List of heirs to the Portuguese throne

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This is a list of the individuals who were, at any given time, considered the next in line to inherit the throne of Portugal, should the incumbent monarch die. Those who actually succeeded (at any future time) are shown in bold. Stillborn children and infants surviving less than a week are not included.

For much of Portugal's early history, there was no definite succession law, and potential heirs at any given time, especially when the reigning king had no son, may be partly a matter of conjecture.

Significant breaks in the succession, where the designated heir did not in fact succeed (due to usurpation, conquest, revolution, or lack of heirs) are shown as breaks in the table below.

1139 to 1383[edit]

Heir Relationship to Monarch Became heir Reason Ceased to be heir Reason Next in succession Monarch
uncertain Afonso I
Infante Henrique son 17 February 1147 born 7 October 1157 died  ?
Infanta Mafalda 1149–1154, sister
Infante Sancho 1154–1157, brother
Infante Sancho son 7 October 1157 brother died 6 December 1185 became king Infanta Mafalda 1154–1160, sister
Urraca, Queen of León 1160–1176, sister
Infanta Teresa 1176–1180, daughter
Infante Raimundo 1180–1185, son
Infante Raimundo son 6 December 1185 father became king 1189 died Infanta Teresa 1181–1185, sister Sancho I
Infante Afonso 1185–1189, brother
Infante Afonso son 1189 brother died 26 March 1211 became king Infante Pedro 1189–1207, brother
Infante Sancho 1209–1211, son
Infante Sancho son 26 March 1211 father became king 25 March 1223 became king Infante Afonso, brother Afonso II
Infante Afonso, Count of Boulogne brother 25 March 1223 brother became king 4 January 1248 became king Infante Fernando, Lord of Serpa 1223–1246, brother Sancho II
 ?
uncertain[1] Afonso III
Infanta Branca daughter 25 February 1259 born 1260 son born to king  ?
Infante Fernando son 1260 born 1262 died Infanta Branca 1260–1261, sister
Infante Dinis 1261–1262, brother
Infante Dinis son 1262 brother died 16 February 1279 became king Infanta Branca 1262–1263, sister
Infante Afonso 1263–1279, brother
Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre brother 16 February 1279 brother became king 3 January 1290 daughter born to king Infanta Branca, sister Dinis
Infanta Constança daughter 3 January 1290 born 8 February 1291 son born to king Infante Afonso, Lord of Portalegre, uncle
Infante Afonso son 8 February 1291 born 7 January 1325 became king Constança, Queen of Castile and León 1291–1313, sister
Infanta Maria 1313–1317, daughter
Infante Dinis 1317–1318, son
Infanta Maria 1318–1320, daughter
Infante Pedro 1320–1325, son
Infante Pedro son 7 January 1325 father became king 28 May 1357 became king Infanta Maria 1325–1326, sister Afonso IV
Infante João 1326–1327, brother
Maria, Queen of Castile and León 1327–1340, sister
Infante Luís 1340, son
Maria, Queen of Castile and León 1340–1342, sister
Infanta Maria 1342–1345, daughter
Infante Fernando 1345–1357, son
Infante Fernando son 28 May 1357 father became king 18 January 1367 became king Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa, sister Pedro I
uncertain[2] Fernando I
Beatriz, Queen of Castile and León daughter February 1373 born 22 October 1383 became pretender to the throne  ?

Although King Fernando had intended his daughter Beatriz to succeed (with her mother Queen Leonor as regent), she was an unpopular choice due to fears that her husband King John I of Castile would control the kingdom. After the 1383–1385 Crisis, Fernando's illegitimate half-brother João, Grand Master of the Order of Aviz became king.

1385 to 1580[edit]

