List of geochronologic names

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This is a list of official and unofficial names for time spans in the geologic timescale and units of chronostratigraphy. Since many of the smallest subdivisions of the geologic timescale were in the past defined on regional lithostratigraphic units, there are many alternative names that overlap. The body concerned with standardizing the names of geochronologic units is the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). In 2008 however, even though the Phanerozoic eon is almost completely divided into internationally recognizable units, local subdivisions are often still preferred over the international ones.

List[edit]

Sortable table
Name (English)[1] base/start (Ma)[2] top/end (Ma)[2] status subdivision of usage named after author, year
Aalenian 175.6 ± 2.0 171.6 ± 3.0 age Jurassic ICS Aalen (Germany)
Abereiddian 471.8 ± 1.6 464 age Ordovician regional Abereiddy (Wales)
Actonian 454 453 age Ordovician regional Acton Scott (England)
Adelaidean 1,300 542 age Proterozoic Australia Adelaide
Aegean 245 ± 1.5 244 age Triassic Europe Aegean Sea
Aeronian 439.0 ± 1.8 436.0 ± 1.9 age Silurian ICS Cwm-coed-aeron (Wales) Cocks et al., 1971
Aftonian 0.6 0.48 age Pleistocene North America
Agenian 23 20.4 ELMMZ Miocene Europe Agen (France)
Aimchanian 1100 age Proterozoic Siberia
Aksayan 493 491.5 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Alaunian 216 211 sub-age Triassic Europe
Albertan epoch Cambrian North America
Albian 112.0 ± 1.0 99.6 ± 0.9 age Cretaceous ICS Albia, Latin name of the river Aube (France) d'Orbigny, 1842
Alding(i)an 36 30 age Eocene Australia
Algonkian 543 age Proterozoic international Algonquian native peoples of Canada
Allerød 13,350 BP 12,700 BP chronozone Weichselian Northern Europe Allerød (Denmark)
Alportian 324.5 318.1 ± 1.3 age Carboniferous regional Alport (England)
Altonian 19.0 15.9 age Miocene New Zealand Alton
Amazonian ~1,800 present Martian epoch Martian epoch Mars Amazonis Planitia
Amgan 513.0 ± 2.0 502 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Amstelian 2.588 2.40 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands river Amstel Harmer, 1896
Anglian 0.465 0.418 age Pleistocene Great Britain East Anglia
Animikean 2,225 1,400 age Proterozoic North America (obsolete)
Anisian 245.0 ± 1.5 237.0 ± 2.0 age Triassic ICS Anisus, Latin name for the river Enns (Austria)
Antian ~2.12 ~2.0 age Pleistocene Great Britain River Ant (England)
Antwerpian ± 21 ± 12 age Miocene Belgium (obsolete) Antwerp Gogels, 1879
Aphebian 2500 1600 age Proterozoic North America
Aptian 125.0 ± 1.0 112.0 ± 1.0 age Cretaceous ICS Apt (France) d'Orbigny, 1840
Aquatraversian 2.588 2.4 age Pleistocene Italy
Aquilan 85.2 82.2 NALMA Cretaceous North America
Aquitanian 23.03 20.43 age Miocene ICS Aquitaine
Archean none 2,500 eon ICS
Arenig(-ian) epoch Ordovician Europe Arenig Fawr (Wales) Sedgwick, 1847; Fearnsides 1905
Arikareean 30.8 20.6 super-age Oligo-Miocene North America
Arnold 43.0 34.3 epoch Paleogene New Zealand Arnold River
Arnsbergian 326 325 sub-age Carboniferous regional
Arowhanan 95.2 92.1 age Cretaceous New Zealand Arowhana
Arshantan 52.1 46.2 ALMA Eocene Asia
Artinskian 284.4 ± 0.7 275.6 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Arti (Russia) Karpinsky, 1874
Arundian 341 339 age Carboniferous regional
Asbian 337.5 333 age Carboniferous regional
Ashbyan age Ordovician North America
Ashgill(-ian) epoch Ordovician Europe Ashgill (Scotland)
Asselian 299.0 ± 0.8 294.6 ± 0.8 age Permian ICS river Assel (Kazakhstan) Ruzhenchev, 1954
Astaracian 15 11.1 ELMMZ Miocene Europe The Astarac (France)
Asturian 305 age Carboniferous Europe Asturias
Atdabanian 530 524 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Atlantic 5,660 BP 9,220 BP chronozone Holocene Northern Europe the Atlantic Ocean Blytt, 1876
Atokan age Carboniferous North America
Aurelucian 460.9 457 age Ordovician Europe
Austinian age Cretaceous south and east of the US Austin, Texas Murray, 1961
Autunian ~300 ~275 age Carboniferous-Permian Europe Autun (France)
Avernian 29.2 23.03 ELMMZ Oligocene Europe
Awamoan 20.0 17.5 age Miocene New Zealand
Ayusokkanian 501.0 ± 2.0 494.5 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Azoic see Archean
Badenian[3] 16.3 12.8 age Miocene Paratethys Baden (Austria) Papp & Cicha, 1968
Baikalian 850 650 age Proterozoic Siberia Lake Baikal
Bairnsdalian 15.0 10.5 age Miocene Australia
Baishaean 433 429 age Silurian China
Bajocian 171.6 ± 3.0 167.7 ± 3.5 age Jurassic ICS Bayeux (France) d'Orbigny
Balcombian 15.5 15.0 age Miocene Australia
Baotan 460.9 454.5 age Ordovician China
Barremian 130.0 ± 1.5 125.0 ± 1.0 age Cretaceous ICS Barrême (France) Coquand, 1873
Barruelian age Carboniferous Europe
Barstovian 16.3 13.6 age Miocene North America
Bartonian 37.2 ± 0.1 40.4 ± 0.2 age Eocene ICS Barton-on-Sea (South England) Mayer-Eymar, 1857
Bashkirian 318.1 ± 1.3 311.7 ± 1.1 age Carboniferous ICS Bashkortostan
Basin Groups 1-9 4,150 3,850 subperiod Prenectarium Moon (unofficial) groups of impact basins
Batesfordian 16.5 15.5 age Miocene Australia
Bathonian 167.7 ± 3.5 164.7 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Bath (England)
Batyrbayan 491.5 488.3 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Bavel Interglacial 1.03 0.96 age Pleistocene Netherlands Bavel
Bavelian 1.03 0.85 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands Bavel
Baventian ~2.0 ~1.87 age Pleistocene Great Britain Easton Bavents (England) West, 1961
Bedoulian 129.97 125.0 sub-age Cretaceous regional
Beestonian 1.77 ~0.8 age Pleistocene Great Britain Beeston, Norfolk (England)
