List of herbaria

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This is a list of herbaria, organized first by continent where the herbarium is located, then within each continent by size of the collection. A herbarium (plural "herbaria") is a collection of preserved plant specimens. These specimens may be whole plants or plant parts: these will usually be in a dried form, mounted on a sheet, but depending upon the material may also be kept in alcohol or other preservative. The same term is often used in mycology to describe an equivalent collection of preserved fungi and in phycology to describe a collection of algae.

To preserve their form and color, plants collected in the field are spread flat on sheets of newsprint and dried, usually in a plant press, between blotters or absorbent paper. The specimens, which are then mounted on sheets of stiff white paper, are labeled with all essential data, such as date and place found, description of the plant, altitude, and special habitat conditions. The sheet is then placed in a protective case. As a precaution against insect attack, the pressed plant is frozen or poisoned and the case disinfected.

Most herbaria utilize a standard system of organizing their specimens into herbarium cases. Specimen sheets are stacked in groups by the species to which they belong and placed into a large lightweight folder that is labelled on the bottom edge. Groups of species folders are then placed together into larger, heavier folders by genus. The genus folders are then sorted by taxonomic family according to the standard system selected for use by the herbarium and placed into pigeonholes in herbarium cabinets. Herbaria are essential for the study of plant taxonomy, the study of geographic distributions, and the stabilizing of nomenclature. Herbaria also preserve an historical record of change in vegetation over time. In some cases, plants become extinct in one area, or may become extinct altogether. In such cases, specimens preserved in an herbarium can represent the only record of the plant's original distribution. Environmental scientists make use of such data to track changes in climate and human impact.

Africa[edit]

Herbaria in Africa
Name No. Specimens[1] Abbr. Location Website
South African National Biodiversity Institute 1,200,000 PRE South Africa; Pretoria, Gauteng Province [1]
National Museums of Kenya, East African Herbarium 1,000,000 EA Kenya; Nairobi [2]
South African National Biodiversity Institute 617,000 NBG, SAM South Africa; Claremont, Western Cape Province
Zimbabwe National Herbarium 513,700 SRGH Zimbabwe; Harare
Bolus Herbarium 373,000 BOL South Africa; Rondebosch, Western Cape Province [3]
University of Algiers (Université d'Alger) 350,000 AL Algeria; Algiers
Cairo University 300,000 CAI, CAIM Egypt; Cairo
Albany Museum 200,000 GRA South Africa; Grahamstown, Eastern Cape Province [4]
University of Dar es Salaam 125,000 DSM Tanzania; Dar es Salaam
University of KwaZulu-Natal 122,500 NU South Africa; Scottsville, KwaZulu-Natal Province
Institut Scientifique 120,500 RAB Morocco; Rabat-Agdal
University of Pretoria, H.G.W.J. Schweickerdt Herbarium 120,000 PRU South Africa; Pretoria, Gauteng Province [5]
Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire 110,000 IFAN Senegal; Dakar
Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria 105,000 FHI Nigeria; Ibadan, Oyo
University of Nairobi 100,000 NAI Kenya; Nairobi
University of the Witwatersrand, Charles E. Moss Herbarium 100,000 J South Africa; Wits, Gauteng Province
National Herbarium of Cameroon 96,000 YA Cameroon; Yaoundé
University of Ghana 90,000 GC Ghana; Legon
National Botanical Research Institute 76,000 WIND Namibia; Windhoek
Eduardo Mondlane University 63,000 LMU Mozambique; Maputo
National Mycological Herbarium 60,000 PREM South Africa; Pretoria, Gauteng Province [6]
University of Ouagadougou 12,000 OUA Burkina Faso; Ouagadougou


Asia[edit]

