List of Grey Wolf populations by country

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Though once abundant over much of North America and Eurasia, the grey wolf inhabits a smaller portion of its former range because of widespread destruction of its habitat, human encroachment of its habitat, and the resulting human-wolf encounters that sparked broad extirpation. Considered as a whole, however, the gray wolf is regarded as being of least concern for extinction according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Today, wolves are protected in some areas, hunted for sport in others, or may be subject to extermination as perceived threats to people, livestock and pets.

Wolves tend to have difficulty adapting to change, and are often referred to as an indicator species; a species delineating an ecoregion or indicating an environmental condition such as a disease outbreak, pollution, species competition or climate change. Wolves do not seem to be able to adapt as readily to expanding civilization the way coyotes do. While human expansion has seen an increase in the latter's numbers, it has caused a drop in those of the former.[1]

Wolf distr.gif


Europe[edit]

Wolves in the Iberian Peninsula
A wolf in Italy
A wolf in Belarus
A wolf in Turkey

Greenland has a population of 20-100 wolves which are afforded protection in approximately 90% of their range, though no compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2]

Portugal has a stable wolf population of 200-300 which is afforded full protection. Compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2]

Spain's wolf population is estimated at 2,000 and growing. Wolves are considered a game species, though they are protected in the southern regions of the country. Compensation is paid for livestock damage, though this varies according to regional laws.[2]

In Italy, wolves are a protected species, with current estimates indicating that there are 500-700 [3] wolves living in the wild (according to other sources, up to 800). The largest concentrations of wolves occur in the Italian national parks in Abruzzo, mostly in the Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise, in Calabria, in the Pollino, on Appennino Tosco-Emiliano, and, more recently, on the Alps. Isolated individuals have been sighted in the vicinity of human populated areas such as Tuscany, Bologna, Parma and Tarquinia.[4] Wolves have also been sighted denning 25 miles from Rome, with one small population living in the regional park of Castelli Romani.[5][6] Currently, Italian wolf populations are said to have been increasing at a rate of 6% a year since the 1970s, though 15% of the total Italian wolf population is reported to succumb annually to illegal poaching and road accidents.[4] Compensation is paid by regional governments for livestock damage.[2] Italy's leading wolf biologist, professor Luigi Boitani of the Sapienza University of Rome, expressed concern that the Italian wolf recovery may have been too successful, due to a large portion of the public refusing to concede to the possibility of rising wolf populations requiring management in the future.[6]

Wolves migrated from Italy to France as recently as 1992, and the current French wolf population is said to be composed of 40-50 individuals and growing.[2] Estimates in 2005 put the figure at between 80 and 100.[7] Under the Berne Convention, wolves are listed as an endangered species and killing them is illegal. Official culls are permitted to protect farm animals so long as there is no threat to the national population as a whole.[8] Compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2]

Wolves were first spotted in Germany in 1998, and are thought to have migrated from western Poland.[9] Currently, there are around 150 wolves in 26 packs now roaming in Germany most of them in the eastern German region of Lusatia, and they are now still expanding their range to the west and north.[10] In July 2012 for the first time in 150 years wolves were born in Heidekreis in Lower Saxony, which confirms the spread of wolves from eastern of Germany.[11] [12] Under German law, wolves are a protected species, there are in some regions livestock damage compensation programmes.[2]

In 2011 wolves were spotted in Belgium and the Netherlands in several locations. The different lone wolves are probably from the French or Italian populations.[13][14] Since wildlife corridors and wildlife crossings over highways are being created that connect wildlife areas in the Netherlands, such as the Veluwezoom National Park and the Oostvaardersplassen with the Klever Reichswald in Germany, nature conservation organisations expect wolves to migrate to the low countries in the near future.[15][16] [17]

The number of wolves in Switzerland is uncertain, and estimated at 1-2 individuals. Wolves are afforded protection, and livestock damage compensation is paid by Cantons.[2]

The Scandinavian Peninsula has a population of over 300 wolves (official number in 2012/2013 was 350-410 wolves[18]), that is shared between Sweden and Norway. The Norwegian population is located in the south-east, close to the Swedish border, and consists of c. 30 wolves.[18] The population is protected and compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2] Sweden has a protected population of around 300 wolves,[18] and compensation is paid for livestock damage.[19] The Swedish wolf population is restricted to forested areas in mid-Sweden. The Scandinavian wolf population is open to some immigration from Finland.

