Glossary of gymnastics terms

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This is a general glossary of the terms used in the sport of gymnastics.

0–9[edit]

10.0
Previously, the highest overall score possible. Also called a "perfect 10".

A[edit]

AA
Abbreviation for all-around.
AB
A scoring abbreviation for uneven bars, from the name Asymmetric Bars.
Various gymnastics apparatuses. Apparatuses shown include the horizontal (high) bar, the uneven bars, and still rings.

Aerial- A skill performed with no hands

A-score
Under the current Code of Points, this score tallies the gymnast' counted skills, combinations and EGR. In theory, the A-score can be open-ended, depending on the skills the gymnast presents.
Acrobatic Gymnastics
A discipline of gymnastics where partners work together to combine the tumbling and power of the floor exercise in artistic gymnastics with the flexibility and artistry of dance. Acrobatic gymnastics routines are performed on the floor apparatus.
All-around
A competition in which the athletes compete as individuals on all four (women) or six (men) events. Sometimes also written as all-round or all-around final.
All-around
A gymnast who is a strong competitor on all four (women) or six (men) events.
Apparatus
Specific equipment used in gymnastics.
Artistic gymnastics
A discipline of gymnastics in which competitors perform upon apparatuses.
Arabesque
Standing on one leg with the other leg raised about 45 degrees

Aerial

B[edit]

B-score
Under the current Code of Points, this score rates the gymnast's execution, form, artistry and technique. The judges take their deductions from the 10.0 base score.

Backhandspring- a backwards skill performed on the floor exercise

Back-to-back tumbling
A series of skills in which the gymnast executes a tumbling pass from one corner of the mat to the other, rebounds, and performs another tumbling pass in the other direction without stopping. Notably performed by Oksana Omelianchik (URS), Daniela Silivaş (ROU) and Dominique Dawes (USA).
Balance
One of the three routines in acrobatic gymnastics, highlighted by static hold positions that demonstrate strength, agility and flexibility.
The balance beam
Balance beam
A gymnastics apparatus used by women in artistic gymnastics. It is a 4-inch-wide (100 mm) platform upon which gymnasts perform tumbling and dance skills.
Ball
A gymnastics apparatus used in rhythmic gymnastics. The ball rests in the gymnast's hands, is balanced on the body, and is thrown into the air and caught.
Base
In acrobatic gymnastics, the role in pair and group competition that requires strength and balance. The base is usually an older, larger athlete.
Bib
The number worn on the gymnast's back, and used in the scoring and roster sheets, to identify them to the judges.

Biles- a skill where the gymnast performs two backward flips in layout position with a half twist on the second layout flip

BB
The scoring abbreviation for Balance beam.

C[edit]

Cast- Uneven Bar skill

Cartwheel 
The maneuver where one moves sideways, from hands to feet, in a straight line (in the motion that the wheel of a cart would follow), while keeping the back, arms, and legs straight, and the feet pointed.
Chalk
Carbonate of magnesia, used by gymnasts on their hands, feet and apparatus to make the surface of the equipment less slippery, or to mark lines on the mats.
Clubs
A gymnastics apparatus used in rhythmic gymnastics.
Code of Points
The document that regulates scoring of each discipline.
Combined
Presented only during acrobatic gymnastics finals, the Combined routine features the elements of both the Balance and the Dynamic (Tempo) routines.
Competition
When you do gymnastics (or other sport) in front of a judge which then the judge will score you. Other people do competitions with you and you win by getting a higher score than the other competitors.

D[edit]

Dismount
The act of getting off an apparatus and the skill used to do it.

Double back- A skill performed where the gymnast does two backwards flips

Dynamic
One of the three routines in acrobatic gymnastics, combining choreography with tumbling sequences and flight elements like throws.

E[edit]

EGR
Abbreviation for element group requirements.
Element group requirements
Under the current Code of Points, the specific required skills, or skill families, that the gymnast must show at some point in his or her routine on each event. For instance, on uneven bars, one of the EGRs is a release move. Currently, there are five EGR skills required on every event.
Elite
The highest competitive level in gymnastics, or a gymnast who competes at the highest level. The term is used in the USA, Australia and other nations, but is not universal.
Elementary Gymnastics
Is the type of gymnastics that older gymnasts in training use. It helps them to understand the elements and way of gymnastics.
Elbow stand
this is where you are doing a handstand but on your elbows and arms.

