List of heads of state of Mexico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Head of State in Mexico is the person who controls the executive power in the country. Under the current constitution, this responsibility lies in the President of the United Mexican States, who is head of the supreme executive power of the Mexican Union.[1] Throughout its history, Mexico has had several forms of government. Under the federal constitutions, the title of President was the same as the current. Under the Seven Laws (centralist), the chief executive was named President of the Republic. In addition, there have been two periods of monarchical rule, during which the executive was controlled by the Emperor of Mexico.

The chronology of the heads of state of Mexico is complicated due to the country's political instability during most of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century. With few exceptions, most of the Mexican presidents elected during this period did not complete their terms. Until the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, each president had remained in office an average of fifteen months.[2]

This list also included the self-appointed presidents during civil wars and the collegiate bodies that performed the Mexican Executive duties during periods of transition.

Seal of the Government of Mexico.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Mexico
Foreign relations

Mexican Empire (1821–1823)[edit]

Main article: First Mexican Empire

First Regency[edit]

After the consummation of the Independence of Mexico, it was settled a Provisional Board of Governing formed by thirty-four persons. The Board decreed and signed the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire and appointed a regency composed by six people.

Regent[3] Took office Left office Notes
Iturbide, Miranda, 1860.png Agustín de Iturbide September 28, 1821 April 11, 1822
Juan O'Donoju.jpg Juan O'Donojú September 28, 1821 October 8, 1821 He died on October 8.
Antonio Pérez Martínez y Robles.jpg Antonio Pérez Martínez October 8, 1821 April 11, 1822
Manuel de la Bárcena.jpg Manuel de la Barcéna September 28, 1821 April 11, 1822
José Isidro Yañez.jpg José Isidro Yañez September 28, 1821 April 11, 1822
No image.svg Manuel Velázquez de León September 28, 1821 April 11, 1822

Second Regency[edit]

Regent[3] Took office Left office Notes
Iturbide, Miranda, 1860.png Agustín de Iturbide April 11, 1822 May 18, 1822
José Isidro Yañez.jpg José Isidro Yañez April 11, 1822 May 18, 1822
No image.svg Miguel Valentín April 11, 1822 May 18, 1822
Manuel de Heras Soto.jpg Manuel de Heras April 11, 1822 May 18, 1822
Nicolas Bravo.jpg Nicolás Bravo April 11, 1822 May 18, 1822

Agustín I[edit]

Emperor Coat of Arms Reign Start Reign Ended Royal House Consort
Iturbide Emperador by Josephus Arias Huerta.jpg Agustín I
(1783–1824)
Coat of Arms of the First Mexican Empire.svg May 19, 1822 March 19, 1823 Iturbide Emperatriz Ana Maria Huarte de Iturbide.png Ana María
(1786–1861)

Provisional Government (1823–1824)[edit]

The Provisional Government of 1823 was an organization that served as Executive to govern México after the end of the Mexican Empire of Agustín I, on 1823.[4] The organization was responsible for convening the creation of the Federal Republic and was in effect from April 1, 1823 to October 10, 1824.[5]

Head of State[6][7][8] Took office Left office Notes
Nicolas Bravo.jpg Nicolás Bravo March 31, 1823 October 10, 1824
Guadalupe Victoria Cruces y Campa.png Guadalupe Victoria March 31, 1823 October 10, 1824
Pedro Celestino Negrete.jpg Pedro Celestino Negrete March 31, 1823 October 10, 1824
Jose mariano michelena.jpg Mariano Michelena April 1, 1823 October 10, 1824 Substitute Member
Miguel dominguez.jpg Miguel Domínguez April 1, 1823 October 10, 1824 Substitute Member
Vicente Guerrero (1865).png Vicente Guerrero April 1, 1823 October 10, 1824 Substitute Member

First Federal Republic (1824–1835)[edit]

No.
President Took office Left office Political Party Vice President Notes
1 GuadVictoriaChurubuscoDF.JPG Guadalupe Victoria
(1786–1843)
October 10, 1824 March 31, 1829 Independent Nicolás Bravo First constitutional elected President of Mexico
and the only President who completed his full term
in almost 30 years of independent Mexico.
[9]
2 Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña.png Vicente Guerrero
(1782–1831)
April 1, 1829 December 17, 1829 Liberal Party Anastasio Bustamante He was appointed by Congress after the resignation
of president-elect Manuel Gómez Pedraza.
[10][11]
3 Jose Maria Bocanegra.PNG José María Bocanegra
(1787–1862)
December 17, 1829 December 23, 1829 Partido Popular Yorkino
(Popular York Rite Party)
part of the Liberal Party
He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Guerrero
left office to fight the rebellion of his Vice President.
[12][13]
Pedro Velez.PNG Pedro Vélez
(1787–1848)
December 23, 1829 December 31, 1829 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he was appointed by the
Council of Government as head of the executive triumvirate
along with Lucas Alamán and Luis Quintanar.
[14]
4 Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
January 1, 1830 August 13, 1832 Conservative Party As Vice President he assumed the presidency
after the coup against Guerrero.
[15]
5 Melchor Muzquiz.png Melchor Múzquiz
(1790–1844)
August 14, 1832 December 24, 1832 Partido Popular Yorkino
(Popular York Rite Party)
part of the Liberal Party
He was appointed Interim President by Congress when
Bustamante left office to fight the rebellion of Santa Anna.
[16][17][18]
6 Manuel Gómez Pedraza.png Manuel Gómez Pedraza
(1789–1851)
December 24, 1832 March 31, 1833 Partido Yorkino Federalista
(Federalist York Rite Party)
part of the Liberal Party
He assumed the presidency to conclude the term
he should rule as winner of the elections of 1828.
[19][20]
7 Valentín Gómez Farías.png Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
April 1, 1833 May 16, 1833 Liberal Party As Vice President he assumed the presidency in place of Santa Anna, along with whom he was elected in the elections of 1833.
[21][22][23]
8 Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
May 16, 1833 June 3, 1833 Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías He assumed the presidency as constitutional elected president.
He alternated the presidency with Vice President
Gómez Farías four more times until April 24, 1834.

