List of Presidents of Syria

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Coat of arms of Syria.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Syria

This is a list of heads of state of Syria since 1920.

Keys[edit]

Meaning
Acting president.
National Bloc
Syrian Social Nationalist Party
Military
Arab Liberation Movement
National Union
People's Party
Syrian Regional Branch (Ba'ath Party)
Syrian Regional Branch (Syrian Ba'ath Party)

Presidents[edit]

State of Syria, part of the French Mandate (1922–1930)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
1 Subhi barkat.jpg Subhi Barakat
(1883–1939)
28 June 1922 21 December 1925 Independent
François Pierre-Alype
(1853–1932)
9 February 1926 28 April 1926 Independent
2
Ahmad Nami
(1840–1928)
28 April 1926 15 February 1928 Independent
Taj aldin.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
15 February 1928 14 May 1930 Independent

Syrian Republic, part of the French Mandate (1930–1946)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
Taj aldin.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
14 May 1930 19 November 1931 Independent
Léon Solomiac
(1873–1960)
19 November 1931 11 June 1932 Independent
3 Muhammad Ali al-Abid.jpg Muhammad Ali al-Abid
(1867–1939)
11 June 1932 21 December 1936 Independent
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
21 December 1936 7 July 1939 National Bloc
5 Bahij al-Khatib.jpg Bahij al-Khatib
(1895–1981)
10 July 1939 4 April 1941 Independent
Khalid al-Azm.jpg Khalid al-Azm
(1903–1965)
4 April 1941 16 September 1941 Independent
6 Taj aldin.jpg Taj al-Din al-Hasani
(1885–1943)
16 September 1941 17 January 1943 Independent Hasani died in office.[1]
Jamil al-Ulshi.jpg Jamil al-Ulshi
(1883–1951)
17 January 1943 25 March 1943 Independent
7 Ata al-Ayyubi.jpg Ata al-Ayyubi
(1877–1951)
25 March 1943 17 August 1943 Independent
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
17 August 1943 17 April 1946 National Bloc

Syrian Republic (1946–1958)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
17 April 1946 29 March 1949 National Bloc /
National Party
Quwatli was ousted from power on 29 March 1949 by Husni al-Za'im, his Chief of Staff.[2]
9 Husni al-Zaiim.jpg Husni al-Za'im
(1897–1949)
30 March 1949 14 August 1949 Syrian Social Nationalist Party Za'im was overthrown by a military coup in 1949 led by Adib Shishakli, he was later executed on the orders of the new government.[3]
10 Sami al-Hinnawi.jpg Sami al-Hinnawi
(1898–1950)
14 August 1949 15 August 1949 Military
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
15 August 1949 2 December 1951 National Party
Adib al-Shishakli.jpg Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
2 December 1951 3 December 1951 Syrian Social Nationalist Party
11 Fawzi Selu.jpg Fawzi Selu
(1905–1972)
3 December 1951 11 July 1953 Military
12 Adib al-Shishakli.jpg Adib Shishakli
(1909–1964)
11 July 1953 25 February 1954 Arab Liberation Movement Shishakli resigned from office because of threats of a coup in 1954.[4] He fled the country, claiming that he did not want the country to fall into a civil war.[4]
Maamoun Kuzbari.jpg Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
25 February 1954 28 February 1954 Independent
4 Hashim Al Atassi.jpg Hashim al-Atassi
(1875–1960)
28 February 1954 6 September 1955 National Party
8 Portrait of Shukri al-Quwatli in 1943.jpeg Shukri al-Quwatli
(1891–1967)
6 September 1955 22 February 1958 National Party

United Arab Republic (1958–1961)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
13 Nasser portrait2.jpg Gamal Abdel Nasser
(1918–1970)
22 February 1958 29 September 1961 National Union

Syrian Arab Republic (1961–present)[edit]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–death)
Took office Left office Political party Note(s)
Maamoun Kuzbari.jpg Maamun al-Kuzbari
(1914–1998)
29 September 1961 20 November 1961 Independent
Izzat al-Nuss
(1900–1972)
20 November 1961 14 December 1961 Military
14 Nazim al=Kudsi.jpg Nazim al-Kudsi
(1906–1998)
14 December 1961 8 March 1963 People's Party The 1963 Syrian coup d'état, an event known as the 8th of March Revolution, toppled Nazim al-Kudsi and brought the National Council for the Revolutionary Command (NCRC) to government, although real power lay with the Ba'athist Military Committee, which organized the coup.[5]
15 Luai al-Atassi.jpg Lu'ay al-Atassi
(1926–2003)
9 March 1963 27 July 1963 Independent Lu'ay al-Atassi was appointed president by the NCRC because he posed no threat to the Military Committee's power.[6] He resigned after high-ranking non-Ba'athist officers were purged.[7]
16 Amin al-Hafez 1965.jpg Amin al-Hafiz
(1921–2009)
27 July 1963 23 February 1966 Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Amin al-Hafiz was overthrown by the Military Committee because of his support for Michel Aflaq and the National Command of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.[8]
17 Nureddin Atassi.jpg Nureddin al-Atassi
(1929–1992)
25 February 1966 18 November 1970 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Nureddin al-Atassi was overthrown when a falling out occurred between Salah Jadid, the real ruler of Syria from 1966 to 1970, and Hafez al-Assad, the Minister of Defense.[9] Assad initiated a coup in 1970.[10]
Ahmad al-Khatib, the interim head of state who ruled Syria for four months from November 1970 to March 1971.png Ahmad al-Khatib
(1933–1982)
18 November 1970 22 February 1971 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
18 Hafez al-Assad.jpg Hafez al-Assad
(1930–2000)
22 February 1971 10 June 2000 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
Assad died in office.[11]
Foreign Minister Abdul Halim Khaddam with Lebanese Prime Minister Takiddine al-Sulh in 1975(2).png Abdul Halim Khaddam
(born 1932)
10 June 2000 17 July 2000 Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)
19 Bashar al-Assad (cropped).jpg Bashar al-Assad
(born 1965)
17 July 2000 Incumbent Syrian Ba'ath Party
(Syria Region)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General
  1. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 345.
  2. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 311.
  3. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 610.
  4. ^ a b Moubayed 2006, p. 339.
  5. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 133.
  6. ^ Moubayed 2006, p. 175.
  7. ^ Rabinovich 1972, p. 72.
  8. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 99–101.
  9. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 142–144.
  10. ^ Seale 1990, pp. 162–163.
  11. ^ Moubayed 2006, pp. 154–155.
Bibliography