Belvédère Interglacial 0.338 0.324 age Pleistocene Netherlands quarry "Belvédère" (Maastricht)
Bendigonian 473.5 471.8 age Ordovician Australia Bendigo, Victoria
Berriasian 145.5 ± 4.0 140.2 ± 3.0 age Cretaceous ICS Berrias (France)
Biber Glacial ~2.5 2.35 age Pleistocene Alps river Biber (Germany)
Biber-Donau age Pleistocene Alps
Blancan 4.9 1.8 age Plio-Pleistocene North America
Black River(-an) age Ordovician) North America
Bolderian <21 >16 age Miocene Belgium (obsolete) Bolderberg Dumont, 1850
Bolindian 450 443.7 age Ordovician Australia
Bølling 13,730 BP 13,480 BP chronozone Weichselian Northern Europe Bølling Sø (Denmark)
Bolsovian age Carboniferous Europe Bolsover (England)
Boomerangian 504 501 age Cambrian Australia
Boreal 10,640 BP 9,220 BP chronozone Holocene Northern Europe boreal zone in ecology Blytt, 1876
Bortonian 43.0 37.0 age Eocene New Zealand Bortons
Botomian 524 518.5 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Bramertonian ~2.12 ~2.0 age Pleistocene Great Britain Bramerton Pits (England) Funnell, Norton, West and Mayhew, 1979
Bridgerian 50.3 46.2 age Eocene North America
Brigantian 336 326.4 ± 1.6 age Carboniferous North America, Europe Brigantes (Celtic tribe)
Brioverian ~680 ~600 age Neoproterozoic Armorican Massif, France
Brüggenian 2.588 2.4 chronozone Pleistocene Northwest Europe
Brunssumian 5.3 3.6 chronozone Pliocene Northwest Europe Brunssum (The Netherlands)
Bulitian 55.8 53 age Eocene California
Bumbanian 55.7 52.1 ALMA Eocene Asia
Buntsandstein[4] 251.0 ± 0.4 246.6[5] epoch/subperiod Triassic Europe German: bunte Sandstein = coloured sandstone Von Alberti, 1834
Burdigalian 20.43 15.97 age Miocene ICS Latin: Burdigala = Bordeaux (France) Depéret, 1892
Burrellian 457 455 age Ordovician Europe Glenburrell (England)
Burzyan 1,400 1,375 age Proterozoic Russia
Caerfai 542 ± 0.2 513 ± 2 age Cambrian Europe (obsolete) Caerfai Bay (Wales)
Calabrian 1.806 0.781 age Pleistocene Southern Europe Calabria
Callovian 164.7 ± 4.0 161.2 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Kellaways (England) d'Orbigny
Calymmian 1,600 1,400 period Proterozoic ICS
Cambrian 542.0 ± 1.0 488.3 ± 1.7 period Paleozoic ICS Cambria (Latin for Wales) Sedgwick, 1835
Campanian 83.5 ± 0.7 70.6 ± 0.6 age Cretaceous ICS Champagne (France) Coquand, 1857
Canadian epoch Ordovician North America
Cantabrian 305 age Carboniferous Europe
Capitanian 265.8 ± 0.7 260.4 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Capitan Reef (Texas, US)
Caradocian 460.9 449.5 epoch Ordovician Europe Caradoc (Welsh king) Murchison, 1839
Carboniferous 359.2 ± 2.5 299.0 ± 0.8 period Paleozoic ICS carbon Conybeare & Phillips, 1822
Carixian 189.6 ± 1.5 sub-age Jurassic regional
Carnian 228.0 ± 2.0 216.5 ± 2.0 age Triassic ICS Carnic Alps (Austria) Mojsisovics, 1869
Carpentarian 1,800 1,300 age Proterozoic Australia Gulf of Carpentaria
Casamajoran 54 48 age Eocene South America
Cassian 1.1 0.8 age Pleistocene Italy
Cassinian 473 471.8 sub-age Ordovician North America
Castlecliffian 1.63 0.34 age Pleistocene New Zealand Castlecliff
Castlemanian 471 470 age Ordovician Australia Castlemaine
Cautleyan 447.5 446.5 age Ordovician Europe Cautley Spout (England)
Cayugan 421.3 ± 2.6 416.0 ± 2.8 age Silurian North America
Cenomanian 99.6 ± 0.9 93.5 ± 0.8 age Cretaceous ICS Latin: Cenomanium = Le Mans (France) d'Orbigny, 1847
Cenozoic 65.5 ± 0.3 present era Phanerozoic ICS new life Phillips, 1847
Cernaysian 55.9 55.0 ELMMZ Paleocene Europe
Cisuralian 299.0 ± 0.8 270.6 ± 0.7 epoch Permian ICS
Chadian 345.3 ± 2.1 341 age Carboniferous regional
Chadronian 38.0 33.9 age Eocene North America
Chamovnicheskian 306 305 age Carboniferous Russia
Champlanian epoch Ordovician North America
Changhsingian 253.8 ±0.7 251.0 ± 0.4 age Permian ICS Changxing (China)
Changlangpuan 523 518 age Cambrian China
Changshanian 496.8 492.5 age Cambrian China
Chapadmalalan 4.0 3.0 age Pliocene South America
Chasicoan 10.0 9.0 age Miocene South America
Chatauquan 370 359.2 ± 2.5 age Devonian South America
Chattian 28.4 ± 0.1 23.03 age Oligocene ICS Chatti (ancient Germanic tribe) Fuchs, 1894
Chautauquan age Devonian North America
Chazyan age Ordovician North America
Cheltenhamian 5.0 4.3 age Pliocene Australia
Cheneyan 455 452 age Ordovician Europe
Cheremshankian 314.5 313.4 age Carboniferous Russia
Chesterian 333 318.1 age Carboniferous North America
Chewtonian 473 471 age Ordovician Australia
Chokierian 325 324.5 sub-age Carboniferous regional
Cincinnatian 451 443.7 ± 1.5 epoch Ordovician North America Cincinnati
Clansayesian 115.0 112.0 sub-age Cretaceous
Clarendonian 13.6 10.3 age Miocene North America
Clarkforkian 56.8 55.4 age Paleo-Eocene North America
Clifdenian 15.9 15.1 age Miocene New Zealand Clifden
Colhuehuapian 21.0 17.5 age Miocene South America
Colloncurian 15.5 12.0 age Miocene South America
Coniacian 89.3 ± 1.0 85.8 ± 0.7 age Cretaceous ICS Cognac (France) Coquand, 1857
Copernican 1,100 present period Moon Copernicus
Costonian 460.9 459 age Ordovician regional
Couvinian 397.5 ± 2.7 391.8 ± 2.7 age Devonian Belgium (obsolete) Couvin d'Omalius d'Halloy, 1862
Cressagian 488.3 ± 1.7 486 age Ordovician Europe
Cretaceous 145.5 ± 4.0 65.5 ± 0.3 period Mesozoic ICS Crete; Latin creta=chalk d'Omalius d'Halloy, 1822
Croixan epoch Cambrian North America
Cromerian 0.85 0.465 super-age/age Pleistocene Netherlands, Great Britain Cromer (England)
Cryogenian 850 635.5 ± 1.2[6] period Proterozoic ICS frozen beginning
Cryptic 4,567 4,150 epoch Prenectarian Moon (unofficial) hidden
Dacian 5.332 ± 0.005 3.600 ± 0.005 age Pliocene Paratethys Dacia (Roman province)
Dalanian (Dalaun) 313 310 age Carboniferous China
Danian 65.5 ± 0.3 61.7 ± 0.2 age Paleocene ICS Denmark Desor, 1847