[22][24][25][26]
Valentín Gómez Farías.png Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
June 3, 1833 June 18, 1833 Liberal Party
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
June 18, 1833 July 5, 1833 Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías
Valentín Gómez Farías.png Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
July 5, 1833 October 27, 1833 Liberal Party
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
October 27, 1833 December 15, 1833 Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías
Valentín Gómez Farías.png Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
December 16, 1833 April 24, 1834 Liberal Party He promoted several liberal reforms that led
to the discontent of conservatives and the church.
Santa Anna took office again and he went to exile.
[23][27]
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
April 24, 1834 January 27, 1835 Liberal Party He cancelled the liberal reforms.
On January 27, the Sixth Constitutional Congress
dismissed to Gomez Farias as Vice President.
[23][27][28]
9 Miguel Barragan Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Barragán
(1789–1836)
January 28, 1835 February 27, 1836 Liberal Party He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Santa Anna left office to fight the Rebellion of Zacatecas.
On October 23, Congress enacted the Constitutional Basis,
which void the Constitution of 1824 and the federal system.
He served both as last president of the First Federal Republic
and the first of the Centralist Republic.
[29][30][31][32]

Centralist Republic (1835–1846)[edit]

No.
President Took office Left office Political Party Notes
9 Miguel Barragan Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Barragán
(1789–1836)
January 28, 1835 February 27, 1836 Liberal Party He left office because of a serious illness. He died two days later.[29]
10 Jose Justo Corro.PNG José Justo Corro
(1794–1864)
February 27, 1836 April 19, 1837 Conservative Party He was appointed Interim President by Congress to conclude the presidential term.
During his term, he enacted the Seven Laws and
Spain recognized the Independence of Mexico.
[33][34][35]
Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
April 19, 1837 March 18, 1839 Conservative Party He took office as constitutional elected president.
He was elected in the elections of 1837 for an eight years term.
[36][37]
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
March 18, 1839 July 10, 1839 Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by the Supreme Conservative Power when Bustamante left office to fight federalist rebellions.[24][38]
11 Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
July 11, 1839 July 19, 1839 Conservative Party He was appointed substitute president when Santa Anna left office.[26][39][40]
Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
July 19, 1839 September 22, 1841 Conservative Party He reassumed the presidency.[26][41]
12 Francisco Javier Echeverria.PNG Francisco Javier Echeverría
(1797–1852)
September 22, 1841 October 10, 1841 Conservative Party He was appointed interim president when Bustamante left office to fight a rebellion headed by Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, Santa Anna, and Gabriel Valencia.
He resigned after the triumph of the rebellion.
[42][43][44]
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
October 10, 1841 October 26, 1842 Liberal Party He was appointed provisional president by a Junta de Representantes de los Departamentos (Board of Representatives of the Departments).[45][46][47]
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
October 26, 1842 March 4, 1843 Conservative Party He was appointed substitute president by Santa Anna when he left office.[40][47]
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
March 4, 1843 October 4, 1843 Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency as provisional president.[48]
13 Valentin Canalizo Oleo (480x600).png Valentín Canalizo
(1794–1850)
October 4, 1843 June 4, 1844 Conservative Party He was appointed interim president by Santa Anna when he left office.[49][50]
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
June 4, 1844 September 12, 1844 Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency after being elected constitutional president by Congress on January 2, 1844.[51][52]
14 Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
September 12, 1844 September 21, 1844 Liberal Party He was appointed substitute president by Congress to replace the interim president Valentin Canalizo.[52][53]
Valentin Canalizo Oleo (480x600).png Valentín Canalizo
(1794–1850)
September 21, 1844 December 6, 1844 Conservative Party He assumed the presidency as interim president.[54]
Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
December 6, 1844 December 30, 1845 Liberal Party He was appointed interim, and after, constitutional president by Senate
after Canalizo was arrested for trying to dissolve the Congress.
[53][55][56]
15 Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga (480x600).png Mariano Paredes
(1797–1849)
December 31, 1845 July 28, 1846 Conservative Party He assumed office via a coup against De Herrera.
On June 12, he was appointed interim president.
[57][58]
Vice President[58]
Nicolás Bravo
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
July 28, 1846 August 4, 1846 Conservative Party He took office when Paredes left the presidency to fight the Americans in the Mexican American War.
He was deposed by a federalist rebellion led by Jose Mariano Salas and Valentin Gomez Farias.
[59][60][61]
16 Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png José Mariano Salas
(1797–1867)
August 5, 1846 December 23, 1846 Conservative Party He assumed office as provisional president after the triumph of the federalist rebellion (Plan de la Ciudadela).
He put in force the Constitution of 1824 on August 22.
[62][63][64]
He served both as last president of the Centralist Republic and first of the Second Federal Republic.