F[edit]

Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique
the international sports governing body for gymnastics. Its name is commonly abbreviated as "FIG".
Flight series
On balance beam, a series of acrobatic skills performed in combination from one end of the beam to the other.
Jade Barbosa performing her floor routine during a gymnastics competition. The white lines indicate the bounds of the floor.
Floor
A gymnastics apparatus used by men and women in artistic gymnastics. The event performed upon this apparatus is known as Floor Exercise.
Floor Exercise
The event performed on the floor apparatus. Men and women perform choreographed routines that include tumbling and acrobatic skills.
Freestyle Gymnastics
A fusion of traditional gymnastic and acrobatic tricks, with kicks and leaps inspired by martial arts, parkour and free running. It captures the power and explosive nature of freestyle activities in sport and brings them indoors, performed on a range of purpose built equipment with associated training techniques.[1]
Front tuck
The act of running, jumping off of 2 feet, turning in mid-air, and landing on the ground on two feet.

Front Full- A skill performed with one forwards flip and a twist

FX
The scoring abbreviation for Floor Exercise.

G[edit]

Gainer
A gymnastics skill in which a gymnast performs a backwards somersault while moving forward.

Geinger- A release move performed on the uneven bars

Grip
See hand guard.
Gymnastics
A sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength, agility and coordination. It evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks, including skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and circus performance skills.
Giant
When casting into a handstand position and making a full rotation around the bar while the body is kept in a straight line.
Good Leg Split
You take either your left leg or your right leg (whichever is your good leg) and put it in front of you and then you will be in a good leg split.

H[edit]

Hand guard
A glove or wrist strap worn by gymnasts to protect the skin on their hands when they perform upon apparatuses.
HB
The scoring abbreviation for horizontal (or high) bar.
High Bar
See horizontal bar.
Hit
(v.) To perform a routine or skill to the best of one's ability, with no major errors or deductions. Example: "He hit the dismount." May also be used as an adjective to describe a routine performed well.
Hoop
A gymnastics apparatus used in rhythmic gymnastics. It is a hollow hoop with an interior diameter of 80 to 90 cm.
Horizontal bar
A gymnastics apparatus used by men in artistic gymnasts. It consists of one 2.4m bar upon which gymnasts perform skills. It is also known as high bar.
Handstand is to stand straight up with a tight body and hands on floor.

I[edit]

Indian clubs; Iliusion

J[edit]

Junior
A world-class/elite gymnast who is too young to compete as a senior, usually between the ages of 13 and 15.

Jump

Judges

K[edit]

Kip
A basic skill in artistic gymnastics on the uneven bars that is used at a way of getting on the bar in a front support position or a handstand from a hanging or standing position.
Kip
A training skill in trampolining.

L[edit]

Lauren Mitchell performing a layout step-out on the balance beam.
Layout
A position in which the gymnast's body is completely stretched, toes pointed and legs straight. A layout in tumbling, vault or balance beam is a salto performed in this position. In some countries, layout saltos are referred to as 'straights' (e.g. "he performed a double straight").
Leotard
A piece of clothing that comes in a variety of colors,shapes and sizes, and is used for gymnastics workouts and competitions.

M[edit]

Manna
A strength move pressing with the hands where the legs and hips are raised until the hips are above the shoulders and the legs are parallel to the floor.[2]
Master of Sport
The term used to refer to a gymnast competing at the highest level of the sport in the USSR. Still used in Russia and other former Soviet republics.
Mat
Safety equipment used in gymnastics to break falls.
Meet
A commonly used term for a gymnastics competition.
Middle
In acrobatic gymnastics, the role in group competition that requires a combination of strength, balance, flexibility and power.
Mount
The act of getting onto an apparatus and the skill used to do it.

Mustafina

N[edit]

Neutral deduction
A score deduction which is taken as a penalty for violations of rules not related directly to the gymnasts' performance, for instance, failure to adhere to required standards of competition attire. Neutral deductions may be applied against a team's cumulative score as well as against individual gymnasts.
Number
See bib.
Needle
This is where you put two hands on the floor and one leg on the floor and then you put the other leg in the air.

O[edit]

OOB
Abbreviation for out of bounds.
Out of bounds
Situation on floor exercise or Vault (gymnastics) when a gymnast crosses the line indicating the border of the mat, resulting in a score deduction.

P[edit]

Parallel bars
A gymnastics apparatus used by men in artistic gymnastics. It consists of two 3.5m bars.
PB
The scoring abbreviation for the parallel bars.
PH
The scoring abbreviation for the pommel horse.
Pike
a position where the body is bent only in the hips.
Pommel horse
A gymnastics apparatus used by men in artistic gymnastics. It consists of a rectangular body and two pommels.

