List of heads of state of Argentina

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President of the Argentine Nation
Presidente de la Nación Argentina
Standard of the President of Argentina.svg
Presidential Standard
Cristina Fernandez Comandante en Jefe.jpg
Incumbent
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

since December 10, 2007
Style Excelentísimo Señor (m) Excelentísima Señora (f)
Residence Casa Rosada (government office)
Quinta de Olivos (official)
Chapadmalal Residence (Summer House)
Term length Four years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Bernardino Rivadavia
Formation first: 1826 Constitution
current: 1853 Constitution, (amended in 1994).
Salary 48,366 Argentine pesos[1] (as of February 2014)
Website Office of the President

Argentina has had many different types of heads of state, as well as many different types of government throughout its history. During Pre-Columbian times the territories that is today Argentina was inhabited by nomadic tribes, without any defined government. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the King of Spain retained the ultimate authority over the territories conquered in the New World, appointing viceroys for local government. The territories that would later become Argentina were first part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, and then the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The May Revolution started the Argentine War of Independence by replacing the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the first national government. It was the Primera Junta, a junta of several members, which would grow into the Junta Grande with the incorporation of provincial deputies. The size of the Juntas gave room to internal political disputes among their members, so they were replaced by the First and Second Triumvirate, of three members. The Assembly of the Year XIII created a new executive authority, with attributions similar to that of a head of state, called the Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. A second Assembly, the Congress of Tucumán, declared independence in 1816 and promulgated the Argentine Constitution of 1819. However, this constitution was repealed during armed conflicts between the central government and the Federal League Provinces. This started a period known as the Anarchy of the Year XX, when Argentina lacked any type of head of state.

There was a new attempt to organize a central government in 1826. A new congress wrote a new constitution, and elected Bernardino Rivadavia as president in the process.[2] Thus Rivadavia was the first president of Argentina. However, he resigned shortly after, and the 1826 constitution was repealed. The Argentine provinces then organized themselves as a confederation, without a central head of state. In this organization, the governors of Buenos Aires province took some duties such as the payment of external debt or the administration of the foreign relations in the name of all provinces.[3] Those governors were appointed by the Buenos Aires legislature, with the only exception of Juan Lavalle. Juan Manuel de Rosas kept the governor office for seventeen consecutive years, until Justo José de Urquiza defeated him at the 1852 Battle of Caseros. Urquiza then called for a new Constitutional Assembly, and promulgated the Argentine Constitution of 1853, which is the current Constitution of Argentina through amendments. In 1854, Urquiza became the first President of modern Argentina, acting both as head of government and head of state.[4] However, the Buenos Aires Province had rejected the Constitution and became an independent state until the aftermath of the 1859 Battle of Cepeda, although the internecine conflict continued. Only after the subsequent Battle of Pavón, in 1861, the former bonaerense leader, Bartolomé Mitre, became the first president of a unified Argentine Republic.[5]

The succession line of constitutional presidents run uninterrupted until 1930, when José Félix Uriburu took government through a civico-military coup d'état. For many decades, there was an alternance between legitimate Presidents and others that took government through illegitimate means. Those means included coups, but also proscriptions of major political parties[6] and electoral fraud.[6][7] The last coup was the National Reorganization Process, which left government in 1983. The retrospective recognition as presidents or heads of state of any de facto ruler that exercised its authority outside the Constitutional mandate is a controversial and relevant issue in Argentine politics.[8][9][10] However, their government actions were recognized as valid following the de facto government doctrine that used to legitimize them.[11] This doctrine was rejected by the 1994 amendment, and wouldn't be applicable for potential future coups. The current head of State of Argentina is President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who took office on 10 December 2007 and was reelected in 2011.