Second Federal Republic (1846–1863)[edit]

No.
President Took office Left office Political Party Notes
16 Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png José Mariano Salas
(1797–1867)
August 6, 1846 December 23, 1846 Conservative Party After he restored the federalism, he called elections.
Santa Anna won the election and was appointed interim president by Congress and Valentin Gomez Farias as vice president.
[62][65]
Valentín Gómez Farías.png Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
December 23, 1846 March 21, 1847 Liberal Party As vice president, he took office in place of Santa Anna, who was fighting the Americans in the Mexican American War.[66]
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
March 21, 1847 April 2, 1847 Liberal Party He took office as elected interim president.[67]
Vice President
Valentín Gómez Farías
17 Pedro M. Anaya.PNG Pedro María de Anaya
(1795–1854)
April 2, 1847 May 20, 1847 Liberal Party Santa Anna left office to fight in the Mexican American War. Congress abolished the vice presidency and he was appointed as substitute president.[68][69][70]
Oleo Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.PNG Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
May 20, 1847 September 15, 1847 Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency when De Anaya left office to fight in the Mexican American War.[71][72]
18 Manuel de la Peña y Peña.PNG Manuel de la Peña y Peña
(1789–1850)
September 16, 1847 November 13, 1847 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he assumed the presidency after Santa Anna's resignation.[73][74]
Pedro M. Anaya.PNG Pedro María de Anaya
(1795–1854)
November 13, 1847 January 8, 1848 Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by Congress when De la Peña y Peña left office in order to negotiate peace with the United States.
Manuel de la Peña y Peña.PNG Manuel de la Peña y Peña
(1789–1850)
January 8, 1848 June 3, 1848 Liberal Party He reassumed office as provisional president when De Anaya resigned
after refusing to give any land to the United States.
[75] During his term, he signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
June 3, 1848 January 15, 1851 Liberal Party He was the second president to finish his term and peacefully turned over the presidency to the winner of the Federal Elections of 1850, General Mariano Arista.[76]
19 Mariano Arista Oleo (480x600).png Mariano Arista
(1802–1855)
January 15, 1851 January 5, 1853 Liberal Party He resigned on January 5, 1853 when Congress refuse to give him extraordinary powers to fight the rebellion of Plan del Hospicio, which its goal was bring to Santa Anna once again to the presidency.[77]
20 Juan Bautista Ceballos Oleo (480x600).png Juan Bautista Ceballos
(1811–1859)
January 5, 1853 February 7, 1853 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he was proposed by President Arista as his successor and confirmed the same day as interim president by Congress.[78]
21 Manuel María Lombardini.PNG Manuel María Lombardini
(1802–1853)
February 8, 1853 April 20, 1853 Conservative Party He was appointed provisional president by Congress when Ceballos resigned because of the rebellion of Plan del Hospicio.[79]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
April 20, 1853 August 9, 1855 Liberal Party He swore as President but ruled as dictator.
He called himself "Su Alteza Serenisima" (Serene Highness).[80][81]
From this period, the only lasting thing is the Mexican National Anthem.
[82][83]
22 Martín Carrera.PNG Martín Carrera
(1806–1871)
August 9, 1855 September 12, 1855 Conservative Party He was appointed interim president after the triumph of the Plan of Ayutla
but he took office until August 15.[83][84]
23 Rómulo Díaz de la Vega.PNG Rómulo Díaz de la Vega
(1800–1877)
September 12, 1855 October 4, 1855 Conservative Party He served as de facto president after Carrera's resignation.[85][86]
24 Juan Alvarez.PNG Juan Álvarez
(1790–1867)
October 4, 1855 December 11, 1855 Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by a council integrated with one representative of each state after the triumph of the Revolution of Ayutla.[87][88]
25 Ignacio Comonfort.PNG Ignacio Comonfort
(1812–1863)
December 11, 1855 December 17, 1857 Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by Juan Alvarez when he resigned.
He assumed as constitutional president on December 1, 1857.[89][90]
26 Benito Juarez Oleo (480x600).png Benito Juárez
(1806–1872)
December 18, 1857 July 18, 1872 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he became interim president after the self-coup of Ignacio Comonfort against the Constitution of 1857. He was arrested and freed by Comonfort. He established a liberal constitutional government on January 18, 1858.
The struggle between the Liberal and Conservative forces is known as Reform War.[91]

Presidents recognized by the Conservatives during the Reform War[edit]