Q[edit]

Quick

R[edit]

Release move or release
Skill on the uneven bars, parallel bars or high bar in which the gymnast lets go of the apparatus, performs a skill in the air, and regrasps the bar.
Elizabeth Paisieva, a rhythmic gymnast, performing with a ribbon
Ribbon
A gymnastics apparatus used in rhythmic gymnastics. The ribbon is a long piece of material attached to a stick.
Rings
See still rings.
Roll
A roll is a rotation over an axis in the body over a surface.
Rope
A gymnastics apparatus used in rhythmic gymnastics. It is made of a material that retains the qualities of lightness and suppleness. It is knotted at the end.
Rhythmic gymnastics
A discipline of gymnastics in which competitors manipulate apparatuses. The sport combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, theatrical dance, and apparatus manipulation. Athletes are scored on their leaps, balances, pivots, flexibility, apparatus handling, and artistic effect.

S[edit]

Salto
A somersault.
Score protest
A written complaint, submitted by the gymnast or their coaches or federation, to request reconsideration and possible revision of scores felt to be incorrect or unfair. Under FIG rules, protests must be filed immediately after the original score is reported, and before the end of the competition.
Senior
A world-class/elite gymnast who is at least 16, or will be turning 16, within the calendar year.
Somersault
A gymnastics maneuver in which a person rotates around the somersault axis, moving the feet over the head.
Specialist
A gymnast who is especially strong on one or two events. A specialist often competes only on his or her specific events.
Springboard
Gymnastics equipment required on vault, and used as an optional aid for mounts on parallel bars, balance beam and uneven bars.

shaposh - uneven bar release move

SR
The scoring abbreviation for the still rings.
Start value
Under the pre-2006 Code of Points, the maximum score a gymnast could receive for a routine, after taking into consideration all bonus skills, combinations and fulfillment of required elements. The score was determined by subtracting deductions from the start value.
Stick
(v.) to land an acrobatic skill, jump or dismount perfectly, without any steps, stumbles or errors.
Still Rings
A gymnastics apparatus used by men in artistic gymnastics. It consists of two swinging hollow rings suspended by a frame.
Straddle
A sitting position with the legs wide. It can also be performed at height.
Stuck landing
A perfect landing, without any steps, stumbles or errors.
SV
Abbreviation for start value.

T[edit]

Team final, or TF
A team of 6 gymnasts (or 5 gymnasts at the 2012 London Olympics), representing a country, for the team competition.

thavktev- uneven bar skill

Toe shoes- commonly worn by rhythmic gymnasts to perform turns.

Top
In acrobatic gymnastics, the role in pair and group competition that emphasizes flexibility and agility. The top is usually a younger, smaller athlete.;Tsukahara: A vault and family of vaults. The vault consists of a half turn off the springboard onto the vault table, then a push backwards, usually into a back salto or layout. Any vault that has a handspring with 1/4 – 1/2 turn onto the vault table into a salto backwards is classified as a Tsukahara vault. It is named after Mitsuo Tsukahara.
Tumbling
The acrobatic skills performed on floor exercise and balance beam, such as back handsprings and saltos. Also, a specific discipline of gymnastics, performed on a 25-meter-long dynamic track, in which participants perform tumbling skills.
Tumbling run, or tumbling pass
A series of acrobatic skills performed on floor from one corner of the mat to the other, typically beginning with a run and hurtle and ending with a major salto.
Tuck
You jump with your knees to you chest.

U[edit]

UB
A scoring abbreviation for Uneven Bars.
Uneven bars
A gymnastics apparatus used by women in artistic gymnastics. It consists of two horizontal bars at different heights and with a distance between them.

V[edit]

Diego Hypólito rotates in the air after the vaulting table.
Vault
(n.) A gymnastics apparatus used by both men and women in artistic gymnastics, or the skills performed upon it, which consists of a . (v.) to perform a vaulting skill.
VT
The scoring abbreviation for "vault".

W[edit]

Warm-up
warm-up techniques differ from club to club, some coaches might prefer to play games at the beginning of a training session, while others might prefer to make gymnasts run around the carpet, skip with a rope in various directions (backwards, forwards, criss-cross, etc.). But all ultimately aim to achieve the same goals, to warm up the gymnasts muscles in order for them not to injure themselves while stretching or training.

weiler kip- a skill on uneven bars

X[edit]

X-jump

Y[edit]

Yurchenko loop
A balance beam skill in which the gymnasts stands sideways on the beam, dives backwards into a back handspring (the "loop"), grasps the beam, performs a back hip circle and ends up in a front support position, resting on the hands. It is named after Natalia Yurchenko.
Yurchenko vault
A vault and a family of vaults. It consists of a round-off onto the springboard and a back handspring onto the horse or vaulting table, followed by a salto. Any vault with a roundoff-back handspring entry is classified as a "Yurchenko-style" vault. It is named after Natalia Yurchenko.

Z[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "British Gymnastics - Free G". British Gymnastics. 
  2. ^ Youtube demonstration video, uploaded 2008-04-16.