The last wolf in Denmark was shot in 1813, but in 2009, 2010 and 2012 there was speculation that a wolf had crossed the border from Germany due to numerous observations, latest in the national park of Thy.[20][21] This was confirmed after an autopsy, which also concluded that the particular wolf had died from side effects of a cancerous tumor. It was the first known wolf in Denmark for 199 years.[22] In 2013, three different lone wolves have been observed in Denmark.[23] According to local biologists based on sound recordings, one pair have had cubs. Compensation is paid for livestock damage.[24]

Finland has an almost stable[18] population of 97-106 wolves.[18] Wolves are legally hunted only in areas with high reindeer densities. Compensation for livestock losses are paid by the state and insurance companies.[2] The population is connected to the large Russian wolf population.[18]

Poland has an increasing population of 700-800 wolves which are afforded legal protection except in the Bieszczady Mountains. Compensation for livestock losses is not paid.[2]

Estonia has a quite stable wolf population of around 200, down from around 500 in the middle of the 1990s. The official standpoint considers the optimal population to be 100-200.[25] At rough scale the distribution range includes the whole country.[26] In 2007, new version of the law on nature conservation introduced compensation for livestock damage, paid by the state.[27]

Lithuania has a population of 300-400[28] which are increasing in number. The species is not protected, and only insured livestock receives compensation.[2]

Latvia has an unprotected population of 600 wolves, decline from 900 in the middle of the 1990s.[29] No compensation is paid for livestock damage.

Belarus is home to a population of 1,500-2,000 wolves.[30] With the exception of specimens in nature reserves, wolves in Belarus are largely unprotected. They are designated a game species, and bounties ranging between €60 and €70 are paid to hunters for each wolf killed. This is a considerable sum in a country where the average monthly wage is €230.[31] No compensation is paid for livestock losses.[2]

Ukraine has an unprotected, yet stable population of 2,000 wolves. No compensation is paid for livestock losses.[2] Many of the wolves live in the Zone of alienation north of Chernobyl, where they face few natural threats. This applies equally to the Belarusian part of the zone.[32]

The Czech Republic has a stable and protected population of 20 wolves, though there are no livestock damage compensation programmes.[2]

Slovakia has a stable population of 350-400 wolves which is protected, though with some exceptions. No compensation is paid for livestock losses.[2]

Slovenia has a population of 70-100 wolves and increasing. Since 1991, they have been a protected species, and compensation is paid for livestock losses.[citation needed]

Croatia has a stable population of around 200 wolves.[33] Since May 1995, they have been a protected species, and the willful killing of wolves can result in a fine equivalent to $6,000. However, according to Dr. Djuro Huber of the University of Zagreb, illegal wolf killings increased after the protection scheme began, resulting in the deaths of 40 wolves.[6] Compensation is paid for livestock losses.[2]

Bosnia and Herzegovina is thought to have a population of 400 wolves, though they are decreasing in number and are afforded no legal protection. Compensation for livestock losses is not paid.[2]

The former State Union of Serbia and Montenegro has a stable population of 500 wolves, though it is unknown if they are afforded any protection and no compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2]

Hungary has a stable population of 250 wolves which are protected, though with some exceptions. No compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2]

Romania has an increasing population of 2,500 wolves which are granted legal protection.[2] No compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2]

Bulgaria has a stable population of 1,000-1,200 wolves which are granted no legal protection.[2] Wolves are considered a nuisance and have an active bounty on them. No compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2]

Greece has a stable population of approximately 700 wolves which are legally protected. Compensation is paid for livestock losses, with over 80% of it from insurance.[2]

The Republic of Macedonia has an increasing, yet unprotected population of 1,000 wolves, with no livestock compensation programmes.[2]

Albania has a protected population of 250 wolves which are increasing in number, though no compensation is paid for livestock losses.[2]

Turkey has population of about 7,000 wolves. There are some local extinctions especially in the western parts of Turkey and the wolf population is declining in Turkey as a whole. Historically, the wolf has officially been considered a pest species and so it was hunted throughout the year without any limits. It was only in 2003 that the wolf received the status of a game species. Although wolves in Turkey are not legally protected, the gained status of a game species means that wolves can only be hunted with a license using established quotas which are restricted to hunting seasons.[34] No compensation is paid for livestock damage.[2]

Although wolves in Russia have no legal protection, they number 25,000-30,000, and are probably increasing in number[2] in some regions, such as Koryak Okrug and Kalmykia.[2][35] Some villages in Chechnya's Nadterechny district have been reporting increasing wolf numbers since the decrease of military activities.[36] On the other hand, in more populated regions of Central and Southern Russia number of wolves is very small.[37] In some regions, bounties are paid for the destruction of wolves and dens.[38] Wolves live in comparatively few numbers in the Sikhote-Alin region due to competition with increasing tiger numbers.[39] This competitive exclusion of wolves by tigers has been used by Russian conservationists to convince hunters in the Far East to tolerate the big cats, as they limit ungulate populations less than wolves, and are effective in controlling the latter's numbers.[40] No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Asia[edit]

Syria has an unprotected, unknown number of wolves, thought to be roughly numbering 200. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Lebanon has a population of 50 wolves which are afforded no legal protection, nor is livestock damage compensation paid.[2]

A wolf in Southern Israel

Israel has a stable population of 150 protected wolves. Some livestock damage compensation paid.[41]

Jordan has an unprotected, unknown number of wolves, thought to be roughly numbering 200. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Saudi Arabia has a stable population of 300-600 wolves which are given no legal protection. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