Main article: War of the Reform
President Took office Left office Political Party Notes
Ignacio Comonfort.PNG Ignacio Comonfort
(1812–1863)
December 17, 1857 January 21, 1858 Liberal Party After the declaration of Plan of Tacubaya, Congress declared that he was not longer president but he was recognized by conservatives as president with absolute powers.[92][93]
Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
January 11, 1858 December 24, 1858 Conservative Party After disown Comonfort, Zuloaga was appointed president by the Conservative Party.[94]
Manuel Robles Pezuela Oleo (480x600).png Manuel Robles Pezuela
(1817–1862)
December 24, 1858 January 23, 1859 Conservative Party He assumed the conservative presidency with the support of the Plan de Navidad.[95][96]
Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
January 24, 1859 February 1, 1859 Conservative Party He was restored to the presidency by counter-rebellion led by Miguel Miramón.[95][97]
Miguel Miramón Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Miramón
(1831–1867)
February 2, 1859 August 13, 1860 Conservative Party He assumed the conservative presidency as substitute when Zuloaga left office.[98]
José Ignacio Pavón.PNG José Ignacio Pavón
(1791–1866)
August 13, 1860 August 15, 1860 Conservative Party As president of the Supreme Court of the conservative government,
he took office for two days when Miramón left office.[99]
Miguel Miramón Oleo (480x600).png Miguel Miramón
(1831–1867)
August 15, 1860 December 24, 1860 Conservative Party He took office as interim president of the conservative government after he was elected
by a group of "Representatives of the States" who supported the conservatives.
He was defeated at the Battle of Calpulalpan, resigned the presidency and fled the country.[100]
Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
May 23, 1860 December 28, 1862 Conservative Party Despite having been defeated, the conservatives appointed Zuloaga as president until December 28, when they recognized the Regency who was seeking to reestablish the Mexican Empire.[101]

Second Mexican Empire (1863–1867)[edit]

Main article: Second Mexican Empire

Regency[edit]

On June 22, 1863, was established a "Superior Board Governing". On July 11, the Board became the Regency of the Empire.[102][103]

Regent[3] Took office Left office Political Party Notes
Gral. Juan Nepomuceno Almonte.png Juan Nepomuceno Almonte July 11, 1863 April 10, 1864 Conservative Party
Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png José Mariano Salas July 11, 1863 April 10, 1864 Conservative Party
Pelagio Antonio de Labastida.png Pelagio Antonio de Labastida October 19, 1863 April 10, 1864 Conservative Party

Maximilian I[edit]

Emperor Coat of Arms Reign Start Reign Ended Royal House Consort
Emperador Maximiliano I de Mexico.jpg Maximilian I
(1832–1867)
Coat of Arms of the Second Mexican Empire.svg April 10, 1864 June 19, 1867 Habsburg-Lorraine Emperatriz Carlota I de Mexico.png Carlota of Mexico
(1840–1927)

Restored Republic (1867–1876)[edit]

No.
President Took office Left office Political Party Notes
Benito Juarez Oleo (480x600).png Benito Juárez
(1806–1872)
December 18, 1857 June 11, 1861 Liberal Party The first term he was interim president during the Reform War.
The second term was appointed constitutional president by Congress.
The third term was an extension of the second, consequence of the invasion.
The fourth and fifth terms were after the triumph of the Republic.
June 11, 1861 November 30, 1865
December 1, 1865 December 7, 1867
December 8, 1867 October 11, 1871
October 12, 1871 July 18, 1872
27 Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada Oleo (480x600).png Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
(1823–1889)
July 18, 1872 November 30, 1872 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he became interim president after the death of Juarez. He was overthrown by the Revolution of Tuxtepec and left office ten days before the end of his term.[104]
December 1, 1872 November 20, 1876
28 José María Iglesias Oleo (480x600).png José María Iglesias
(1823–1891)
October 26, 1876 November 28, 1876 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he declared himself interim president when Congress declared the reelection of Lerdo de Tejada. When Lerdo de Tejada went to exile on November 20, he became constitutional interim president.[105]

Porfiriato (1876–1911)[edit]

No.
President Took office Left office Political Party Notes
29 Porfirio Diaz en 1867.png Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
November 28, 1876 December 6, 1876 Liberal Party He became provisional president when Iglesias went to exile.[106]
30 Juan Nepomuceno Méndez Oleo (480x600).png Juan Nepomuceno Méndez
(1824–1894)
December 6, 1876 February 17, 1877 Liberal Party He was appointed substitute president by Díaz when he left office to fight the supporters of Lerdo de Tejada.[107]
Porfirio Diaz en 1867.png Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
February 17, 1877 November 30, 1880 Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency. On May 2, he was appointed constitutional president by Congress.[108]
31 President Manuel Gonzalez.jpg Manuel González Flores
(1833–1893)
December 1, 1880 November 30, 1884 Liberal Party He was the winner of the federal elections of 1880.[109]
Porfirio diaz.jpg Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
December 1, 1884 November 30, 1888 Partido Nacional Porfirista
(National Porfirist Party)

Partido Nacional Reeleccionista
(National Reelectionist Party)
He was the winner of the federal elections of 1884, 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1910.
He resigned during his 7th term after the triumph of the Mexican Revolution.[110]
December 1, 1888 November 30, 1892
December 1, 1892 November 30, 1896
December 1, 1896 November 30, 1900
December 1, 1900 November 30, 1904
December 1, 1904 November 30, 1910 Vice President
Ramón Corral
(since 1904)
December 1, 1910 May 25, 1911

