List of heads of regimes who were later imprisoned

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This is a list of heads of regimes who were later imprisoned. There have been several personalities throughout history who went on to be Heads of State, or Heads of Government, like Presidents, Prime Ministers or monarchs of their respective nation states, who became prisoners later, including under house arrest.

Some of them are:

Names indexed by surnames Countries Dates born Official positions Later imprisonment Dates died
Aisin-Gioro Puyi Manchukuo 1906-02-07 Emperor (1934–1945), Chief Executive (1932–1934) 1945 to 1959 1967-10-17
Alemán, Arnoldo Nicaragua 1946-01-23 President (1997–2002) 2002 to present Living
Antonescu, Ion Romania 1882-06-15 Prime Minister (1940–1944) 1944 to 1946 1946-06-01 (executed by firing squad)
Ba Maw Burma (now Myanmar) 1893-02-08 Prime Minister (1937–1939) 1940 to 1942, 1945 to 1946, 1947 1977-05-29
Banana, Canaan Zimbabwe 1936-03-05 President (1980–1987) 1997 to 2001 2003-11-10
Bayar, Celal Turkey 1883-05-16 President (1950–1960), Prime Minister (1937–1939) 1960 to 1964 (death sentence commuted) 1986-08-22
Ben Bella, Ahmed Algeria 1916-12-25 President (1963–1965) 1965 to 1980 (house arrest) 2012-04-11
Bhutto, Benazir Pakistan 1953-06-21 Prime Minister (1988–1990, 1993–1996) 2007-12-27 (assassinated)
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali Pakistan 1928-01-05 President (1971–1973), Prime Minister (1973–1977) 1977 to 1979 1979-04-04 (executed by hanging)
Bignone, Reynaldo Argentina 1928-01-21 President (de facto, 1982–1983) 2007 to present Living
Bokassa, Jean-Bédel Central African Republic 1921-02-22 Emperor (1976–1979), President (1966–1976) 1986 to 1993 (death sentence commuted) 1996-11-03
Bozhilov, Dobri Bulgaria 1884-06-13 Prime Minister (1943–1944) 1944 to 1945 1945-02-01 (executed)
Ceauşescu, Nicolae Romania 1918-01-26 President (1967–1989) 1989 1989-12-25 (executed by firing squad)
Chaudhry, Mahendra Fiji 1942-02-09 Prime Minister (1999–2000) 2000 (taken hostage in a coup) Living
Chen Gongbo China, Republic of (Wang Jingwei Government) 1892 President (1944–1945) 1945 to 1946 1946 (executed by firing squad)
Chen Shui-bian Taiwan, Republic of China 1950-10-12 President (2000–2008) 2008-11-12[1] to 2008-12-13,[2] 2008-12-30[3] to present Living
Chun Doo-hwan Korea, South 1931-01-18 President (1980–1988) 1996 to 1997 (death sentence commuted) Living
Deuba, Sher Bahadur Nepal 1946-06-13 Prime Minister (1995–1997, 2001–2002, 2004–2005) 2005 to 2006 Living
Dönitz, Karl Germany 1891-09-16 President (1945) 1945 to 1956 1980-12-24
Ershad, Hossain Mohammad Bangladesh 1930-01-01 President (1982–1990) 1990 to 1997 Living
Estrada, Joseph Philippines 1937-04-19 President (1998–2001) 2001 to present Living
Filov, Bogdan Bulgaria 1883-04-09 Prime Minister (1940–1943) 1944 to 1945 1945-02-02 (executed)
Fujimori, Alberto Peru 1938-07-28 President (1990–2000) 2005 to 2006 (bailed out in Chile), 2007 to present Living
Galtieri, Leopoldo Fortunato Argentina 1926-07-15 President (de facto, 1981–1982) 1983 to 1991 (pardoned) 2003-01-12
Gandhi, Indira India 1917-11-19 Prime Minister (1966–1977, 1980–1984) 1977 1984-10-31
González Macchi, Luis Ángel Paraguay 1947-12-13 President (1999–2003) 2006 to present Living
Haile Selassie Ethiopia 1892-07-23 Emperor (1930–1974) 1974 (house arrest) 1975-08-27
Honecker, Erich German Democratic Republic 1912-08-25 Chairman of the Council of State (1976–1989) 1992 to 1993 1994-05-29
Hoveida, Amir-Abbas Iran 1919-02-18 Prime Minister (1965–1977) 1978 to 1979 1979-04-07 (executed by firing squad)
Kaunda, Kenneth Zambia 1924-04-28 President (1964–1991) 1997 to 1998 Living
Keita, Modibo Mali 1915-06-04 President (1960–1968) 1968 to 1977 1977-05-16
Koiso, Kuniaki Japan 1880-03-22 Prime Minister (1944–1945) 1945 to 1950 1950-11-03