India has a decreasing population of roughly 1,000 wolves which are legally protected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Wolves in China appear to be decreasing in all their ranges. Currently, Heilongjiang has roughly 500 wolves, Xinjiang has 10,000 and Tibet has 2,000.[2] In 2006, the Chinese government began plans to auction licenses to foreigners to hunt wild animals, including wolves.[42] No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Mongolia has a stable population of 10,000-20-000 wolves which are given no legal protection, nor is livestock damage compensation paid.[2]

Kazakhstan has a stable population of about 30,000 wolves.[2] About 2,000 are killed yearly for a $40 bounty, though the animal’s numbers have risen sharply.[43] No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Turkmenistan has a stable population of 1,000 wolves which are unprotected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Uzbekistan has a stable population of 2,000 wolves which are unprotected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Kyrgyzstan has a stable population of 4,000 wolves which are unprotected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

Tajikistan has a stable population of 3,000 wolves which are unprotected. No livestock damage compensation is paid.[2]

There are currently no recent or reliable estimates on wolf populations in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal and Bhutan.[2]

North America[edit]

A radio collared wolf in Yellowstone National Park
Captive Mexican wolf at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

Canada has over 52,000-60,000 wolves which are legally considered a big game species, though they are afforded protection in 3% of Canada's territory. The Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon have 5,000 wolves each, British Columbia has 8,500 wolves,[44] Alberta 4,200, Saskatchewan 4,300, Manitoba 4,000-6,000, Ontario 9,000, Quebec 5,000 and Labrador 2,000. Canada currently has no livestock damage compensation programmes.[2] In the fall of 2012, the government of British Columbia was considering a cull of the wolf population in some areas.[44]

The United States as a whole has up to 9,000 wolves which are increasing in number in all their ranges. Wolf recovery has been so successful that the United States Fish & Wildlife Service removed the western grey wolf from the federal endangered species list on March 28, 2008.[2][45] Due to the controversy over wolf shootings, a coalition of environmental groups sued the federal government to put the gray wolf back on the Endangered Species list.[46] On July 18, 2008, a federal judge ruled in favor of renewed endangered species protection.[47] Alaska has a stable population of 6,000-7,000 wolves which are legally hunted from August to April as a big game species.[2][48] Minnesota has a population of 2,900[49] wolves which are legally protected, though they are occasionally culled for depredation control.[2] Minnesota has been granted complete control over its wolf population, and its wolf management plan establishes a minimum population of 1,600 wolves.[50] In 2008 both Wisconsin and Michigan each had healthy populations of 600 wolves, in Michigan a spring count of 687 wolves in 2011 had decreased to 658 in 2013.[51][52] The Rocky Mountain states (Wyoming, Idaho and Montana) have an approximate population of 1,700 wolves.[53] Two gray wolves were captured in north-central Washington state in July 2008, one of which was a nursing female. This is the first evidence of reproducing wolves in the state since the 1930s.[54] In northeast Oregon, also in July 2008, wolf howls were heard by biologists who identified at least 2 adults and 2 cubs. This was the first confirmed breeding pair in Oregon.[55] By December 2011, Oregon's gray wolf population had grown to 24. One of the Oregon gray wolves, known as OR-7, traveled more than 700 miles (1,100 km) to the Klamath Basin and crossed the border into California.[56] Wolf OR-7 became the first wolf west of the Cascades in Oregon since the last bounty was claimed in 1947.[57] On January 14, 2009, the United States Department of the Interior removed the Canadian gray wolf from the Endangered Species List in every American state except Wyoming.[58] This move was blocked by lawsuits filed by conservation groups, but was successfully delisted on April 15, 2011 by the US Congress as part of a budget bill.[59] On August 31, 2012, Governor Matt Mead of Wyoming announced that wolves were no longer on the endangered species list in the state of Wyoming; therefore, they no longer need special protections from the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The wolf population in Wyoming is now controlled by the state.

The wolf has been extirpated from Mexico since the 1970s when the U.S. and Mexican governments cooperated to capture all remaining wild Mexican wolves and initiate a captive-breeding program in an attempt to save the local subspecies.[60] The Mexican Wolf was reintroduced into the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona in 1998 as part of a captive breeding program.[48] There are now at least 42 wild Mexican wolves in the southwest United States.[48][60]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  4. ^ a b (Italian)Luigi Boitani & Paolo Ciucci (2006). "Il Lupo: Operazione San Francesco" from "Salvati dall' Arca". p. 663. ISBN 9788883723803. 
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  34. ^ [1]
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  55. ^ Milstein, Michael (2008-07-22). "Wolves breeding again in Oregon". The Oregonian. 
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  60. ^ a b "Mexican Wolf Blue Range Reintroduction Project Statistics" (PDF). USFWS. Retrieved 2008-01-13. 

Bibliography[edit]

Carmine Esposito (2007). "Il Lupo" Roma- Franco Muzzio Editore. p. 127. ISBN 9788874131433.