Revolution (1910–1920)[edit]

Main article: Mexican Revolution
No. President Took office Left office Political Party Notes
32 Francisco León.jpg Francisco León de la Barra
(1863–1939)
May 25, 1911 November 5, 1911 Independent According the "Treaties of Ciudad Juárez", he assumed as interim president. Immediately called for elections.[111]
33 Presidente Francisco I. Madero.jpg Francisco I. Madero
(1873–1913)
November 6, 1911 February 19, 1913 Partido Constitucional Progresista
(Constitutional Progresist Party)[112]
He was the winner of the special election of 1911.
He was overthrown by a coup known as Ten Tragic Days in which were involved Victoriano Huerta, Félix Díaz and the American ambassador Henry L. Wilson. He was murdered two days later along with the vice president Pino Suarez.[113][114]
Vice President
José María Pino Suárez
34 Pedro Lascurain (480x600).jpg Pedro Lascuráin
(1856–1952)
February 19, 1913 Independent As Secretary of Foreign Affairs, he assumed as interim president according the constitution. In about 45 minutes, he appointed Victoriano Huerta as Secretary of Interior and then resigned to the Presidency.[115]
35 V Huerta.jpg Victoriano Huerta
(1850–1916)
February 19, 1913 July 15, 1914 Independent He assumed office via a coup against Francisco I. Madero. He was defeated by constitutionalist army led by Governor of Coahuila, Venustiano Carranza.[116][117]
36 Francisco Sebastián Carvajal.jpg Francisco S. Carvajal
(1870–1932)
July 15, 1914 August 13, 1914 Independent He assumed as Interim President after the resignation of Huerta.
He resigned after the signing of the Treaties of Teoloyucan.[118]
37 Presidente Venustiano Carrranza (480x600).jpg Venustiano Carranza
(1859–1920)
Head of the Executive Power
First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army
Partido Liberal Constitucionalista
(Constitutionalist Liberal Party)
He served as Head of the Executive Power after the resignation of Carvajal.
He convoked a Constitutional Convention which enacted the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. He won the federal election of 1917 and took office as Constitutional President on May 1, 1917.
He was killed during the Rebellion of Agua Prieta.[119]
August 14, 1914 April 30, 1917
President of Mexico
May 1, 1917 May 21, 1920
38 Adolfo de la Huerta.jpg Adolfo de la Huerta
(1881–1955)
June 1, 1920 November 30, 1920 Partido Liberal Constitucionalista
(Constitutionalist Liberal Party)
He was appointed provisional president by Congress.[120]
39 Obregón Salido, Álvaro.jpg Álvaro Obregón
(1880–1928)
December 1, 1920 November 30, 1924 Partido Laborista Mexicano
(Mexican Laborist Party)
He was the winner of the federal elections of 1920.[121]
40 Plutarco Elias Calles.jpg Plutarco Elías Calles
(1877–1945)
December 1, 1924 November 30, 1928 Partido Laborista Mexicano
(Mexican Laborist Party)
He was the winner of the federal elections of 1924.[122]

Presidents recognized by the Convention of Aguascalientes[edit]

President Took office Left office Notes
Eulalio Gutierrez sentado.png Eulalio Gutiérrez
(1881–1939)
November 6, 1914 January 16, 1915 He was appointed provisional president by the Convention of Aguascalientes.[123]
Roque González Garza.PNG Roque González Garza
(1885–1962)
January 16, 1915 June 10, 1915 He was appointed provisional president by the Convention of Aguascalientes
after Gutierrez left Mexico City.[124]
Francisco Lagos Chazaro.png Francisco Lagos Cházaro
(1878–1932)
June 10, 1915 October 10, 1915 He assumed as provisional president when González Garza resigned.
He was the last president of the Convention.[125]

Maximato (1928–1934)[edit]

Main article: Maximato
Party

      National Revolutionary Party

No. President Took office Left office Notes
41 Emilio Portes, portrait.jpg Emilio Portes Gil
(1890–1978)
December 1, 1928 February 4, 1930 After the assassination of president-elect Alvaro Obregón, he was appointed interim president by Congress.[126]
42 Pascual Rubio, portrait.jpg Pascual Ortiz Rubio
(1877–1963)
February 5, 1930 September 4, 1932 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1929.
He resigned from the intervention of Calles in his government.[127][128]
43 Abelardo.rodriguez.jpg Abelardo L. Rodríguez
(1889–1967)
September 4, 1932 November 30, 1934 He was appointed substitute president by Congress to conclude the term 1930-1934.[129]

Modern Mexico (Six-Year Term)[edit]

Main article: Sexenio (Mexico)

After the constitutional reform of 1933, the presidential term in Mexico was extended to six years without the possibility of reelection. After the federal election of 1934 all the presidents have completed their terms.