Heir Relationship to Monarch Became heir Reason Ceased to be heir Reason Next in succession Monarch
uncertain João I
Infanta Branca daughter 13 July 1388 born 6 March 1389 died  ?
uncertain
Infante Afonso son 30 July 1390 born 22 December 1400 died  ?
Infante Duarte 1391–1400, brother
Infante Duarte son 22 December 1400 brother died 14 August 1433 became king Infante Pedro, Duke of Coimbra 1400–1429, brother
Infante João 1429–1433, son
Infante Afonso 1433, son
Afonso, Prince of Portugal son 14 August 1433 father became king 9 September 1438 became king Infanta Filipa 1433, sister Duarte
Infante Fernando 1433–1438, brother
Fernando, Prince of Portugal brother 9 September 1438 brother became king 29 January 1451 son born to king Infanta Filipa 1438–1439, sister Afonso V
Infanta Leonor 1439–1448, sister
Infante João 1448–1451, son
João, Prince of Portugal son 29 January 1451 born 1451 died Infante Fernando, uncle
Fernando, Prince of Portugal brother 1451 nephew died 6 February 1452 daughter born to king Infante João, son
Joana, Princess of Portugal daughter 6 February 1452 born 3 March 1455 son born to king Infante Fernando, Duke of Beja, uncle
João, Prince of Portugal son 3 March 1455 born 28 August 1481 became king Infanta Joana 1455–1475, sister
Infante Afonso 1475–1481, son
Afonso, Prince of Portugal son 28 August 1481 father became king 13 July 1491 died Infanta Joana 1481–1490, aunt João II
Infante Manuel, Duke of Viseu 1490–1491, first cousin once removed
Infante Manuel, Duke of Viseu cousin 13 July 1491 king's son died 25 October 1495 became king Queen Leonor, sister
Queen Leonor sister 25 October 1495 brother became king 1498 nephew appointed as Prince of Portugal Infanta Isabel, Duchess of Braganza, sister Manuel I
Jaime, Duke of Braganza, Prince of Portugal nephew 1498 appointed Prince in the childless king's absence 24 August 1498 son born to king  ?
Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and Asturias son 24 August 1498 born 19 July 1500 died Queen Leonor, aunt
Queen Leonor sister 19 July 1500 king's son died 6 June 1502 son born to king Infanta Isabel, Duchess of Braganza, sister
João, Prince of Portugal son 6 June 1502 born 13 December 1521 became king Queen Leonor 1502–1503, aunt
Infanta Isabel 1503–1506, sister
Infante Luís, Duke of Beja 1506–1521, brother
Luís, Prince of Portugal brother 13 December 1521 brother became king 24 February 1526 son born to king Infante Fernando, brother João III
Afonso, Prince of Portugal son 24 February 1526 born 12 April 1526 died Infante Luís, Duke of Beja, uncle
Luís, Prince of Portugal brother 12 April 1526 king's son died 15 October 1527 daughter born to king Infante Fernando, brother
Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal daughter 15 October 1527 born 1 November 1531 son born to king Infante Luís, Duke of Beja, uncle
Manuel, Prince of Portugal son 1 November 1531 (declared heir in 1535) born 14 April 1537 died Infanta Maria Manuela 1531–1533, sister
Infante Filipe 1533–1537, brother
Filipe, Prince of Portugal son 14 April 1537 brother died 29 April 1539 died Infanta Maria Manuela 1537, sister
Infante João Manuel 1537–1539, brother
João Manuel, Prince of Portugal son 29 April 1539 brother died 2 January 1554 died Infante António 1539–1540, brother
Maria Manuela, Princess of Asturias 1540–1545, sister
Infante Carlos of Spain 1545–1554, nephew
Sebastião, Prince of Portugal grandson 20 January 1554 born (after father's death) 11 June 1557 became king Carlos, Prince of Asturias, cousin
Carlos, Prince of Asturias and Portugal cousin 11 June 1557 cousin became king 24 July 1568 died Cardinal-Infante Henrique, great-uncle Sebastião
Cardinal-Infante Henrique granduncle 24 July 1568 grandnephew died 4 August 1578 became king Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães 1568–1576, nephew
Maria, Hereditary Princess of Parma 1576–1577, niece
Prince Ranuccio Farnese 1577–1578, grandnephew
Prince Ranuccio Farnese grandnephew 4 August 1578 granduncle became king 31 January 1580 became pretender Prince Odoardo Farnese, brother Henrique

After Cardinal-King Henrique's death, the throne was claimed by several individuals, including António, Prior of Crato, an illegitimate grandson of King João III, and Infanta Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, a legitimate granddaughter of King João.[3] Eventually King Philip II of Spain, undoubtedly the most powerful claimant, succeeded in becoming king of Portugal.

1580 to 1583[edit]

Heir Relationship to Monarch Became heir Reason Ceased to be heir Reason Next in succession Monarch
Manuel (Prince of Portugal) son 24 July 1580 father proclaimed himself king 1583 father deposed  ? António (disputed)

1581 to 1640[edit]