War of independence[edit]

Junta presidents[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes Refs
Saavedra 2.jpg Cornelio Saavedra
(1759–1829)
25 May 1810 – 26 August 1811 President of the Primera Junta and the Junta Grande, at the beginning of the Argentine War of Independence. He had conflicts with Mariano Moreno about government's policy. Left government to serve in the Army of the North. He is regarded as the first president of a national government.[12] [13]
Matheu.jpg Domingo Matheu
(1765–1831)
26 August 1811 – 23 September 1811 President of the Junta Grande, from Saavedra's departure to the dissolution of it. [14]

Triumvirates[edit]

Members
(Births–Deaths)
Tenure
First Triumvirate
FelicianoChiclana.jpg Manuel de Sarratea.jpg Juanjpaso.jpg Juan Martin de Pueyrredon por Villar.jpg
Feliciano Chiclana
(1761–1826)
Manuel de Sarratea
(1774–1849)
Juan José Paso
(1758–1833)
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
(1776–1850)
23 September 1811 – 8 October 1812 23 September 1811 – 8 October 1812 23 September 1811 – 23 March 1812 23 March 1812 – 8 October 1812
Resigned Replaced Paso
Second Triumvirate
Juanjpaso.jpg NRodriguez.jpg AntonioAlvarezJonte.jpg Posadas.jpg
Juan José Paso
(1758–1833)
Nicolás Rodríguez Peña
(1775–1853)
Antonio Álvarez Jonte
(1784–1820)
Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
(1757–1833)
8 October 1812 – 31 January 1814 8 October 1812 – 31 January 1814 8 October 1812 – 19 August 1813 19 August 1813 – 31 January 1814
Resigned Replaced Álvarez Jonte

Supreme directors[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Notes Refs
Posadas.jpg Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
(1757–1833)
31 January 1814 – 9 January 1815
Chosen by the Assembly of the Year 1813. [15]
CarlosAlvearcolor.jpg Carlos María de Alvear
(1789–1852)
9 January 1815 – 18 April 1815
Forced to resign by a mutiny [16]
Jose Rondeau.jpg José Rondeau
(1773–1844)
20 April 1815 – 21 April 1815
Appointed successor of Alvear, could not take office because he was in command of the Army of the North [17]
Alvarez thomas.jpg Ignacio Álvarez Thomas
(1787–1857)
21 April 1815 – 16 April 1816
Acting, for Rondeau. Convened the Congress of Tucumán, that would declare Independence. [18]
Antonio Gonzalez Balcarce.jpg Antonio González de Balcarce
(1774–1819)
16 April 1816 – 9 July 1816
Interim [19]
Juan Martin de Pueyrredon por Villar.jpg Juan Martín de Pueyrredón
(1776–1850)
9 July 1816 – 9 June 1819
First Argentine Head of State after the Argentine Declaration of Independence. Supported the Crossing of the Andes. [20]
Jose Rondeau.jpg José Rondeau
(1773–1844)
9 June 1819 – 11 February 1820
Decisively defeated at the Battle of Cepeda by Federalist forces opposed to the 1819 centralist Constitution. [21]
Juan Pedro Aguirre.jpg Juan Pedro Aguirre
(1781–1837)
11 February 1820 – 16 February 1820
Interim. Dissolved the National Congress and endorsed the Buenos Aires Cabildo to choose a Governor for Buenos Aires Province.

Between 1820 and 1826, the United Provinces functioned as a loose alliance of autonomous provinces put together by pacts and treaties (v.g. Treaty of Pilar, Treaty of Benegas, Quadrilateral Treaty) but lacking any actual central government until the 1825 Constitutional Congress.

First presidential government[edit]

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office

Political
party
Notes
Refs
1 Bernardino Rivadavia 2.jpg Bernardino Rivadavia
(1780–1845)
8 February 1826 7 July 1827 Elected by the Constituent Assembly of 1826, before the promulgation of the 1826 constitution.[2] Waged the Cisplatine War. Resigned as the Constitution was rejected by the provinces and the outcome of the war generated popular discontent. [2]
Unitarian
2 Vicente Lopez 1860.jpg Vicente López y Planes
(1785–1856)
7 July 1827 18 August 1827 Elected as interim president by the Constituent Assembly of 1826. His mandate was limited to close the Assembly and call for elections for a new governor of Buenos Aires. [2]

Governors managing international relations[edit]