Parties

      National Revolutionary Party       Party of the Mexican Revolution       Institutional Revolutionary Party       National Action Party

No. President Took office Left office Notes
44 Lazaro cardenas2.jpg Lázaro Cárdenas del Río
(1895–1970)
December 1, 1934 November 30, 1940 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1934.
45 Manuel Ávila Camacho, portrait.jpg Manuel Ávila Camacho
(1896–1955)
December 1, 1940 November 30, 1946 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1940.
46 Miguel Aleman.jpg Miguel Alemán Valdés
(1900–1983)
December 1, 1946 November 30, 1952 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1946.
47 Adolfo Ruiz Cortines.png Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
(1889–1973)
December 1, 1952 November 30, 1958 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1952.
48 Adolfo López Mateos (1963).jpg Adolfo López Mateos
(1910–1969)
December 1, 1958 November 30, 1964 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1958.
49 Presidente Diaz Ordaz.jpg Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
(1911–1979)
December 1, 1964 November 30, 1970 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1964.
50 Presidente Echeverria.jpg Luis Echeverría
(1922–)
December 1, 1970 November 30, 1976 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1970.
51 Lopez Portillo 1979.jpg José López Portillo
(1920–2004)
December 1, 1976 November 30, 1982 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1976.
52 De la madrid1.jpg Miguel de la Madrid
(1934–2012)
December 1, 1982 November 30, 1988 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1982.
53 Carlos Salinas.jpg Carlos Salinas de Gortari
(1948–)
December 1, 1988 November 30, 1994 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1988.
54 Ernesto Zedillo World Economic Forum (2008).jpg Ernesto Zedillo
(1951–)
December 1, 1994 November 30, 2000 He was the winner of the federal elections of 1994.
55 Vicente Fox flag.jpg Vicente Fox
(1942–)
December 1, 2000 November 30, 2006 He was the winner of the federal elections of 2000.
56 Felipe Calderon 20090130.jpg Felipe Calderón
(1962–)
December 1, 2006 November 30, 2012 He was the winner of the federal elections of 2006.
57 Presidente Enrique Peña Nieto. Fotografía oficial.jpg Enrique Peña Nieto
(1966–)
December 1, 2012 Incumbent He was the winner of the federal elections of 2012.

Living former presidents[edit]

As of July 2014, there are five living former presidents of Mexico. The most recent death of a former president was that of Miguel de la Madrid (1982–1988), on April 1, 2012.

Presidents who died in office[edit]