Heir Relationship to Monarch Became heir Reason Ceased to be heir Reason Next in succession Monarch
Diogo, Prince of Asturias and Portugal son 1581 father became king 21 November 1582 died Infante Filipe of Spain and Portugal, brother Filipe I
Filipe, Prince of Asturias and Portugal son 21 November 1582 brother died 13 September 1598 became king Infanta Isabel Clara Eugénia of Spain and Portugal, sister
Infanta Isabel Clara Eugénia, Co-Sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands sister 13 September 1598 brother became king 22 September 1601 daughter born to king Infanta Catarina Micaela, Duchess of Savoy, sister Filipe II
Infanta Ana of Spain and Portugal daughter 22 September 1601 born 8 April 1605 son born to king Infanta Isabel Clara Eugénia, Co-Sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands, aunt
Filipe, Prince of Asturias and Portugal son 8 April 1605 born 31 March 1621 became king Infanta Ana of Spain and Portugal 1605–1607, sister
Infante Carlos of Spain and Portugal 1607–1621, brother
Infante Carlos of Spain and Portugal brother 31 March 1621 brother became king 21 November 1623 daughter born to king Cardinal-Infante Fernando of Spain and Portugal, brother Filipe III
Infanta Margarida Maria Catarina of Spain and Portugal daughter 25 November 1623 born 29 December 1623 died Infante Carlos of Spain and Portugal, uncle
Infante Carlos of Spain and Portugal brother 29 December 1623 king's daughter died 21 November 1625 daughter born to king Cardinal-Infante Fernando of Spain and Portugal, brother
Infanta Maria Eugénia of Spain and Portugal daughter 21 November 1625 born 21 July 1627 died Infante Carlos of Spain and Portugal, uncle
Infante Carlos of Spain and Portugal brother 21 July 1627 king's daughter died 17 October 1629 son born to king Cardinal-Infante Fernando of Spain and Portugal, brother
Baltasar Carlos, Prince of Asturias and Portugal son 17 October 1629 born 1 December 1640 father deposed Infante Carlos of Spain and Portugal 1629–1632, uncle
Cardinal-Infante Fernando of Spain and Portugal 1632–1636, uncle
Infanta Maria Ana Antónia of Spain and Portugal 1636, sister
Cardinal-Infante Fernando of Spain and Portugal 1636–1638, uncle
Infanta Maria Teresa of Spain and Portugal 1638–1640, sister

1640 to 1826[edit]

Heir Relationship to Monarch Became heir Reason Ceased to be heir Reason Next in succession Monarch
Teodósio, Prince of Brazil son 1 December 1640 father became king 13 May 1653 died Infanta Joana 1640–1643, sister João IV
Infante Afonso 1643–1653, brother
Afonso, Prince of Brazil son 13 May 1653 brother died 6 November 1656 became king Infante Pedro, Duke of Beja, brother
Infante Pedro, Duke of Beja brother 6 November 1656 brother became king 12 September 1683 became king Catarina, Queen of England and Scotland 1656–1669, sister Afonso VI
Infanta Isabel Luísa 1669–1683, daughter
Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira daughter 12 September 1683 father became king 30 August 1688 son born to king Catarina, Queen of England and Scotland, aunt Pedro II
João, Prince of Brazil son 30 August 1688 born 17 September 1688 died Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira, sister
Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira daughter 17 September 1688 brother died 22 October 1689 son born to king Catarina, Queen of England and Scotland, aunt
João, Prince of Brazil son 22 October 1689 born 9 December 1706 became king Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira 1689–1690, sister
Catarina, Queen of England and Scotland 1690–1691, aunt
Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja 1691–1706, brother
Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja brother 9 December 1706 brother became king 4 December 1711 daughter born to king Infante António, brother João V
Bárbara, Princess of Beira daughter 4 December 1711 born 19 October 1712 son born to king Infante Francisco, Duke of Beja, uncle
Pedro, Prince of Brazil son 19 October 1712 born 29 October 1714 died Bárbara, Princess of Beira 1712–1714, sister
Infante José 1714, brother
José, Prince of Brazil son 29 October 1714 brother died 31 July 1750 became king Bárbara, Princess of Beira 1714–1716, sister
Infante Carlos 1716–1734, brother
Maria, Princess of Beira 1734–1750, daughter
Maria, Princess of Brazil daughter 31 July 1750 father became king 24 February 1777 became queen Infanta Mariana Francisca 1750–1761, sister José
José, Prince of Beira 1761–1777, son
José, Prince of Brazil son 24 February 1777 parents became queen and king 11 September 1788 died Infante João, Duke of Beja, brother Maria I and Pedro III
João, Prince Royal son 11 September 1788 brother died 20 March 1816 became king Infanta Mariana Vitória of Portugal and Spain 1788, sister
Infante Pedro Carlos of Spain and Portugal 1788–1793, nephew
Teresa, Princess of Beira 1793–1795, daughter
Francisco, Prince of Beira 1795–1801, son
Pedro, Prince of Beira 1801–1816, son
Pedro, Prince Royal
(Emperor Pedro I of Brazil since 1822)
son 20 March 1816 father became king 10 March 1826 became king Infante Miguel, Duke of Beja 1816–1819, brother João VI
Maria, Princess of Beira 1819–1821, daughter
João Carlos, Prince of Beira 1821–1822, son
Maria, Princess Imperial of Brazil 1822–1825, daughter
Pedro, Prince Imperial of Brazil 1825–1826, son
Pedro, Prince Imperial of Brazil son 10 March 1826 father became king 28 May 1826 father abdicated Maria, Princess of Grão-Pará, sister Pedro IV