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office

Political
party
Notes
Refs
Dorrego a color.jpg Manuel Dorrego
(1787–1828)
18 August 1827 13 December 1828 Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Ended the Cisplatine War. Deposed and executed by Juan Lavalle [22]
Federal
Juan Lavalle.jpg Juan Lavalle
(1797–1841)
13 December 1828 26 August 1829 Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Coup d'état. Defeated in Battle, resigned under siege [23]
Unitarian
Viamonte.jpg Juan José Viamonte
(1774–1843)
26 August 1829 5 December 1829 Interim Governor of Buenos Aires Province. [24]
Federal
Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1793–1877)
6 December 1829 5 December 1832 Governor of Buenos Aires Province. First term. Convened the Federal Pact and waged war against the Unitarian League. Resigned [25]
Federal
JuanRamonGonzalezBalcarce.gif Juan Ramón Balcarce
(1773–1836)
17 December 1832 5 November 1833 Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Ousted by the Revolution of the Restorers [26]
Federal
Viamonte.jpg Juan José Viamonte
(1774–1843)
5 November 1833 1 October 1834 Interim Governor of Buenos Aires Province. [27]
Federal
Vicente Maza.jpg Manuel Vicente Maza
(1779–1839)
1 October 1834 7 March 1835 Interim Governor of Buenos Aires Province. [28]
Federal
Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg Juan Manuel de Rosas
(1793–1877)
7 March 1835 3 February 1852 Governor of Buenos Aires Province with the sum of public power. Waged the Argentine and Uruguayan Civil Wars, the War of the Confederation and the French and Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata. Designated "Supreme Chief of the Argentine Confederation" in 1851. Defeated by Justo José de Urquiza at the Battle of Caseros. [29]
Federal
Urquiza.jpg Justo José de Urquiza
(1801–1870)
3 February 1852 5 March 1854 Governor of Entre Ríos Province. Governed as "Provisional Director of the Argentine Confederation", from which Buenos Aires Province seceded on 11 September 1852.
Federal

Presidents[edit]

# Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office

Political
party
Notes
Refs
3 Urquiza.jpg Justo José de Urquiza
(1801–1870)
5 March 1854 5 March 1860 Elected by the electoral college. President of the Argentine Confederation. The reincoporation of the State of Buenos Aires was negotiated after the 1859 Battle of Cepeda. First constitutional President of Argentina. [30]
Federal
4 Santiago Derqui 1860.JPG Santiago Derqui
(1809–1867)
5 March 1860 4 November 1861 Indirect elections. On October 18, 1860, a Constitutional reform is adopted, proclaiming the Argentine Republic. Resigned after the national government lost the Battle of Pavón to Buenos Aires Province. [31]
Federal
5 JEPedernera.jpg Juan Esteban Pedernera
(1796–1886)
4 November 1861 12 December 1861 Vice-president under Derqui, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Resigned on the dissolution of the national government. [31]
6 Bartolomé Mitre.jpg Bartolomé Mitre
(1821–1906)
12 December 1861 12 October 1862 Governor of Buenos Aires Province. Acting President, confirmed by the National Congress on May 1862 [32]
12 October 1862 12 October 1868 Indirect elections. First president of the unified country. Waged the War of the Triple Alliance.
Liberal Party (PL)
7 Domingo Faustino Sarmiento 6.jpg Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
(1811–1888)
12 October 1868 12 October 1874 Indirect elections. Ended the War of the Triple Alliance. [32]
8 Nicolás Avellaneda 2.jpg Nicolás Avellaneda
(1837–1885)
12 October 1874 12 October 1880 Indirect elections. Federalization of Buenos Aires City in September 1880. [32]
National Party (PN)
9 Alejo Julio Argentino Roca.JPG Julio Argentino Roca
(1843–1914)
12 October 1880 12 October 1886 Indirect elections. First term. [33]
National Autonomist Party (PAN)
10 M Juárez Celman.JPG Miguel Juárez Celman
(1844–1909)
12 October 1886 6 August 1890 Indirect elections. Resigned following the Revolution of the Park. [34]
PAN – PN
11 Retrato de Carlos Pellegrini.jpg Carlos Pellegrini
(1846–1906)
6 August 1890 12 October 1892 Vice-president under Juárez Celman, assumed the presidency after his resignation. [34]
PAN
12 Sin título8.jpg Luis Sáenz Peña
(1822–1907)
12 October 1892 22 January 1895 Indirect elections. Resigned. [35]
PAN
13 JEUriburu 2.jpg José Evaristo Uriburu
(1831–1914)
22 January 1895 12 October 1898 Vice-president under Sáenz Peña, assumed the presidency after his resignation. [35]
PAN
14 Roca, second mandate.jpg Julio Argentino Roca
(1843–1914)
12 October 1898 12 October 1904 Indirect elections. Second term. [36]
PAN
15 Manuel A Quintana.jpg Manuel Quintana
(1835–1906)
12 October 1904 25 January 1906 Indirect elections. Resigned for health reasons, died two months later. [37]
PAN
16 José Figueroa Alcorta.jpg José Figueroa Alcorta
(1860–1931)
25 January 1906 12 October 1910 Vice-president under Quintana, assumed the presidency after his resignation. [37]
PAN
17 Roque S Peña.jpg Roque Sáenz Peña
(1851–1914)
12 October 1910 9 August 1914 Indirect elections. Promoted the Sáenz Peña law, which allowed secret, universal and mandatory suffrage. Died in office. [38]
PAN – Modernist
18 Victorino de la Plaza.JPG Victorino de la Plaza
(1840–1919)
9 August 1914 12 October 1916 Vice-president under Sáenz Peña, assumed the presidency after his death. [38]
PAN
19 Foto yrigoyen - presidente -presidenciagovar.jpg Hipólito Yrigoyen
(1852–1933)
12 October 1916 12 October 1922 Free indirect elections. First president elected under the Sáenz Peña law. First term. Maintained neutrality during World War I. [39]
UCR
20 MTAlvear-1922.jpg Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear
(1868–1942)
12 October 1922 12 October 1928 Free indirect elections. [39]
UCR
21 Yrigoyen en ventanilla del ferrocarril viaje a Santa Fe campaña electoral de 1926..jpg Hipólito Yrigoyen
(1852–1933)
12 October 1928 6 September 1930 Free indirect elections. Second term, ousted from office by a civico-military coup. [40]
UCR
22 Presidente de facto José Félix Uriburu.JPG José Félix Uriburu
(1868–1932)
6 September 1930 20 February 1932 First coup d'etat in modern Argentine history. Beginning of the Infamous Decade. [41]
Military
23 Agustín P. Justo.jpg Agustín Pedro Justo
(1876–1943)
20 February 1932 20 February 1938 Indirect elections held with fraud, the UCR was proscribed.[6] [42]
Concordancia
24 Robertomortiz.jpg Roberto María Ortiz
(1886–1942)
20 February 1938 27 June 1942 Indirect elections held with fraud.[7] Died in office. [7]
UCRAConcordancia
25 Ramoncastillo.jpg Ramón Castillo
(1873–1944)
27 June 1942 4 June 1943 Vice-president under Ortiz, assumed the presidency after his death. Deposed in a coup d'état. End of the Infamous Decade. [7]
PDNConcordancia
26 Gral. Arturo Rawson.jpg Arturo Rawson
(1885–1952)
4 June 1943 7 June 1943 Coup d'etat. Beginning of the Revolution of '43. Ousted from office.[43] [7]
Military
27 Pedro-p-ramirez.jpg Pedro Pablo Ramírez
(1884–1962)
7 June 1943 9 March 1944 Coup d'etat. Ousted from office. [7]
Military
28 Farrel.jpg Edelmiro Julián Farrell
(1887–1980)
11 March 1944 4 June 1946 Coup d'etat. Declared war to the Axis powers. Called elections. End of the Revolution of '43. [7]
Military
29 Juan Peron con banda de presidente.jpg Juan Domingo Perón
(1895–1974)
4 June 1946 4 June 1952 Free indirect elections. First term. Reelection enabled by the Constitution of 1949. [44]
Labour Party
4 June 1952 20 September 1955 Free direct elections. Second term. First election to allow women's suffrage. Victory with 62.49% of votes, highest victory in Argentine elections. Ousted from office by a military coup.
Justicialist Party (PJ)
30 Lonardi 2.jpg Eduardo Lonardi
(1896–1956)