President Term of office Date of death Notes
Miguel Barragán 1835–1836 March 1, 1836 (age 46) He died in National Palace victim of typhus two days after left the presidency to Jose Justo Corro.
Benito Juárez 1857–1872 July 18, 1872 (age 66) He is the only President of Mexico who died because of a non-violent cause while in office.
Francisco I. Madero 1911–1913 February 21, 1913 (age 39) He was killed three days after he was forced to sign his resignation as result of la Decena Trágica.
Venustiano Carranza 1914–1920 May 21, 1920 (age 60) He is the only President of Mexico killed in office.
Álvaro Obregón 1920–1924 July 17, 1928 (age 48) He is the only president-elect of Mexico killed before taking office.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Political Constitution of the United Mexican States". Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas (UNAM). p. 78. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  2. ^ Iturriaga, XXXX: 61.
  3. ^ a b c "El viajero en México: Ó sea la capital de la República, encerrada en un libro.". Open Library. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  4. ^ INEHRM Secretaría de Gobernación
  5. ^ "El Viajero en México (Pág. 30)". CDigital. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  6. ^ "Decreto. Nombramiento de los individuos que han de componer el poder ejecutivo." (in spanish). 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Decreto. Nombramiento de suplentes para el supremo poder ejecutivo." (in spanish). 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  8. ^ "Vicente Guerrero, 1782-1831." (in spanish). Gobierno Federal. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  9. ^ "How the First President of the United Mexican States came into office.". 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved October 3, 2010. 
  10. ^ La expulsión de los españoles de México y su destino incierto, 1821-1836. (in Spanish). pp. 74–75. Retrieved October 12, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Vicente Guerrero". Federal Government Of Mexico. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  12. ^ "Acuerdo de la Cámara de Diputados. Elección de presidente interino de la República en el Excmo. Sr. D. José María Bocanegra." (in Spanish). Retrieved July 8, 2011. 
  13. ^ "José María Bocanegra asume interinamente la presidencia de la República, por licencia de Vicente Guerrero." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Acuerdo del consejo de gobierno. Nombramiento de asociados al Excmo. Sr. Presidente de la Suprema Corte de Justicia, para ejercer el supremo poder ejecutivo." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Anastasio Bustamante, vicepresidente con Vicente Guerrero, asume la Presidencia de la República." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Melchor Múzquiz sustituye como presidente interino a Anastasio Bustamante." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Melchor Múzquiz." (in Spanish). Presidencia de la Republica. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Anastasio Bustamante." (in Spanish). Secretaria de Educación Publica en el Distrito Federal. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Manuel Gómez Pedraza." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Manuel Gómez Pedraza asume la presidencia de la República mediante los convenios de Zavaleta." (in Spanish). Memoria Politica de Mexico. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  21. ^ "El Sr. D. Valentín Gómez Farías, al jurar como Vicepresidente." (in Spanish). Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  22. ^ a b "Santa Anna asume por primera vez la presidencia de México." (in Spanish). Imagen Política de México y del Mundo. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  23. ^ a b c "Valentín Gómez Farías." (in Spanish). Presidencia de la Republica. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  24. ^ a b "Antonio López de Santa Anna" (in Spanish). Federal Government of Mexico. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Antonio López de Santa Anna asume por primera vez la presidencia de México." (in Spanish). Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  26. ^ a b c "La adicción al poder. Reelección o No Reelección." (in Spanish). Internet para el profesional de la política. p. 2. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  27. ^ a b "Santa Anna asume el poder; Valentín Gómez Farías va al exilio." (in Spanish). Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Relación Cronológica de las Legislaturas de la Cámara de Diputados." (in Spanish). Cámara de Diputados. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  29. ^ a b "Asume la presidencia de la República interinamente el general Miguel Barragán en sustitución de Santa Anna." (in Spanish). Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  30. ^ Riva Palacio, Vicente (1940). México a través de los siglos (in spanish). Editorial Cumbre. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  31. ^ De La Fuente Guerrero, Sara C. (2003). Las Constituciones de México. (in Spanish). México: Servigraf. 
  32. ^ "Bases constitucionales expedidas por el Congreso Constituyente." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  33. ^ "José Justo Corro asume el cargo de presidente interino por la enfermedad del general Miguel Barragán." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  34. ^ "Decreto que expide las Leyes Constitucionales de la República Mexicana.". 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  35. ^ "Tratado definitivo de paz y amistad entre México y España.". 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  36. ^ "La primera República Federal 1824-1835." (in Spanish). p. 8. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  37. ^ "Anastasio Bustamante.". Federal Government of Mexico. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  38. ^ "López de Santa Anna y Pérez Lebrón, Antonio." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  39. ^ "Nicolás Bravo 1786-1854." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  40. ^ a b "Nicolás Bravo." (in Spanish). Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  41. ^ "Anastasio Bustamante.". Government of the State of Aguascalientes. Retrieved August 10, 2011. 
  42. ^ "Anastasio Bustamante.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Francisco Javier Echeverría asume la presidencia de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Francisco Javier Echeverría.". Presidencia de la Republica. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  45. ^ "Decreto de la Junta de Representantes. Se declara Presidente de la República, a D. Antonio López de Santa-Anna.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  46. ^ "Junta de Representantes o Consejo de los Departamentos.". Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas (UNAM). Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  47. ^ a b "Efemérides / Santa Anna.". Secretaria de Educación Publica del D.F. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Decreto del gobierno. Sobre que volverá a ejercer el poder ejecutivo, luego que llegue a la capital, el general Santa-Anna.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  49. ^ "Decreto del gobierno. Se deposita el gobierno provisional de la República en el general D. Valentín Canalizo.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  50. ^ "Valentín Canalizo asume la presidencia de la República como sustituto de Santa Anna.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  51. ^ "Ley. Se declara presidente constitucional de la República, á D. Antonio López de Santa-Anna.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "Efemérides / Santa Anna.". Secretaria de Educación Publica del D.F. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  53. ^ a b "Valentín Canalizo es nombrado presidente interino de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  54. ^ "Canalizo, Valentín.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  55. ^ "Herrera asume la Presidencia tras un levantamiento popular.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  56. ^ "Decreto del senado. Se declara presidente interino de la República, á D. José Joaquín de Herrera.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  57. ^ "Mariano Paredes.". Presidencia de la Republica. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  58. ^ a b "Decreto del congreso extraordinario. Se declarará presidente interino á D. Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  59. ^ "Nicolás Bravo asume la presidencia de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  60. ^ "Se concede permiso al presidente de la República, para mandar en persona las fuerzas de tierra.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  61. ^ "Manifiesto de Mariano Salas y Valentín Gómez Farías.". 