ "Administrative Panel Decision Clark Equipment Company v. R & R Equipment Pty Ltd Case No. DAU2012-0011". World Intellectual Property Organization. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  40. ^ a b "Xerox Team India". span.state.gov. Retrieved 2013-01-02. 
  41. ^ [1][dead link]
  42. ^ "Bubbler Reviews Sydney". Retrieved 11 April 2014. 
  43. ^ "Branch and Cashpoint® locator"
  44. ^ "Chain Gun" USPTO Registered Trademark
  45. ^ "Definition of chain gun - Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
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References[edit]

  • Ginsburg, Jane C.; Litman, Jessica; Kevlin, Mary L. (2001). "Trademark and Unfair Competition Law" (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Foundation Press.