Dannevirke 65.0 43.0 epoch Paleogene New Zealand Dannevirke
Dapingian 471.8 ± 1.6 468.1 ± 1.6 age Ordovician ICS Daping (China)
Darriwilian 468.1 ± 1.6 460.9 ± 1.6 age Ordovician ICS Darriwil (Australia) Hall, 1899
Datangian 345 333 age Carboniferous China
Datsonian 488.3 ± 1.7 485 age Ordovician Australia
Dawanian 472 471.8 age Ordovician North America
Deerparkian age Devonian North America
Delamaran 512 504 age Cambrian North America
Delmontian 7.5 2.9 age Plio-Miocene California
Demingian 478.6 475 sub-age Ordovician North America
Derryan 311.7 ± 1.1 308 age Carboniferous North America
Deseadan 29.0 21.0 age Oligo-Miocene South America
Desmoinesian age Carboniferous North America
Deurnian age Miocene Belgium (obsolete) Deurne de Heinzelin (1955)
Devensian 0.116 0.0115 age Pleistocene Great Britain Devenses, Celtic tribe by the Deva (England and Wales)
Devonian 416.0 ± 2.8 359.2 ± 2.5 period Paleozoic ICS Devon (England) Murchison & Sedgwick, 1839
Dewuan 333 318.1 ± 1.3 age Carboniferous China
Dinantian 359.2 ± 2.5 326.4 ± 1.6 epoch/sub-period Carboniferous Northern Europe Dinant
Dittonian 418 age Devonian Wales and England (obsolete) Ditton Priors, Shropshire, England
Divisaderan 42 36 age Eocene South America
Dogger[4] 175.6 ± 2.0 161.2 ± 4.0 epoch Jurassic Northern Europe dogger=ironrich sediment type
Dolgellian 492.5 488.3 ± 1.7 age Cambrian regional Dolgellau, Wales
Domerian 183.0 ± 1.5 sub-age Jurassic regional
Donau Glacial 1.7 1.35 age Pleistocene Alps river Danube
Donau-Günz >2.35 age Pleistocene Alps
Dorogomilovksian 305 303.9 ± 0.9 age Carboniferous regional
Drenthian 0.238 0.17 chronozone Pleistocene Northwest Europe Drenthe
Dresbachian 501 496.8 age Cambrian North America
Drumian 506.5 503 age Cambrian ICS Drum Mountains (Utah, US)
Duchesnean 42.0 38.0 age Eocene North America
Duckmantian age Carboniferous Europe Duckmanton Railway Cutting, England
Duntroonian 27.3 25.2 age Oligocene New Zealand Duntroon
Dyeran 524.5 512 age Cambrian North America
Eaglefordian age Cretaceous Gulf and Atlantic coast of the US Eagle Ford, Dallas, Texas Murray, 1961
Early Imbrian 3850 3800 period Moon Mare Imbrium
Eastonian 456 450 age Ordovician Australia
Eburonian 1.80 1.45 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands Eburones, Germanic tribe
Ectasian 1,400 1,200 period Proterozoic ICS
Edenian age Ordovician North America
Ediacaran 635.5 ± 1.2[6] 542.0 ± 1.0 period Proterozoic ICS Ediacara Hills (Australia)
Edmontonian 80.8 70.7 NALMA Cretaceous North America
Eemian 0.130 0.116 age Pleistocene Northern Europe river Eem (Netherlands) Harting, 1875
Eifelian 397.5 ± 2.7 391.8 ± 2.7 age Devonian ICS the Eifel (Germany) Beyrich, 1837
Egerian 25.8 20.3 age Oligo-Miocene Paratethys Eger (Hungary) Báldi & Seneš, 1968
Eggenburgian 20.8 18.3 age Miocene Paratethys Eggenburg (Austria) Steininger & Seneš, 1968
Eildonian 433 428.2 ± 2.3 age Silurian Australia
Elsterian 0.465 0.418 age Pleistocene Northern Europe river Weißen Elster (Germany)
Elvirian 326 324.5 age Carboniferous regional
Emilian 1.5 0.781 sub-age Pleistocene Italy
Emscherian 89.5 83.5 age Cretaceous Germany
Emsian 407.0 ± 2.8 397.5 ± 2.7 age Devonian ICS Bad Ems (Germany) de Dorlodot, 1900
Ensenadan 1.2 0.8 age Pleistocene South America
Eoarchean none 3.600 era ICS
Eocene 55.8 ± 0.2 33.9 ± 0.1 epoch Paleogene ICS earliest recent Lyell, 1847
Eratosthenian 3,200 1,100 period Moon Eratosthenes
Ergilian 35.1 33.8 ALMA Oligo-Eocene Asia
Erian 391.8 ± 2.7 388 age Devonian North America
Famennian 374.5 ± 2.6 359.2 ± 2.5 age Devonian ICS the Famenne (Belgium) Dumont, 1855
Fassanian 237 ± 2.0 233 sub-age Triassic Europe
Fengshanian 492.5 488.3 ± 1.7 age Cambrian China
Fennian 473 471.8 age Ordovician Europe
Festiniogian 496.8 492.5 age Cambrian regional
Flaminian 0.5 0.3 age Pleistocene Italy
Flandrian 0.01 present age Holocene Western Europe (obsolete) Flanders Rutot & Van den Broeck, 1885
Floian 478.6 ± 1.7 471.8 ± 1.6 age Ordovician ICS Flo (Sweden)
Florian 508 504 age Cambrian Australia
Fortunian 542.0 ± 1.0 528 age Cambrian ICS Fortune Head (Canada)
Franconian 496.8 492.5 age Cambrian North America
Frasnian 385.3 ± 2.6 374.5 ± 2.6 age Devonian ICS Frasne (Belgium) d'Omalius d'Halloy, 1862
Friasian 16.3 15.5 age Miocene South America
Fujian 11.1 9.5 age Miocene Japan
Fupingan 3,100 2,600 age Archaean China
Furongian 501.0 ± 2.0 488.3 ± 1.7 epoch Cambrian ICS Furong (China)
Gallic 130.0 ± 1.5 89.3 ± 1.0 epoch Cretaceous obsolete
Gargasian 121.0 115.0 sub-age Cretaceous regional
Gashatan 56.9 55.7 ALMA Paleo-Eocene Asia
Gaultian sub-age Cretaceous regional
Gedinian 416.0 ± 2.8 411.2 ± 2.8 age Devonian Belgium (obsolete) Gedinne Dumont, 1848
Geiseltalian 48.5 42.7 ELMMZ Eocene Europe
Gelasian 2.588 1.806 age Pleistocene ICS Gela (Italy) Rio et al., 1998
Geringian 30.8 26.3 age Oligocene North America
Gisbornian 460.9 456 age Ordovician Australia
Givetian 391.8 ± 2.7 385.3 ± 2.6 age Devonian ICS Givet (France) d'Omalius d'Halloy, 1839
Gleedonian 425.4 422.9 ± 2.5 age Silurian regional
Gorstian 422.9 ± 2.5 421.3 ± 2.6 age Silurian ICS Gorsty (farm at Ludlow, England) Holland et al., 1980
Gramian 10.3 8.5 age Miocene Northern Germany
Grauvian 50.8 48.5 ELMMZ Eocene Europe
Guadalupian 270.6 ± 0.7 260.4 ± 0.7 epoch Permian ICS Guadalupe Mountains (Texas, US)
Guandian 425.5 422 age Silurian China
Gulf(-ian) epoch Cretaceous south and east of the US the Mexican Gulf
Günz Glacial 2.35 age Pleistocene Alps river Günz (Germany)
Günz-Mindel age Pleistocene Alps
Gushanian 596.8 501 age Cambrian China
Guzhangian 503 499 age Cambrian ICS Guzhang (China)
Gzhelian 303.9 ± 0.9 299.0 ± 0.8 age Carboniferous ICS Gzhel (Russia)
