List of Presidents of Syria

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President of the
Syrian Arab Republic
Standard of the President of Syria.svg
Standard of the President
Bashar al-Assad (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
Bashar al-Assad

since 17 July 2000
Appointer Elected by the people
Term length 7-years
Inaugural holder Shukri al-Quwatli
(modern incarnation)
Formation 17 April 1946
(modern incarnation)
Coat of arms of Syria.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Syria

The President of the Syrian Arab Republic is the chief executive of the country. Since 1970 the President of the Syrian Arab Republic has been the undisputed leader of the country. There have been 19 heads of state of Syria, and 13 people who acted in that capacity, since 1922. Since 17 July 2000, Bashar al-Assad serves as the country's president.

The President and the Prime Ministership are the only state offices which exercise executive authority.[1] To be elected President, a person has to be 40 years of age or older, be of Syrian nationality or be born into a Syrian family, to not be convicted of felony, be married to a Syrian woman, be a resident of the Syrian Arab Republic for 10 continues years[2] and has to be a Muslim.[3] The president can delegate some, or all of his authorities to either a member of the People's Council or to the Vice President of Syria.[4] The numbers of vice presidents are decided by the president.[5]

Keys[edit]

Meaning
Acting president.
National Bloc
Syrian Social Nationalist Party
Military
Arab Liberation Movement
National Union
People's Party
Syrian Regional Branch (Ba'ath Party)
Syrian Regional Branch (Syrian Ba'ath Party)

Presidents[edit]

State of Syria, part of the French Mandate (1922–1930)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
1 Subhi barkat.jpg Subhi Barakat
(1883–1939)
28 June 1922 21 December 1925 Independent  
François Pierre-Alype
(1853–1932)
9 February 1926 28 April 1926 Independent  
2
Ahmad Nami
(1840–1928)
28 April 1926 15 February 1928 Independent  
Taj aldin.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
15 February 1928 14 May 1930 Independent  

Syrian Republic, part of the French Mandate (1930–1946)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
Taj aldin.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
14 May 1930 19 November 1931 Independent  
Léon Solomiac
(1873–1960)
19 November 1931 11 June 1932 Independent  
3 Muhammad Ali al-Abid.jpg Muhammad Ali al-Abid
(1867–1939)
11 June 1932 21 December 1936 Independent  
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
21 December 1936 7 July 1939 National Bloc  
5 Bahij al-Khatib.jpg Bahij al-Khatib
(1895–1981)
10 July 1939 4 April 1941 Independent  
Khalid al-Azm.jpg Khalid al-Azm
(1903–1965)
4 April 1941 16 September 1941 Independent  
6 Taj aldin.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
16 September 1941 17 January 1943 Independent Hasani died in office.[6]
Jamil al-Ulshi.jpg Jamil al-Ulshi
(1883–1951)
17 January 1943 25 March 1943 Independent  
7 Ata al-Ayyubi.jpg Ata al-Ayyubi
(1877–1951)
25 March 1943 17 August 1943 Independent  
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
17 August 1943 17 April 1946 National Bloc  

Syrian Republic (1946–1958)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
17 April 1946 29 March 1949 National Bloc /
National Party
Quwatli was ousted from power on 29 March 1949 by Husni al-Za'im, his Chief of Staff.[7]
9 Husni al-Zaiim.jpg Husni al-Za'im
(1897–1949)
30 March 1949 14 August 1949 Syrian Social Nationalist Party Za'im was overthrown by a military coup in 1949 led by Adib Shishakli, he was later executed on the orders of the new government.[8]
10 Sami al-Hinnawi.jpg Sami al-Hinnawi
(1898–1950)
14 August 1949 15 August 1949 Military  
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
15 August 1949 2 December 1951 National Party  
Adib al-Shishakli.jpg Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
2 December 1951 3 December 1951 Syrian Social Nationalist Party  
11 Fawzi Selu.jpg Fawzi Selu
(1905–1972)
3 December 1951 11 July 1953 Military  
12 Adib al-Shishakli.jpg Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
11 July 1953 25 February 1954 Arab Liberation Movement Shishakli resigned from office because of threats of a coup in 1954.[9] He fled the country, claiming that he did not want the country to fall into a civil war.[9]
Maamoun Kuzbari.jpg Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
25 February 1954 28 February 1954 Independent  
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
28 February 1954 6 September 1955 National Party  
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
6 September 1955 22 February 1958 National Party  

United Arab Republic (1958–1961)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
13 Nasser portrait2.jpg Gamal Abdel Nasser
(1918–1970)
22 February 1958 29 September 1961 National Union  

Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
Maamoun Kuzbari.jpg Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
29 September 1961 20 November 1961 Independent  
Izzat al-Nuss
(1900–1972)
20 November 1961 14 December 1961 Military  
14 Nazim al=Kudsi.jpg Nazim al-Kudsi
(1906–1998)
14 December 1961 8 March 1963 People's Party The 1963 Syrian coup d'état, an event known as the 8th of March Revolution, toppled Nazim al-Kudsi and brought the National Council for the Revolutionary Command (NCRC) to government, although real power lay with the Ba'athist Military Committee, which organized the coup.[10]
15 Luai al-Atassi.jpg Lu'ay al-Atassi
(1926–2003)
9 March 1963 27 July 1963 Independent Lu'ay al-Atassi was appointed president by the NCRC because he posed no threat to the Military Committee's power.[11] He resigned after high-ranking non-Ba'athist officers were purged.[12]
16 Amin al-Hafez 1965.jpg Amin al-Hafiz
(1921–2009)
27 July 1963 23 February 1966 Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Amin al-Hafiz was overthrown by the Military Committee because of his support for Michel Aflaq and the National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.[13]
17 Nureddin Atassi.jpg Nureddin al-Atassi
(1929–1992)
25 February 1966 18 November 1970 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Nureddin al-Atassi was overthrown when a falling out occurred between Salah Jadid, the real ruler of Syria from 1966 to 1970, and Hafez al-Assad, the Minister of Defense.[14] Assad initiated a coup in 1970.[15]
Ahmad al-Khatib, the interim head of state who ruled Syria for four months from November 1970 to March 1971.png Ahmad al-Khatib
(1933–1982)
18 November 1970 22 February 1971 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
 
18 Hafez al-Assad.jpg Hafez al-Assad
(1930–2000)
22 February 1971 10 June 2000 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Assad died in office.[16]
Foreign Minister Abdul Halim Khaddam with Lebanese Prime Minister Takiddine al-Sulh in 1975(2).png Abdul Halim Khaddam
(born 1932)
10 June 2000 17 July 2000 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
 
19 Bashar al-Assad (cropped).jpg Bashar al-Assad
(born 1965)
17 July 2000 Incumbent Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
  1. ^ Article 83, Section 2, , Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic (February 27, 2012)
  2. ^ Article 84, Section 2, , Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic (February 27, 2012)
  3. ^ Article 3, Section 1, , Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic (February 27, 2012)
  4. ^ Article 91, Section 1, , Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic (February 27, 2012)
  5. ^ Article 92, Section 1, , Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic (February 27, 2012)
  6. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 345.
  7. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 311.
  8. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 610.
  9. ^ a b Moubayed 2006, p. 339.
  10. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 133.
  11. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 175.
  12. ^ Rabinovich 1972, p. 72.
  13. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 99–101.
  14. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 142–144.
  15. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 162–163.
  16. ^ Moubayed 2006, pp. 154–155.
Bibliography