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  62. ^ a b "El General Mariano Salas toma posesión de la presidencia de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  63. ^ "Republica Federal.". El Viajero en México. p. 5. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  64. ^ "Se declara vigente la Constitución de 1824.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Se declara presidente interino de la República, á D. Antonio Lopez de Santa-Anna.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  66. ^ "Se declara que D. Valentín Gómez Farías queda en posesion de su encargo de vicepresidente de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  67. ^ "21 DE MARZO DE 1847.". Biblioteca Digital. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  68. ^ "Efemerides/Pedro María Anaya.". Secretaria de Educacion Publica del D.F. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  69. ^ "Desemejanzas entre el lider politico y el jefe militar.". Senate of Mexico. p. 2. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  70. ^ "Se concede licencia al actual presidente para mandar el ejército, y se suprime la vicepresidencia de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  71. ^ "Pedro María de Anaya.". Presidencia de la Republica. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  72. ^ "Tropas mexicanas al mando de Pedro María Anaya y Manuel Rincón luchan contra las fuerzas al mando de Scott en Churubusco.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  73. ^ "El Presidente de la República, a sus compatriotas.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  74. ^ "Manuel de la Peña y Peña". Presidencia de la Republica. Retrieved September 3, 2011. 
  75. ^ "El general Pedro María Anaya asume la presidencia de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved October 6, 2011. 
  76. ^ "Herrera, José Joaquín de.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  77. ^ "Tras reñidas elecciones, el general Mariano Arista asume pacíficamente la presidencia de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  78. ^ "Juan Bautista Ceballos asume el poder ejecutivo tras la renuncia del presidente Mariano Arista.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Lombardini asume la Presidencia.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  80. ^ "Santa Anna.". Secretaria de Educacion Publica del D.F. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  81. ^ "López de Santa Anna y Pérez Lebrón Antonio.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  82. ^ "Símbolos patrios de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.". Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  83. ^ a b "Al triunfo del Plan de Ayutla, Santa Anna sale de México.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  84. ^ "Martín Carrera.". Secretaria de Educacion Publica del Distrito Federal. Retrieved July 26, 2012. 
  85. ^ "Martín Carrera.". Gobierno Federal de Mexico. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  86. ^ "El general Rómulo Díaz de la Vega asume de facto la presidencia de la República.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  87. ^ "Juan Álvarez.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  88. ^ "1855 Decreto del gobierno. Se nombra presidente de la República al general D. Juan Alvarez.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  89. ^ "Ignacio Comonfort.". Gobierno Federal de México. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  90. ^ "Ignacio Comonfort asume la Presidencia.". Memoria Política de México. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  91. ^ "Juárez García Benito Pablo.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved April 29, 2013. 
  92. ^ "Es proclamado el Plan de Tacubaya, con el que los conservadores pretenden derogar la Constitución de 1857.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved April 29, 2013. 
  93. ^ "El Congreso declara que dejó de ser Presidente de la República don Ignacio Comonfort desde el 17 de diciembre de 1857.". 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved April 29, 2013. 
  94. ^ "Tras desconocer a Comonfort, Félix María Zuloaga es nombrado presidente por el partido conservador.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  95. ^ a b "Asume la presidencia del gobierno conservador el general Manuel Robles Pezuela.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  96. ^ "Plan de Navidad.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  97. ^ "FÉLIX MARÍA ZULOAGA (1813–1898).". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  98. ^ "Zuloaga nombra presidente sustituto de la República a Miguel Miramón.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  99. ^ "José Ignacio Pavón, presidente de la Suprema Corte, se encarga durante dos días del poder ejecutivo del gobierno conservador.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  100. ^ "Toma posesión como presidente interino de la República, Miguel Miramón. Juárez sigue siendo el presidente legal.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  101. ^ "Felix Maria Zuloaga.". Chihuahua, México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  102. ^ "Se establece la regencia del Imperio mexicano.". 500 años de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  103. ^ "Acta de la primera reunión de la Junta Superior de Gobierno.". 500 años de México. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  104. ^ "Lerdo de Tejada Sebastián.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  105. ^ "El Congreso declara la reelección de Lerdo de Tejada y José Ma. Iglesias se da a la rebeldía.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  106. ^ "Porfirio Díaz asume el poder por primera vez.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  107. ^ "El general Juan N. Méndez ocupa la presidencia en tanto Porfirio Díaz termina con los últimos reductos de las fuerzas de Iglesias y de Lerdo de Tejada.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  108. ^ "Porfirio Díaz es nombrado presidente constitucional de la República.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  109. ^ "El general Manuel González toma posesión como presidente constitucional.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  110. ^ "Díaz Mori Porfirio.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  111. ^ "León de la Barra Francisco.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  112. ^ Convención del Partido Constitucional Progresista.
  113. ^ "Francisco I. Madero asume el cargo de la Presidente de la República.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  114. ^ "Se consuma la traición: Huerta y Wilson firman el Pacto de la Embajada.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 1, 2013. 
  115. ^ "Por sólo cuarenta y cinco minutos, Pedro Lascuráin Paredes asume el cargo de presidente interino.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  116. ^ "Victoriano Huerta asume la presidencia y rinde la protesta de ley ante los diputados.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  117. ^ "Victoriano Huerta, vencido por las fuerzas constitucionalistas, renuncia a la Presidencia de la República.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  118. ^ "FRANCISCO S. CARVAJAL.". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  119. ^ "Carranza Garza Venustiano.". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  120. ^ "Adolfo de la Huerta asume la presidencia provisional de la República.". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  121. ^ "Obregón Salido Álvaro.". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  122. ^ "Elías Calles Campuzano Plutarco.". Bicentenario de México. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  123. ^ "Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz asume la presidencia del gobierno convencionista.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  124. ^ "El presidente provisional, nombrado por la Convención, Eulalio Gutiérrez, huye de México con los fondos de la Tesorería. Lo sucede Roque González Garza.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  125. ^ "Francisco Lagos Cházaro se convierte en el último presidente del gobierno de la Convención.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  126. ^ "Portes Gil Emilio.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  127. ^ "Pascual Ortiz Rubio sufre un atentado y resulta herido durante su toma posesión de la Presidencia de la República.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  128. ^ "Ortíz Rubio renuncia a la Presidencia. Ejerció su mandato en el periodo del "Maximato" llamado así por el poder real ejercido por Calles.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  129. ^ "Rodríguez Abelardo L.". Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 

External links[edit]