Hadean none 4000 eon ICS Hades, hell Cloud, 1972
Hadrynian 850 542 age Neoproterozoic North America
Hallian ~10.000 0 age Holocene California
Haranoyan 18.2 15.97 age Miocene Japan
Harnagian 459 458 age Ordovician regional
Harrisonian 24.8 20.6 age Oligo-Miocene North America
Hastarian 359.2 ± 2.5 348 age Carboniferous regional
Haumurian 84 65.5 age Cretaceous New Zealand
Hautawan 3.1 2.2 sub-age Plio-Pleistocene New Zealand
Hauterivian 136.4 ± 2.0 130.0 ± 1.5 age Cretaceous ICS Hauterive (Switzerland) Renevier, 1873
Haweran 0.01 present age Holocene New Zealand
Headonian 37.2 33.8 ELMMZ Oligo-Eocene Europe
Helikian 1,600 850 age Proterozoic North America
Hemingfordian 20.6 16.3 age Miocene North America
Hemmoorian age Miocene Northern Germany
Hemphillian 10.3 4.9 age Mio-Pliocene North America
Heretaungan 49.5 46.2 age Eocene New Zealand
Hesperian ~3,500 ~1,800 Martian epoch Mars Hesperia Planum
Hettangian 199.6 ± 0.6 196.5 ± 1.0 age Jurassic ICS Hettange-Grande (France) Renevier, 1864
Hirnantian 445.6 ± 1.5 443.7 ± 1.5 age Ordovician ICS Cwm Hirnant (Wales) Bancroft, 1933
Holkerian 339 337.5 age Carboniferous regional
Holocene 11,800 BP present epoch Quaternary ICS Greek: totally new Gervais, 1867
Holsteinian 0.418 0.386 age Pleistocene Northern Europe Holstein (Germany)
Homerian 426.2 ± 2.4 422.9 ± 2.5 age Silurian ICS Homer (England) Bassett et al., 1975
Honghuayuanian 478.6 472 age Ordovician China
Houldjinian 37.2 33.9 ALMA Asia
Houthalenian <21 >16 age Miocene Belgium (obsolete) Houthalen Hirsch, 1952
Hoxnian 0.418 0.386 age Pleistocene Great Britain Hoxne (Suffolk) West & Donner, 1956
Hsandgolian 33.8 24.0 ALMA Oligocene Asia
Huashibanian 318.1 ± 1.3 313 age Carboniferous China
Huayquerian 9.0 6.8 age Miocene South America
Hutchinsonian 21 20 age Miocene New Zealand
Huronian 2,500 1,400 age Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete)
Ibexian ~505 471.8 age Cambrian-Ordovician North America
Icenian 2.4 ~2 age Pleistocene Netherlands, England (obsolete) Iceni, ancient tribe (England) Pannekoek, 1956
Idamean 497 494 age Cambrian Australia
Ilfordian age Pleistocene British Isles Ilford (England)
Illinoian 0.17 0.125 age Pleistocene North America
Illyrian 240 ± 2.0 237 ± 2.0 sub-age Triassic Europe
Imbrian 3,850 3,200 period Moon Mare Imbrium
Induan 251.0 ± 0.4 249.7 ± 0.7 age Triassic ICS river Indus Kiparisova & Popov, 1956
Ionian 0.781 0.126 age Pleistocene Southern Europe Ionian Sea (between Greece and Italy)
Ipswichian 0.130 0.116 age Pleistocene Great Britain Ipswich (England) West, 1957
Irdinmanhan 46.2 40.4 ALMA Eocene Asia
Irvingtonian 1.8 age Pleistocene North America Irvington
Isuan 3,800 3,500 age Archaean Europe
Itaboraian 59 57 age Paleocene South America
Ivorean 348 345.3 ± 2.1 age Carboniferous regional
Jacksonian age Eocene southern US
Janjukian 30.0 27.5 age Oligocene Australia
Jinningian 1,750 800 age Proterozoic China
Jiusian age Carboniferous China
Johannian 48 35 age Eocene Australia
Judithian 82.2 80.8 NALMA Cretaceous North America
Julian 229.6 ± 2.0 222.5 sub-age Triassic Europe
Jurassic 199.6 ± 0.6 145.5 ± 4.0 period Mesozoic ICS Jura mountains Brongniart
Jeffersonian 475 473 sub-age Ordovician North America
Kaburan 13.5 11.1 age Miocene Japan
Kaiatan 37.0 36.0 age Eocene New Zealand
Kalimnan 4.3 3.4 age Pliocene Australia
Kansan 0.48 0.26 age Pleistocene North America
Kapitean 6.5 5.0 age Miocene New Zealand
Karatau 1,100 800 age Proterozoic Russia
Karoo Ice Age ~360 ~260 ice age Phanerozoic Karoo (South Africa)
Karpatian 17.0 16.0 age Miocene Paratethys the Carpathian Mountains Cicha et al., 1967
Kashirskian 309.2 308.0 age Carboniferous Russia
Kasimovian 306.5 ± 1.0 303.9 ± 0.9 age Carboniferous ICS Kasimov (Russia)
Kasterlian ~4.7 ~3.6 age Pliocene Belgium (obsolete) Kasterlee Dumont, 1882
Katian 455.8 ± 1.6 445.6 ± 1.5 age Ordovician ICS Lake Katy (Oklahoma, US)
Kattendijkian ~5 ~3.6 age Pliocene Belgium (obsolete) Kattendijke Glibert & de Heinzelin, 1957
Kazanian age Permian Russia
Kechienjian 1.9 1.5 age Pleistocene Japan
Keiloran 443.7 ± 1.5 433 age Silurian Australia
Kekeamuan 28.4 33.9 ALMA Asia
Keuper[4] ±230 199.6 epoch Triassic Europe Von Alberti, 1834
Kimmeridgian 155.7 ± 4.0 150.8 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Kimmeridge (England) d'Orbigny
Kinderhookian 359.2 ± 2.5 348 age Carboniferous North America
Kinderscoutian 318.1 ± 1.3 317 age Carboniferous regional Kinder Scout (England)
Kirkfield 458 457 age Ordovician regional
Kiscellian 25.8 age Oligocene Paratethys
Klazminskian 303.9 ± 0.9 300.5 age Carboniferous regional
Korangan 117.5 108.4 age Cretaceous New Zealand
Krevyakinskian 306.5 306 age Carboniferous Russia
Kryzhanovan 1.9 1.2 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe
Kungurian 275.6 ± 0.7 270.6 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS Kungur (Russia)
Lacian 217.4 ± 2.0 211 sub-age Europe
Ladinian 237.0 ± 2.0 228.0 ± 2.0 age Triassic ICS Ladini, people in northern Italy Bittner, 1892
Lancefieldian 482 475 age Ordovician Australia
Lancian 70.7 65.5 NALMA Cretaceous North America
Landenian <60 >55 age Paleocene Western Europe (obsolete) Landen (Belgium) Dumont, 1839
Landon 34.3 21.7 epoch Paleo-Neogene New Zealand
Langenfeldian age Miocene Northern Germany
Langhian 15.97 13.65 age Miocene ICS Serravalle Langhe (Italy) Pareto, 1864
Langsettian 314.5 313.4 age Carboniferous regional Langsett (England)
Latdorfian age Oligocene Germany
Laventan 13.8 12.0 age Miocene South America
Leonardian age Permian North America
Lias[4] 199.6 ± 0.6 175.6 ± 2.0 epoch Jurassic Northern Europe unclear
Likhvinian 0.3 0.18 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe
Lillburnian 15.1 12.7 age Miocene New Zealand