23 September 1955 13 November 1955 Coup d'etat. Beginning of the Revolución Libertadora. Ousted from office. [45]
Military
31 PEAramburu.jpg Pedro Eugenio Aramburu
(1903–1970)
13 November 1955 1 May 1958 Coup d'etat. The 1949 Constitution is repealed and the 1853 Constitution is restored. Call for elections with Peronism proscribed. End of the Revolución Libertadora. [45]
Military
32 Arturo Frondizi.jpg Arturo Frondizi
(1908–1995)
1 May 1958 29 March 1962 Indirect elections with Peronism proscribed. Ousted from office by a military coup. [46]
UCRI
33 Jose Maria Guido icono.JPG José María Guido
(1910–1975)
29 March 1962 12 October 1963 Provisional President of the Senate, acting as president since the removal of Frondizi, as the civil procedures to replace the deposed president were followed and Vice President Alejandro Gómez had resigned in 1958.[47] [46]
UCRI
34 Illia banda presidencial.jpg Arturo Umberto Illia
(1900–1983)
12 October 1963 28 June 1966 Indirect elections with Peronism proscribed. Ousted from office by a military coup. [48]
UCRP
35 Saludo militar de Onganía.jpg Juan Carlos Onganía
(1914–1995)
29 June 1966 8 June 1970 Coup d'etat. First ruler of the Revolución Argentina. Ousted from office. [48]
Military
36 Levingston de civil.jpg Roberto M. Levingston
(born 1920)
8 June 1970 23 May 1971 Coup d'etat. Ousted from office. [48]
Military
37 Alejandro Agustín Lanusse.jpg Alejandro A. Lanusse
(1918–1996)
26 May 1971 25 May 1973 Coup d'etat. Last ruler of the Revolución Argentina. Called for elections. Peronism proscription lifted. [48]
Military
38 Museo del Bicentenario - Afiche "Lealtad".jpg Héctor José Cámpora
(1909–1980)
25 May 1973 13 July 1973 Free direct elections. First Peronist president after the proscription. Cámpora annulled the proscription that remained specifically over Juan Perón, and resigned. The Vice President, Vicente Solano Lima, resigned with him. [49]
PJFJL
39 RaulLastiri.jpg Raúl Alberto Lastiri
(1915–1978)
13 July 1973 12 October 1973 Interim. President of the Chamber of Deputies, assumed the presidency after Cámpora's and Solano Lima's resignations. Alejandro Díaz Bialet, President of the Senate and ahead of Lastiri in the succession line, was on a diplomatic mission in Africa at that time.[50] [49]
PJ
40 Perón de traje (1973).jpg Juan Domingo Perón
(1895–1974)
12 October 1973 1 July 1974 Free direct elections. Third term. Died in office. [49]
PJ
41 Isabelita ícono.jpg Isabel Martínez de Perón
(born 1931)
1 July 1974 24 March 1976 Vice-president of Juan Perón, assumed the presidency after his death. First female president in the Americas. Ousted from office by a military coup.
Ítalo Argentino Lúder served as acting President from 13 September 1975 until 16 October 1975.
[51]
PJ
42 Tte.Gral. (R) J. Videla.jpg Jorge Rafael Videla
(1925–2013)
29 March 1976 29 March 1981 Coup d'etat. President of the Military Junta. First ruler of the National Reorganization Process. Longest government of a de facto ruler. [52]
Military
43 Roberto Viola con banda presidencial.jpg Roberto Eduardo Viola
(1924–1994)
29 March 1981 12 December 1981 Appointed by Videla as President of the Military Junta. Ousted from office. [52]
Military
44 General Leopoldo Galtieri.jpg Leopoldo Galtieri
(1926–2003)
22 December 1981 17 June 1982 Coup d'etat. President of the Military Junta. Waged the Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra del Atlántico Sur). Ousted from office. [52]
Military
45 Reynaldo Bignone-2.jpg Reynaldo Bignone
(born 1928)
1 July 1982 10 December 1983 Coup d'etat. Last ruler of the National Reorganization Process. Called for elections. [52]
Military
46 Argentina.RaulAlfonsin.01.jpg Raúl Alfonsín
(1927–2009)
10 December 1983 8 July 1989 Free indirect elections. The 1989 presidential elections were anticipated. Alfonsín resigned during the transition and gave power to Carlos Menem six months in advance. [53]
UCR
47 Menem con banda presidencial.jpg Carlos Menem
(born 1930)
8 July 1989 8 July 1995 Free indirect elections. First term. The 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution reduced the presidential term to four years and allowed a single consecutive reelection. [54]
8 July 1995 10 December 1999 Free direct elections. Second term.
PJ
48 Fernando de la Rúa con bastón y banda de presidente.jpg Fernando de la Rúa
(born 1937)
10 December 1999 20 December 2001 Free direct elections. Faced a severe economic crisis. Resigned after the December 2001 riots. His Vice-president Carlos Álvarez had resigned in October 2000, so the Congress Assembled appointed a new President. [55]
UCRAlianza
49 Adolfo Rodríguez Saá con banda presidencial.jpg Adolfo Rodríguez Saá
(born 1947)
22 December 2001 30 December 2001 Elected by the Assembly for three months, with instructions to call for elections. Resigned. [56]
PJ
50 Eduardo duhalde presidente.jpg Eduardo Duhalde
(born 1941)
2 January 2002 25 May 2003 Elected by the Assembly, with instructions to complete De la Rúa's term. Called early elections for 27 April 2003, and resigned. [56]
PJ
51 Néstor Kirchner - 20050402 - Regimiento de Patricios (Argentina).jpg Néstor Kirchner
(1950–2010)
25 May 2003 10 December 2007 Free direct elections. The law that allowed Duhalde to resign gave the new president both the four-year mandate and the remaining months of De la Rúa's term. Kirchner lost the first round to Carlos Menem, but the latter forfeited the second round that should have followed. [57]
PJFPV
52 Presidente Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.jpg Cristina Fernández de Kirchner
(born 1953)
10 December 2007 10 December 2011 Free direct elections. First term. First female president of Argentina elected as head of the list. [58]
10 December 2011 Incumbent Free direct elections. Second term. Incumbent
PJFPV