Laurel, José P. Philippines 1891-03-09 President (1943–1945) 1945 to 1948 1959-11-06
Liang Hongzhi China, Reformed Government of the Republic of 1882 Chairman (1938–1940) 1945 to 1946 1946-11 (executed by firing squad)
Liu Shaoqi China, People's Republic of 1898-11-24 President (1959–1968) 1967 to 1968 (house arrest) 1969-11-12
Louis XVI of France France 1754-08-23 King (1774–1792) 1792 to 1793 1793-01-21 (executed by decapitation (guillotine))
Lumumba, Patrice Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1925-07-02 Prime Minister (1960) 1960 to 1961 1961-01-17
Macías Nguema, Francisco Equatorial Guinea 1924-01-01 President (1968–1979) 1979 1979-09-29 (executed)
Marcos, Ferdinand Philippines 1917-09-11 President (1965–1986), Prime Minister (1978–1981) 1988 (indicted) 1989-09-28
Massemba-Débat, Alphonse Congo, Republic of the 1921 President (1963–1968), Prime Minister (1963) 1977 1977-03-25 (executed)
Menderes, Adnan Turkey 1899 Prime Minister (1950–1960) 1960 to 1961 1961-09-17 (executed by hanging)
Menem, Carlos Argentina 1930-07-02 President (1989–1999) June to November of 2001 (house arrest) Living
Milošević, Slobodan Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of 1941-08-20 President (1997–2000) 2001 to 2006 2006-03-11
Mussolini, Benito Italy 1883-07-29 Prime Minister (1922–1943) 1945 1945-04-28 (executed by firing squad)
Nagy, Imre Hungary 1896-06-07 Prime Minister (1953–1955, 1956) 1956 to 1958 1958-06-16 (executed by hanging)
Najibullah, Mohammad Afghanistan 1947 President (1987–1992) 1992 to 1996 (virtual detention) 1996-09-27 (executed by hanging)
Nicholas II of Russia Russian Empire 1868-05-18[4] Emperor (1894–1917) 1917 to 1918 1918-07-17[5] (executed)
Noriega, Manuel Panama 1935-02-11 Military leader (1983–1989) 1990 to present Living
Pétain, Philippe France, Vichy 1856-04-24 Head of State (1940–1944) 1945 to 1951 (death sentence commuted to life imprisonment) 1951-07-23
Päts, Konstantin Estonia 1874-02-23 Prime Minister in the duties of the State Elder (1934–1937)[6] 1940 to 1952 (prison), 1952 to 1956 (psychiatry hospital) [7] 1956-01-18
Pinochet, Augusto Chile 1915-11-25 President (de facto, 1973–1990) 1998 to 2006 2006-12-10
Quisling, Vidkun Norway 1887-07-18 Minister President (1942–1945) 1945 1945-10-24 (executed by firing squad)
Roh Tae-woo Korea, South 1932-12-04 President (1988–1993) 1995 to 1998 Living
Risto Ryti Finland 1889-02-03 President (1940–1944) 1945 to 1949 1956-10-25
Hussein, Saddam Iraq 1937-04-28 President (1979–2003) 2003 to 2006 2006-12-30 (executed by hanging)
Sharif, Nawaz Pakistan 1949-12-25 Prime Minister (1990–1993, 1997–1999) 1999 to 2000 Living
Suharto Indonesia 1921-06-08 President (1967–1998) 2000 (house arrest) 2008-01-27
Sukarno Indonesia 1901-06-06 President (1945–1967) 1967-1970 (house arrest) 1970-06-21
Tojo, Hideki Japan 1884-12-30 Prime Minister (1941–1944) 1945 to 1948 1948-12-23 (executed by hanging)
Traoré, Moussa Mali 1936-09-25 President (1968–1991) 1992 to 2002 (death sentence commuted) Living
Videla, Jorge Rafael Argentina 1925-08-21 President (de facto, 1976–1981) 1985 to 1990 (pardoned), imprisoned again 2010 to present Living
Viola, Roberto Eduardo Argentina 1924-10-13 President (de facto, 1981) 1983 to 1990 (pardoned) 1994-09-30
Yanayev, Gennady USSR 1937-08-26 Acting President (1991) 1991 to 1994 2010-09-24
Zhao Ziyang China, People's Republic of 1919-10-17 Premier (1983–1987) 1989 to 2005 (house arrest) 2005-01-17

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Formal arrest and detention.
  2. ^ Released without bail.
  3. ^ Detained again.
  4. ^ 6 May 1868 in the Julian calendar.
  5. ^ 4 July 1918 in the Julian calendar.
  6. ^ Was several times the Head of Government and Head of State before and after the regime.
  7. ^ Was imprisoned by Soviets during the occupation.

External links[edit]