Linxiangian 454.5 449 age Ordovician China
Lishihhuangtuan 1.2 0.1 age Pleistocene China
Livian 335 331 age Carboniferous Belgium (obsolete) Lives
Llandeilo (Llandeilean) epoch/age Ordovician Europe Llandeilo (Wales) Murchison, 1835
Llandovery 443.7 ± 1.5 428.2 ± 2.3 epoch Silurian ICS Llandovery (Wales) Murchison, 1859
Llanvirn(-ian) epoch Ordovician Europe Hicks, 1875
Lochkovian 416.0 ± 2.8 411.2 ± 2.8 age Devonian ICS Lochkov (Czech Republic)
Longfordian 27.5 16.5 age Oligo-Miocene Australia
Longmaxian 443.7 ± 1.5 438 age Silurian China
Longobardian 233 229.6 ± 2.0 sub-age Triassic Europe
Longvillian 457 455 age Ordovician regional Cheney Longville (England)
Longwangmioan 518 513 age Cambrian China
Lopingian 260.4 ± 0.7 251.0 ± 0.4 epoch Permian ICS Loping (China)
Lotharingian 193.3 ± 0.7 189.6 ± 0.7 substage Jurassic
Ludfordian 421.3 ± 2.6 418.7 ± 2.7 age Silurian ICS Ludford (England) Holland et al., 1980
Ludhamian ~2.52 ~2.25 age Pleistocene Great Britain Ludham (England)
Ludian age Eocene western Europe de Lapparent, 1893
Ludlovian 422.9 ± 2.5 418.7 ± 2.7 epoch Silurian ICS Ludlow (England) Murchison, 1854
Luisian 15.5 13.5 age Miocene California
Lujanian 0.8 0.3 age Pleistocene South America
Luliangian 2,350 1,750 age Proterozoic China
Luosuan 318.1 ~314 age Carboniferous China
Lutetian 48.6 ± 0.2 40.4 ± 0.2 age Eocene ICS Latin: Lutetia=Paris (France) de Lapparent, 1883
Maastrichtian 70.6 ± 0.6 65.5 ± 0.3 age Cretaceous ICS Maastricht (Netherlands) Dumont, 1849
Maentwrogian 501 496.8 age Cambrian regional Maentwrog (Wales)
Malanghuangtuan 0.1 0.01 age Pleistocene China
Malm[4] 161.2 ± 4.0 145.5 ± 4.0 epoch Jurassic Europe Old English: malm = calcareous soil
Mangaorapan 53.0 49.5 age Eocene New Zealand
Mangaotanean 92.1 89.1 age Cretaceous New Zealand
Mangapanian 3.00 2.40 age Plio-Pleistocene New Zealand
Maozhangian 513 509 age Cambrian China
Mapingian 310 299.0 ± 0.8 age Carboniferous China
Marahuan 2.2 1.8 sub-age Pleistocene New Zealand
Marjuman 504 494.5 age Cambrian North America
Marsdenian 317 315.5 age Carboniferous regional Marsden, West Yorkshire, England
Marshbrookian 455 454 age Ordovician regional Marshbrook (England)
Mayan 502 501 ± 2.0 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Mayanan 1100 850 age Proterozoic Siberia
Mayoian 12.0 10.0 age Miocene South America
Mayvillian 453 447.5 age Ordovician North America
Medinan age Silurian North America
Meishuchuan 542 532 age Cambrian China
Melbournian 428.2 ± 2.3 416.0 ± 2.8 age Silurian Australia Melbourne
Melekesskian 313.4 311.7 age Carboniferous Russia
Menapian 1.03 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands Menapii, Germanic tribe
Meramecian 340 333 age Carboniferous North America
Merioneth 501 ± 2 488.3 ± 1.7 epoch Cambrian Europe (obsolete) Merioneth (Wales)
Merksemian ~2.5 ~2 age Pleistocene Belgium (obsolete) Merksem de Heinzelin, 1958
Mesoarchean 3,200 2,800 era Archean ICS
Mesoproterozoic 1,600 1,000 era ICS
Mesozoic 251.0 ± 0.7 65.5 ± 0.3 era ICS middle life
Messinian 7.246 5.332 age Miocene ICS Messina (Italy) Mayer-Eymar, 1867
Miaogoalingian 422 418.7 age Silurian China
Migneintian 486 478.6 ± 1.7 age Ordovician Europe
Mindel 0.85 0.465 age Pleistocene Alps river Mindel (Germany)
Mindel-Riss 0.465 0.238 age Pleistocene Alps
Mindyallan 501 497 age Cambrian Australia
Miocene 23.03 5.332 epoch Neogene ICS Greek: less recent Lyell, 1847
Mississippian 359.2 ± 2.5 318.1 ± 1.3 epoch Carboniferous ICS Mississippi River (US)
Missourian age Carboniferous North America
Mitchellian 10.5 5.0 age Plio-Miocene Australia
Mohawkian 462 451 epoch Ordovician North America
Mohnian 13.5 7.5 age Miocene California
Mokolian 2,050 900 age Proterozoic South Africa
Monroecreekian 26.3 24.8 age Oligocene North America Monroe Creek
Montehermosan 6.8 4.0 age Plio-Miocene South America
Montezuman 529.5 524.5 age Cambrian North America
Montian ~65 ~61 age Paleocene Europe (obsolete) Mons (Belgium) Dewalque, 1868
Moridunian 478.6 ± 1.7 475 age Ordovician Europe Moridunum (Wales)
Morozovan 0.8 0.5 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe
Morrowan age Carboniferous North America
Moscovian 311.7 ± 1.1 306.5 ± 1.0 age Carboniferous ICS Moscow (Russia)
Motuan 103.3 100.2 age Cretaceous New Zealand
Muschelkalk[4] 243 ± 2 235 ± 2 epoch Triassic Europe German: limestone with mussels Füchsel, 1761
Mustersan 48 42 age Eocene South America
Myachkovskian 307.2 306.5 age Carboniferous Russia
Namibian 900 542 age Neoproterozoic South Africa Namibia
Namurian 326.4 313.0 age Carboniferous Europe Namur (Belgium) Purves, 1883
Nanzian 48 35 age Eocene California
Navarroan age Cretaceous-Paleocene south and east of the US Navarro, Texas Murray, 1961
Nebraskian 0.93 0.6 age Pleistocene North America (obsolete)
Nectarian 3920 3850 period Moon Mare Nectaris
Needian 0.42 0.38 age Pleistocene Netherlands (obsolete) Neede
Nemakit-Daldynian 542 534 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Neoarchean 2,800 2,500 era Archean ICS
Neocomian 145.5 125.0/130.0 epoch obsolete Neocomium, Latin name for Neuchâtel
Neogene 23.0 2.588 period Cenozoic ICS Hoernes, 1856
Neoproterozoic 1,000 542.0 ± 1.0 era ICS
Neporatan 2.5 1.7 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe
Neustrian 55.0 50.8 ELMMZ Paleo-Eocene Europe
Ngaterian 100.2 95.2 age Cretaceous New Zealand
Niagaran age Silurian North America
Noachian none ~3,500 Martian epoch Mars Noachis Terra
Noginskian 300.5 299.0 ± 0.8 age Carboniferous Russia
Nomentanan 0.24 0.13 age Pleistocene Italy
Nongshanian 62.9 56.9 ALMA Paleocene Asia
Norian 216.5 ± 2.0 203.6 ± 1.5 age Triassic ICS Noric Alps (Austria)
Nukumaruan 3.1 1.8 age Pleistocene New Zealand