Timeline of Head of States of Argentina by affiliation[edit]

|
1810
|
1820
|
1830
|
1840
|
1850
|
1860
|
1870
|
1880
|
1890
|
1900
|
1910
|
1910
|
1920
|
1930
|
1940
|
1950
|
1960
|
1970
|
1980
|
1990
|
2000
|
2010

Affiliation Keys[edit]

Colour key
  Unitarian (19th Century Centralists)
  Federal (19th Century Federalists)
  Liberal - (19th Century Liberals)
  National Autonomist Party (1874–1916)
  Radicals - UCR (founded 1891), UCR-A (1924–1946), UCRI (1956–1972), UCRP (1957–1972), Alianza (UCR, FREPASO) (1997–2001)
  Concordance - Concordancia (UCR-A, PSI, PDN) (1931–1943)
  Peronists - Laborist (1945–1947), PJ (founded 1947), FJL (1972–1974), FPV (since 2003)
  Military (Acting on behalf of the Armed Forces)
Party abbreviations
Alianza Alianza por el Trabajo, la Justicia y la Educación Alliance for Work, Justice and Education (1997–2001) (UCR, FREPASO)
Aut Partido Autonomista Autonomist Party (1862–1874)
Conc Concordancia Concordance (1931–1943) (UCR-A, PSI, PDN)
Fed Federal 19th Century Federals
FJL Frente Justicialista de Liberación Nacional (FREJULI) Justicialist Front for National Liberation (1972–1974)
FPV Frente para la Victoria Front for Victory (since 2003)
Lab Partido Laboriousta Labour Party (1945–1947)
Lib Liberal 19th Century Liberals
Mil Military Acting on behalf of the Armed Forces
Mod Partido Autonomista Nacional (línea modernista) National Autonomist Party -Modernist (1892–1916)
PAN Partido Autonomista Nacional National Autonomist Party (1874–1916)
PDN Partido Demócrata Nacional National Democratic Party (1931–1955)
PJ Partido Justicialista Justicialist Party (founded 1947)
UCR Unión Cívica Radical Radical Civic Union (founded 1891)
UCR-A UCR Antipersonalista Anti-Yrigoyenist UCR (1924–1946)
UCRI Unión Cívica Radical Intransigente Radical Civic Union -Intransigent (1956–1972)
UCRP Unión Cívica Radical del Pueblo Radical Civic Union of the People (1957–1972)
Unitarian Unitario 19th Century Centralists