1826 to 1834[edit]

Heir Relationship to Monarch Became heir Reason Ceased to be heir Reason Next in succession Monarch
uncertain[4] Maria II
uncertain[5] Miguel

1834 to 1910[edit]

Heir Relationship to Monarch Became heir Reason Ceased to be heir Reason Next in succession Monarch
uncertain[4] Maria II and Fernando II
Pedro, Prince Royal son 16 December 1837 born 15 November 1853 became king  ?
Infante Luís, Duke of Porto 1838–1853, brother
Infante Luís, Duke of Porto brother 15 November 1853 brother became king 11 November 1861 became king Infante João, Duke of Beja, brother Pedro V
Infante João, Duke of Beja brother 11 November 1861 brother became king 27 December 1861 died Infante Augusto, brother Luís I
Infante Augusto brother 27 December 1861 brother died 28 September 1863 son born to king Maria Ana, Princess George of Saxony, sister
Carlos, Prince Royal son 28 September 1863 born 19 October 1889 became king Infante Augusto 1863–1865, uncle
Infante Afonso, Duke of Porto 1865–1887, brother
Luís Filipe, Prince of Beira 1887–1889, son
Luís Filipe, Prince Royal son 19 October 1889 father became king 1 February 1908 assassinated together with the King himself Infante Manuel, Duke of Beja, brother Carlos I
Afonso, Prince Royal uncle 1 February 1908 nephew became king 4 October 1910 monarchy abolished King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony, cousin Manuel II

Pretenders since 1910[edit]

All the titles used by the Absolutist «Miguelist» pretenders (branch of the family banned in 1834) are not official, but rather the styles they attribute to themselves. Also the Paris Pact's validity and even its existence is disputed as there is no written evidence of it.

Heir Relationship to Pretender Became heir Reason Ceased to be heir Reason Next in succession Pretender
Afonso, Prince Royal uncle 5 October 1910 king became pretender 21 February 1920 died  ? Manuel II
uncertain
Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza second cousin twice removed, through the Absolutist line April 1922 recognised in the so-called Paris Pact 2 July 1932 became pretender from the Absolutist branch  ?
uncertain[6] Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza
Duarte Pio, Prince of Beira son 15 May 1945 born 24 December 1976 became pretender  ?
Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu 1946–1976, brother
Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu brother 24 December 1976 brother became pretender 25 March 1996 son born to pretender Infante Henrique, Duke of Coimbra, brother Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza
Afonso, Prince of Beira son 25 March 1996 born current heir Infante Miguel, Duke of Viseu 1996–1997, uncle
Infanta Maria Francisca 1997–1999, sister
Infante Dinis, Duke of Porto 1999–present, brother
Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern Head of the princely line of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and closest living relative to the last King of Portugal through the semi-salic ruling line. He is the descendent of both Kings Pedro V and Luís I's sisters, Antónia and Maria Ana, Infantas of Portugal, whose descedents married between themselves. The Infantas renounced the right to the throne when they were married, but it was previewed in the document they signed that their descendents would recover that right if their brothers had no succession, which is the case. Prince Karl's opinion on this matter is unknown to the general public.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peter I, Count of Urgell, the only living uncle of Afonso III, had conceded defeat and perpetual exile from Portugal after quarreling against his elder brother Afonso II, taking the side of his sisters over the inheritance of their father Sancho I. Of the aunts of Afonso III, only Berengária, Queen of Denmark had left surviving children, but it is unknown if her three sons, all of them Kings of Denmark, could inherit the Portuguese throne.
  2. ^ Infanta Maria, Marchioness of Tortosa, the only living full sibling of Fernando I, died sometime after her father, either in the same year of 1367 or a little later. Although Pedro I had claimed to have married his second wife, Inês de Castro, in secret, thus legitimising their children together, it is uncertain whether her sons had a claim to the throne during the reign of their elder half-brother King Fernando I.
  3. ^ Catherine claimed the inheritance of her late brother, although the senior familial inheritance technically passed to her nephew Ranuccio Farnese, son of her late elder sister Maria. Ranuccio's father Alessandro Farnese of Parma supported Philip of Spain, another claimant, so his young son's claim was not put forward.
  4. ^ a b Pedro IV (Pedro I of Brazil) had abdicated in favour of his eldest daughter Maria II, keeping his only living son with him as his Prince Imperial. How many of Pedro's daughters were in the line of succession for the Portuguese throne is uncertain.
  5. ^ King Miguel had usurped the throne, and as he was childless at the time, it is uncertain who he would have wanted to succeed him upon his death.
  6. ^ Although Duarte Nuno's father Miguel had seven legitimate daughters, it is uncertain what rights to succession they retained after their father abdicated his claims in Duarte Nuno's favour.

See also[edit]

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