Nullaginian 2,500 1,800 age Proterozoic Australia
Ochoan age Permian North America
Odessan 1.2 0.8 age Pleistocene Eastern Europe
Okaian 0.5 0.3 sub-age Ordovician North America
Okehuan 1.1 0.37 age Pleistocene New Zealand
Older Dryas 13,480 BP 13,350 BP chron Weichselian Europe Dryas octopetala (plant)
Oldest Dryas 13,860 13,780 chron Weichselian Europe Dryas octopetala (plant)
Olenekian 249.5 245.9 age Triassic ICS river Olenyok (Siberia)
Oligocene 33.9 ± 0.1 23.03 epoch Paleogene ICS "not so recent" Beyrich, 1857
Onnian 453 449 age Ordovician regional River Onny (England)
Oostermeer Interglacial 0.243 0.238 age Pleistocene Netherlands Oostermeer
Opoitian 5.0 3.8 age Pliocene New Zealand
Ordian 520 510 age Cambrian Australia
Ordovician 488.3 ± 1.7 443.7 ± 1.5 period Paleozoic ICS Ordovices, Celtic tribe Lapworth, 1879
Orellan 33.9 33.3 age Oligocene North America
Orleanian 20.4 15 ELMMZ Miocene Europe Orléans (France)
Orosirian 2,050 1,800 period Proterozoic ICS
Osagean age Carboniferous North America
Otaian 21.7 19.0 age Miocene New Zealand
Ottnangian 18.3 17.0 age Miocene Paratethys Ottnang am Hausruck (Austria) Papp & Rögl, 1967
Oxfordian 161.2 ± 4.0 155.0 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Oxford (England) d’Orbigny
Paibian 501.0 ± 2.0 496 age Cambrian ICS Paibi (China)
Paleoarchean 3,600 3,200 era Archean ICS
Paleocene 65.5 ± 0.3 55.8 ± 0.2 epoch Paleogene ICS oldest recent Schimper, 1847
Paleophytic ~450 ~270 era paleobotany old flora
Paleogene 65.5 ± 0.3 23.0 period Cenozoic ICS Hoernes, 1856
Paleoproterozoic 2,500 1,600 era ICS
Paleozoic 542.0 ± 1.0 251.0 ± 0.7 era ICS old life
Pannonian 11.608 ± 0.005 7.246 ± 0.005 age Miocene Paratethys Pannonia (Roman province) Roth von Telegd, 1879
Pareora 21.7 15.9 epoch Neogene New Zealand
Pastonian ~1.87 1.77 age Pleistocene Great Britain Paston, Norfolk (England)
Payntonian 491 488.3 ± 1.7 age Cambrian Australia
Peligran 62.5 59 age Paleocene South America
Pendleian 326.4 ± 1.6 326 age Carboniferous regional Pendle Hill (England)
Pennsylvanian 318.1 ± 1.3 299.0 ± 0.8 epoch Carboniferous ICS Pennsylvania (US)
Penutian 53 51 age Eocene California
Permian 299.0 ± 0.8 251.0 ± 0.4 period Paleozoic ICS Perm (Russia) Murchison, 1849
Phanerozoic 542.0 ± 1.0 present eon ICS visible life
Piacenzian 3.600 2.588 age Pliocene ICS Piacenza (Italy) Mayer-Eymar, 1858
Piripauan 86.5 84 age Cretaceous New Zealand
Pleistocene 2.588 0.0117 epoch Quaternary ICS youngest recent
Pleniglacial 73,000 BP 14,500 BP sub-age Pleistocene Northern Europe
Pliensbachian 189.6 ± 1.5 183.0 ± 1.5 age Jurassic ICS Pliensbach (Germany) Oppel, 1858
Pliocene 5.332 2.588 epoch Neogene ICS newer recent Lyell, 1847
Podolskian 308 307.2 age Carboniferous Russia
Poederlian ~3.5 ~2.5 age Pliocene Belgium (obsolete) Poederlee Vincent, 1889
Pontian 7.246 ± 0.005 5.332 ± 0.005 epoch Miocene Paratethys Pontus Euxinus, Latin name for the Black Sea Le Play, 1842
Pontinian 0.1 0.01 age Pleistocene Italy
Porangan 46.2 43.0 age Eocene New Zealand
Portlandian age Jurassic British Isles Isle of Portland (England)
Potsdamian 501 ± 2 488.3 ± 1.7 epoch Cambrian Germany
Poundian 570 542 ± 0.3 age Cambrian Australia
Pragian 411.2 ± 2.8 407.0 ± 2.8 age Devonian ICS Prague (Czech Republic)
Preboreal 11,560 BP 10,640 BP chron Northern Europe before the Boreal
Precambrian none 542.0 ± 1.0 none (before: eon) worldwide before the Cambrian
Pre-Illinoian age Pleistocene North America before the Illinoian
Preludhamian ~2.52 ~2.61 age Plio-Pleistocene Great Britain before the Ludhamian
Prenectarian 4567 3850 period Moon before the Nectarian
Prepastonian ~2.0 ~1.87 age Pleistocene Great Britain before the Pastonian
Pretiglian 2.588 2.40 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands before the Tiglian Tegelen (The Netherlands) Van der Vlerk, 1948
Priabonian 37.2 ± 0.1 33.9 ± 0.1 age Eocene ICS Priabona (Italy) Munier-Chalmas & De Lapparent, 1893
Pridoli(an) 418.7 ± 2.7 416.0 ± 2.8 epoch Silurian ICS Přidoli (Czech Republic)
Proterozoic 2,500 542.0 ± 1.0 eon ICS
Puercan 65.5 63.3 age Paleocene-Cretaceous North America
Purbeckian age Cretaceous-Jurassic England (obsolete) Isle of Purbeck (England)
Pusgillian 449 447.5 age Ordovician Europe Pus Gill, Cumbria (England) Dean, 1959
Putikian 0.37 0.01 age Pleistocene New Zealand
Quaternary 2.588 present period Cenozoic ICS fourth part Arduino, 1760
Qungzusian 532 523 age Cambrian China
Rancholabrean age Pleistocene North America
Randian 3,000 2,500 age Archaean South Africa
Rawtheyan 446.5 445.5 age Ordovician Europe River Rawthey (England)
Refugian 35.0 33.5 age Oligo-Eocene California
Reinbekian age Miocene Northern Germany
Relizian 16.5 13.5 age Miocene California
Repettian 2.9 2.2 age Plio-Pleistocene California
Reuverian 3.5 2.558 chronozone Pliocene Northwest Europe Reuver (The Netherlands)
Rhaetian 203.6 ± 1.5 199.6 ± 0.6 age Triassic ICS Rhaetian Alps (Switzerland, Austria, Italy)
Rhuddanian 443.7 ± 1.5 439.0 ± 1.8 age Silurian ICS Cwm-Rhuddian (Wales)
Rhyacian 2,300 2,050 period Proterozoic ICS
Richmondian 449 445.6 ± 1.5 age Ordovician North America
Riochican 57 54 age Eo-Paleocene South America
Riphean 1,650 650 age Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete)
Riss Glacial 0.238 0.128 age Pleistocene Alps river Riß (Germany)
Riss-Würm Interglacial 0.128 0.116 age Pleistocene Alps
Roadian 270.6 ± 0.7 268.0 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS
Robiacian 42.7 37.2 ELMMZ Miocene Europe
Romanian 3.6 1.8 age Plio-Pleistocene Paratethys
Rotliegend(-es)[4] 299 270.6 sub-period Permian unofficial German for "Red foot wall". A traditional copper mining term in the Mansfelder Land for the red oreless sandstone below the Kupferschiefer.