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Iván Ruiz and Maia Jastreblansky (February 21, 2014). "Cristina difundió su sueldo: cobra $ 48.366 por mes" [Cristina revealed her salary: she earns $48,366 monthly] (in Spanish). La Nación. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Mendelevich, p. 28
  3. ^ Mendelevich, p. 33
  4. ^ Mendelevich, p. 24
  5. ^ Mendelevich, p. 46
  6. ^ a b c Mendelevich, p. 130—131
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Mendelevich, p. 136
  8. ^ Braslavsky, Guido (25 September 2008). "Alfonsín vuelve a la Casa Rosada para inaugurar su propia estatua" [Alfonsín returns to the Casa Rosada to open his own statue] (in Spanish). Clarín (newspaper). Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Quieren quitar los nombres de militares de las calles" [They want to removemilitary names from the streets] (in Spanish). El Argentino. 21 November 2008. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  10. ^ Ginzberg, Victoria (19 January 2003). "Los protocolos y las decisiones políticas" [Protocols and political rulings] (in Spanish). Página/12. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  11. ^ Groisman, Enrique. "Los gobiernos de facto en el derecho argentino" [De facto governments in Argentine law] (PDF) (in Spanish). Centro de estudios políticos y constitucionales. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  12. ^ “Buenos Aires, diciembre 16 de 1829.- El primer comandante de Patricios, el primer presidente de un gobierno patrio, pudo sólo quedar olvidado en su fallecimiento por las circunstancias calamitosas en que el país se hallaba. Después que ellas han terminado, sería una ingratitud negar a ciudadano tan eminente el tributo de honor rendido a su mérito, y a una vida ilustrada con tantas virtudes, que supo consagrar entera al servicio de su patria. El gobierno, para cumplir un deber tan sagrado, acuerda y decreta: Artículo 1º: En el cementerio del Norte se levantará, por cuenta del gobierno, un monumento en que se depositarán los restos del brigadier general D. Cornelio Saavedra. Artículo 2º: Se archivará en la Biblioteca Pública un manuscrito autógrafo del mismo brigadier general, con arreglo a lo que previene el decreto de 6 de octubre de 1821. Artículo 3º: Comuníquese y publíquese. Rosas – Tomás Guido”.
  13. ^ Rosa, vol. II, p.199-306
  14. ^ Rosa, vol. II, p. 306-319
  15. ^ Rosa, Vol. III, p. 75-114
  16. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 114-129
  17. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 143
  18. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 143-160
  19. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 160
  20. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 161-242
  21. ^ Rosa, vol. III, p. 242-253
  22. ^ Rosa, vol. V, p.73-97
  23. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p.97-117
  24. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p 127-129
  25. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p. 129-171
  26. ^ Rosa. vol. IV, p. 186-196
  27. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p. 198-204
  28. ^ Rosa, vol. IV, p. 206-213
  29. ^ Rosa, vol. IV p. 219 - vol. V p. 489
  30. ^ Mendelevich, p. 38-41
  31. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 42-45
  32. ^ a b c Mendelevich, p.46-52
  33. ^ Mendelevich, p. 53-56
  34. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 57-65
  35. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 66-72
  36. ^ Mendelevich, p. 73-79
  37. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 80-88
  38. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 89-101
  39. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 102-112
  40. ^ Mendelevich, p. 113-125
  41. ^ Mendelevich, p. 126-129
  42. ^ Mendelevich, p. 130-135
  43. ^ Mendelevich, p. 145
  44. ^ Mendelevich, p. 156-176
  45. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 177-186
  46. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 187-195
  47. ^ Mendelevich, p. 193
  48. ^ a b c d Mendelevich, p. 196-214
  49. ^ a b c Mendelevich, p. 215-228
  50. ^ Mendelevich, p. 223
  51. ^ Mendelevich, p. 229-235
  52. ^ a b c d Mendelevich, p. 236-241
  53. ^ Mendelevich, p. 242-245
  54. ^ Mendelevich, p. 247-252
  55. ^ Mendelevich, p. 253-262
  56. ^ a b Mendelevich, p. 263-277
  57. ^ Mendelevich, p. 278-282
  58. ^ Mendelevich, p. 283-292

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