Runangan 36.0 34.3 age Eo-Oligocene New Zealand
Rupelian 33.9 ± 0.1 28.4 ± 0.1 age Oligocene ICS river Rupel (Belgium) Dumont, 1850
Ruscinian 4.9 3.5 ELMMZ Pliocene Europe Ruscino, Latin for the Roussillon (France) Kretzoi, 1962
Saalian 0.238 0.128 age Pleistocene Northern Europe river Saale (Germany)
Sakian 494.5 493 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Sakmarian 294.6 ± 0.8 284.4 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS river Sakmara (Russia) Karpinski, 1874
Sandbian 460.9 ± 1.6 455.8 ± 1.6 age Ordovician ICS Sandby, Sweden
Sangamonian 0.125 0.075 age Pleistocene North America
Santacrucian 17.5 16.3 age Miocene South America
Santomian 1.81 1.5 sub-age Pleistocene Italy
Santonian 85.8 ± 0.7 83.5 ± 0.7 age Cretaceous ICS Saintes (France) Coquand, 1873
Sarmatian 12.7 11.6 age Miocene Paratethys Sarmatians (ancient people) Suess, 1866
Saxonian ~290 ~258 age Permian Europe (obsolete) Saxony
Saucesian 22.0 16.5 age Miocene California
Scaldisian ~4 ~2.5 age Pliocene Belgium (obsolete) Scaldus, Latin name for the river Scheldt Dumont, 1850
Scythian 251 ± 0.2 245 ± 1.5 Epoch Early Triassic Europe Scythia
Selandian 61.7 ± 0.2 58.7 ± 0.2 age Paleocene ICS Seeland (Denmark) Rosenkrantz, 1924
Senecan 388 370 age Devonian North America
Senonian 89.3 65.5 epoch Cretaceous unofficial Sens (France) d'Orbigny
Serpukhovian 326.4 ± 1.6 318.1 ± 1.3 age Carboniferous ICS Serpukhov (Russia)
Serravallian 13.65 11.608 age Miocene ICS Serravalle Scrivia (Italy) Pareto, 1864
Sevatian 206 202.3 ± 1.5 sub-age Triassic Europe
Shanghuan 65.5 62.9 ALMA Paleocene Asia
Shangsian 318.1 age Carboniferous China
Shaodongian 359.2 ± 2.5 349.5 age Carboniferous China
Sharamurunian 40.4 37.2 ALMA Eocene Asia
Sheinwoodian 428.2 ± 2.3 426.2 ± 2.4 age Silurian ICS Sheinwood (England) Basset et al., 1975
Shermanian 457 454 age Ordovician regional
Shinulanian 438 433 age Silurian China
Sicilian 0.781 0.260 sub-age Pleistocene Italy Sicily
Siderian 2,500 2,300 period Proterozoic ICS
Silesian 326.4 299.0 subperiod Carboniferous Europe Silesia
Siegenian age Devonian North America, Europe
Silurian 443.7 ± 1.5 416.0 ± 2.8 period Paleozoic ICS Silures, Celtic tribe Murchison, 1835
Sinemurian 196.5 ± 1.0 189.6 ± 1.5 age Jurassic ICS Semur-en-Auxois (France) d'Orbigny, 1842
Sinian 800 542 age Neoproterozoic China
Soudleyan 458 457 age Ordovician regional Soudley (England)
Southland 15.9 10.9 epoch Neogene New Zealand
Springerian age Carboniferous North America
St. David's 513 ± 2 501 ± 2 epoch Cambrian Europe (obsolete) St Davids (Wales)
Stampian age Oligocene western Europe Étampes (France) d'Orbigny, 1852
Statherian 1,800 1,600 period Proterozoic ICS
Stenian 1,200 1,000 period Proterozoic ICS
Stephanian 303.9 299.0 age Carboniferous Europe Saint-Étienne (France) Mayer-Eymar, 1878
Steptoan 494.5 493 age Cambrian North America
Streffordian 452 449 age Ordovician Europe Strefford (England)
Sturtian ~730 age Neoproterozoic worldwide, unofficial
Subatlantic 2400 BP 0 chron Holocene Northern Europe
Subboreal 5660 BP 2400 BP chron Holocene Northern Europe
Suchian 3.0 1.9 age Plio-Pleistocene Japan
Suevian 33.8 29.2 ELMMZ Oligocene Europe
Sunwaptan 493 491 age Cambrian North America
Susterian 8.5 5.3 chronozone Miocene Northwest Europe Susteren (The Netherlands)
Swazian 4,000 3,000 age Archaean South Africa
Syltian age Miocene Northern Germany
Tabenbulakian 24.0 23.03 ALMA Oligocene Asia
Tangbagouan 359.2 age Carboniferous China
Taranaki 10.9 5.28 epoch Neogene New Zealand
Tarantian 0.15 0.0115 age Pleistocene Southern Europe Tarento (Italy)
Tatarian age Permian Russia Tatarstan
Taxandrian 1.80 0.418 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands (obsolete)
Tayloran age Cretaceous south and west of the US Taylor, Texas Murray, 1961
Telychian 436.0 ± 1.9 428.2 ± 2.3 age Silurian ICS Pen-lan-Telych (Wales) Cocks et al. 1973
Templetonian 510 508 age Cambrian Australia
Teratan 89.1 86.5 age Cretaceous New Zealand
Terreneuvian 542.0 ± 1.0 521 epoch Cambrian ICS Terre-Neuve, French name for Newfoundland
Tertiary 65.5 ± 0.3 2.588 sub-era Cenozoic[7] worldwide third part Arduino, 1760
Teurian 65.0 55.5 age Paleocene New Zealand
Thanetian 58.7 ± 0.2 55.8 ± 0.2 age Paleocene ICS Isle of Thanet (England) Renevier, 1874
Thuringian 285 251 age Permian) Europe (obsolete) Thuringia (Germany)
Thurnian ~2.25 ~2.12 age Pleistocene Great Britain River Thurne (England} West, 1961
Tiffanian 60.2 56.8 age Paleocene North America
Tiglian 2.40 1.80 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands Tegelen (The Netherlands)
Tinguirirican 36 29 age Oligo-Eocene South America
Tithonian 150.8 ± 4.0 145.5 ± 4.0 age Jurassic ICS Tithon (Greek mythology) Oppel, 1865
Tiupampan 64.5 62.5 age Paleocene South America Tiupampa Marshall & de Muizon, 1988
Toarcian 183.0 ± 1.5 175.6 ± 2.0 age Jurassic ICS Thouars (France) d'Orbigny, 1849
Toyonian 518.5 513.0 ± 2.0 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Tommotian 534 530 age Cambrian Russia, Kazakhstan
Tongaporutuan 10.9 6.5 age Miocene New Zealand
Tongrian age Oligocene western Europe
Tonian 1,000 850 period Proterozoic ICS
Torrejonian 63.3 60.2 age Paleocene North America
Tortonian 11.608 7.246 age Miocene ICS Tortona (Italy) Mayer-Eymar, 1858
Totomian 3.6 3.0 age Pliocene Japan
Tournaisian 359.2 ± 2.5 345.3 ± 2.1 age Carboniferous ICS Tournai (Belgium) Dumont, 1832
Tozawan 15.97 13.5 age Miocene Japan
Treenean 0.15 0.17 chronozone Pleistocene Northwest Europe
Tremadoc(-ian) 488.3 ± 1.7 478.6 ± 1.7 epoch Ordovician ICS Tremadoc Bay (Wales) Sedgwick, 1846
Trempealeauan 492.5 488.3 ± 1.7 age Cambrian North America
Trentonian age Carboniferous North America
Triassic 251.0 ± 0.4 199.6 ± 0.6 period Mesozoic ICS threefold Von Alberti, 1834
Tubantian 0.116 0.0115 age Pleistocene Netherlands (obsolete) Van der Vlerk & Florschütz, 1950
Turolian 8.7 4.9 ELMMZ Mio-Pliocene Europe Turolium, Latin for Teruel (Spain) Crusafont, 1965
Turonian 93.5 ± 0.8 89.3 ± 1.0 age Cretaceous ICS Tours (France) d'Orbigny, 1842
Tuvalian 222.5 217.4 ± 2.0 sub-age Triassic Europe
Tyrrhenian 0.26 0.01143 sub-age Pleistocene Italy Tyrrhenian Sea Issel, 1914
Ufimian 268 270,6 age Permian obsolete
Uintan 46.2 42.0 age Eocene North America
Ulangochuian 37.2 35.1 ALMA Eocene Asia
Ulatisian 51 48 age Eocene California
Ulsterian age Devonian North America
Undillian 506 504 age Cambrian Australia
Uquian 3.0 1.2 age Plio-Pleistocene South America Uquia (Argentina) Castellanos, 1923
Urutawan 108.4 103.3 age Cretaceous New Zealand
Vaalian 2,500 2,050 age Proterozoic South Africa
Valanginian 140.2 ± 3.0 136.4 ± 2.0 age Cretaceous ICS Valangin (Switzerland) Desor, 1853
Vallesian 11.1 8.7 ELMMZ Miocene Europe The Vallès (Spain) Crusafont, 1950
Vendian ~610 542.0 ± 1.0 subera Proterozoic worldwide (obsolete)
Venturian 2.2 1.9 age Pleistocene California
Vereiskian 311.7 ± 1.1 309.2 age Carboniferous Russia
Vierlandian age Miocene Northern Germany
Vicksburgian age Oligocene southern US
Villafranchian 3.5 1.1 ELMMZ Plio-Pleistocene Europe
Virgilian age Carboniferous North America
Visean 345.3 ± 2.1 326.4 ± 1.6 age Carboniferous ICS Visé (Belgium) Dumont, 1832
Vraconian sub-age Cretaceous regional
Waalian 1.45 1.20 super-age Pleistocene Netherlands river Waal
Waiauan 12.7 10.9 age Miocene New Zealand
Waipawan 55.5 53.0 age Eocene New Zealand
Waipipian 3.60 3.00 age Pliocene New Zealand
Waitakian 25.2 21.7 age Oligo-Miocene New Zealand
Waitotaran 3.8 3.1 sub-age Pliocene New Zealand
Waltonian ~2.52 age Pliocene Great Britain Walton-on-the-Naze Harmer,
Wanganui 5.28 present epoch Neogene-Quaternary New Zealand Wanganui
Wangerripian age Paleo-Eocene Australia
Warendian 485 478.6 age Ordovician Australia
Warthian 0.15 0.13 chronozone Pleistocene Northwest Europe
Wasatchian 55.4 50.3 age Eocene North America
Waucoban epoch Cambrian North America
Weichselian 0.116 0.0115 age Northern Europe Weichsel, German name for the river Vistula (Poland)
Wenlock(-ian) 428.2 ± 2.3 422.9 ± 2.5 epoch Silurian ICS Much Wenlock (England) Murchison, 1833
Werrikooian 1.00 1.806 age Pleistocene Australia
Westphalian 313.0 303.9 age Carboniferous Europe Westphalia (Germany) de Lapparent & Munier-Chalmas, 1892
Whaingaroan 34.3 27.3 age Oligocene New Zealand
Wheelerian 1.9 0.01143 age Pleistocene California
Whiterockian 471.8 ± 1.6 462 age Ordovician North America
Whitlandian 475 473.5 age Ordovician Europe Whitland (Wales)
Whitneyan 33.3 30.8 age Oligocene North America
Whitwellian 426.2 ± 2.4 425.4 age Silurian regional Whitwell Coppice (England)
Wisconsinan 0.075 0.01 age Pleistocene North America
Wolfcampian age Permian North America
Wolstonian 0.238 0.128 age Pleistocene Great Britain Wolston (England)
Woodbinian age Cretaceous Gulf and Atlantic coast of the US Murray, 1961
Wordian 268.0 ± 0.7 265.8 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS
Wuchenghuangtuan 2.4 1.2 age Pleistocene China
Wuchiapingian 260.4 ± 0.7 253.8 ± 0.7 age Permian ICS
Würm Glacial 0.116 0.0115 age Pleistocene Alps river Würm (Germany)
Wutaian 2,600 2,350 age Archaean-Proterozoic China
Xiaodushanian 299 age Carboniferous China
Xiushanian 429 425.5 age Silurian China
Yanguan 349.5 345 age Carboniferous China
Yarmouthian 0.26 0.17 age Pleistocene North America Aegean Sea
Yatalan 3.4 2.0 age Plio-Pleistocene Australia
Yeadonian 315.5 314.5 age Carboniferous regional Yeadon (England)
Younger Dryas 12,700 BP 11,560 BP chron Weichselian Northern Europe Dryas octopetala (plant)
Ypeenian 470 468.1 age Ordovician Australia
Ypresian 55.8 ± 0.2 48.6 ± 0.2 age Eocene ICS Ypres, French name for
Ieper (Ieper) in Belgium
Dumont, 1849
Ynezian 61.5 55.8 age Paleocene California
Yuian 9.5 3.6 age Plio-Miocene Japan
Yurmatian 1,375 1,100 age Proterozoic Russia
Yuzanjian 1.5 0.75 age Pleistocene Japan
Zanclean 5.332 3.60 age Pliocene ICS Zancla, old name for Messina (Italy) Sequenza, 1868
Zechstein[4] ±270 ±250 sub-period Permian Europe (unofficial)
Zemorrian 33.5 22.0 age Oligo-Miocene California
Zhungxian 505 501 age Cambrian China
Zuzhungian 509 503 age Cambrian China

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Names from local versions of the geologic timescale can often be found in the local language. The English name is usually found by replacing the suffix in the local language for -an or -ian. Examples for "local" suffices are -en (French), -ano (Spanish), -ium (German), -aidd (Welsh) or -aan (Flemish Dutch). The English name "Norian", for example, becomes Noriano in Spanish, Norium in German, Noraidd in Welsh or Norien in French.
  2. ^ a b Time is given in Megaannum (million years BP, unless other units are given in the table. BP stands for "years before present". For ICS-units the absolute ages are taken from Gradstein et al. (2004).
  3. ^ Hohenegger, Johann; Ćorić, Stjepan; Wagreich, Michael (2014). "Timing of the Middle Miocene Badenian Stage of the Central Paratethys" (PDF). Geologica Carpathica 65 (1). doi:10.2478/geoca-2014-0004. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h This name is often still used in a chronostratigraphic or geochronologic sense, although it is now officially a lithostratigraphic unit.
  5. ^ Menning et al. 2005
  6. ^ a b Hoffmann et al. 2004
  7. ^ The status of the Tertiary is not yet decided. The ICS will probably make a decision in 2009.

Literature[edit]

  • Basset, M. G.; Cocks, L. R. M.; Holland, C. H.; Rickards, R. B.; and Warren, P. T.; 1975: The type Wenlock series, Report of the Institute of Geological Sciences, 75(13), pp. 1–19.
  • Cocks, L. R. M.; Holland, C. H.; Rickards, R. B.; and Strachan, I.; 1971: A correlation of Silurian rocks in the British Isles, Journal of the Geological Society 127(2), pp. 103–136.
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