Herbaria in Asia
Name No. Specimens[1] Abbr. Location Website
Chinese National Herbarium, (Chinese Academy of Sciences) 2,470,000 PE People's Republic of China; Xiangshan, Beijing [7]
Herbarium Bogoriense 2,000,000 BO Indonesia; Bogor, West Java
University of Tokyo 1,700,000 TI Japan; Tokyo [8]
Central National Herbarium, India 1,500,000 CAL India; Kolkata, West Bengal [9]
National Museum of Nature and Science 1,500,000 TNS Japan; Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture
Kyoto University 1,200,000 KYO Japan; Kyoto, Kyoto Prefecture
Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences 1,110,000 KUN People's Republic of China; Kunming, Yunnan
Georgian Academy of Sciences 1,000,000 TBI Georgia; Tbilisi
National Academy of Science, Uzbekistan 1,000,000 TASH Uzbekistan; Tashkent
South China Botanical Garden 1,000,000 IBSC People's Republic of China; Guangzhou, Guangdong [10]
Hebrew University 700,000 HUJ Israel; Jerusalem [11]
Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences 700,000 NAS People's Republic of China; Nanjing, Jiangsu
National Center for Natural Sciences and Technology 700,000 HN Vietnam; Hanoi
North West Agriculture and Forestry University 550,000 WUK People's Republic of China; Yangling, Shaanxi [12] [13]
Institute of Applied Ecology, Academia Sinica 520,000 IFP People's Republic of China; Shenyang, Liaoning
Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences 500,000 VLA Russia; Vladivostok
Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia 500,000 ERE Armenia; Yerevan
Tomsk State University, P. N. Krylov Herbarium 500,000 TK Russia; Tomsk
Tohoku University 485,000 TUS Japan; Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture
Sichuan University 450,000 SZ People's Republic of China; Chengdu, Sichuan
Tokyo Metropolitan University 450,000 MAK Japan; Tokyo
Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan 400,000 BAK Azerbaijan; Baku
Guangxi Institute of Botany 400,000 IBK People's Republic of China; Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang
Hattori Botanical Laboratory 400,000 NICH Japan; Nichinan, Miyazaki Prefecture
Hiroshima University 400,000 HIRO Japan; Hiroshima, Hiroshima Prefecture
National Academy of Science, Kyrgyzstan 400,000 FRU Kyrgyzstan; Bishkek
Forest Research Institute, Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education 340,000 DD India; Dehra Dun, Uttar Pradesh
M. Utemisov Western Kazakhstanian State University 340,000 PPIU Kazakhstan; Uralsk
Altai State University, South-Siberian Botanical Garden 300,000 ALTB Russia; Barnaul
Central Siberian Botanical Garden 300,000 NS, NSK Russia; Novosibirsk
Ministry of Science, Academy of Sciences 300,000 AA Kazakhstan; Alma-Ata
Natural History Museum and Institute 300,000 CBM Japan; Chiba, Chiba Prefecture
Osaka Museum of Natural History 300,000 OSA Japan; Osaka, Osaka Prefecture
Seoul National University 300,000 SNU South Korea; Seoul
Wuhan University 300,000 WH People's Republic of China; Wuhan, Hubei
Chongqing Municipal Academy of Chinese Materia Medica 296,000 SM People's Republic of China; Chongqing, Sichuan
Taiwan Forestry Research Institute 270,000 TAIF Taiwan; Taipei
Botanical Survey of India, Southern Regional Centre 259,000 MH India; Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu [14]
Kanazawa University 250,000 KANA Japan; Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture
National Taiwan University, Herbarium 250,000 TAI Taiwan; Taipei [15]
Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Circle 225,000 ASSAM India; Shillong, Meghalaya
Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 220,000 HNWP People's Republic of China; Xining, Qinghai
Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute 210,000 IRAN Iran; Tehran
Ankara Üniversitesi 200,000 ANK Turkey; Ankara
Botanical Institute of the Tajikistan Academy of Sciences 200,000 TAD Tajikistan; Dushanbe
Chengdu Institute of Biology 200,000 CDBI People's Republic of China; Chengdu, Sichuan
Guizhou Academy of Sciences 200,000 HGAS People's Republic of China; Guiyang, Guizhou
Hokkaido University 200,000 SAP Japan; Sapporo, Hokkaido Prefecture [16]
Kochi Prefectural Makino Botanical Garden 200,000 MBK Japan; Kochi, Kochi Prefecture
St. Xavier's College, Blatter Herbarium 200,000 BLAT India; Mumbai, Maharashtra [17]
Shinshu University 200,000 SHIN Japan; Matsumoto, Nagano Prefecture
Southwest Forestry College 200,000 SWFC People's Republic of China; Kunming, Yunnan
Wuhan Institute of Botany 200,000 HIB People's Republic of China; Wuhan, Hubei
Zhongshan (Sun Yatsen) University 200,000 SYS People's Republic of China; Guangzhou, Guangdong
Nanjing University 150,000 N People's Republic of China; Nanjing, Jiangsu
National Herbarium of Iran, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands 140,000 TARI Iran, Tehran
Irkutsk State University 130,000 IRKU Russia; Irkutsk
Mongolian Academy of Sciences 100,000 UBA Mongolia; Ulaanbaatar
French Institute of Pondicherry 22,000 HIFP India; Pondicherry, Puducherry [18]
Botanical Survey of India, Deccan Regional Centre 11,000 BSID India; Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh [19]


Australasia and Oceania[edit]

Herbaria in Australasia and Oceania
Name No. Specimens[1] Abbr. Location Website
Australian National Herbarium 1,328,000 CANB Australia; Canberra, A. C. T. [20]
Royal Botanic Gardens, National Herbarium of Victoria 1,200,000 MEL Australia; South Yarra, Melbourne, Victoria [21]
Royal Botanic Gardens, National Herbarium of New South Wales 1,000,000 NSW Australia; Sydney, New South Wales [22]
State Herbarium of South Australia 980,000 AD Australia; Kent Town, South Australia
Queensland Herbarium 730,000 BRI Australia; Brisbane, Queensland [23]
Northern Territory Herbarium 200,000 DNA Australia; Palmerston, Northern Territory [24]
Western Australian Herbarium 640,000 PERTH Australia; Western Australia [25]
Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Herbarium 300,000 HO Australia; Hobart, Tasmania [26]
Australian Tropical Herbarium 150,000 CNS Australia; Cairns, Queensland [27]
University of Melbourne 130,000 MELU Australia; Parkville, Victoria
Orange Agricultural Institute, Plant Pathology Herbarium 95,000 DAR Australia; Orange, New South Wales
N.C.W. Beadle Herbarium, University of New England 90,000 NE Australia; Armidale, New South Wales [28]
Landcare Research New Zealand Limited, Allan Herbarium 600,000 CHR New Zealand; Lincoln [29]
Auckland War Memorial Museum 330,000 AK New Zealand; Auckland
New Zealand Forest Research Institute (Scion), National Forestry Herbarium 30,000 NZFRI New Zealand; Rotorua [30]
Museum of New Zealand 230,000 WELT New Zealand; Wellington [31]
Papua New Guinea Forest Research Institute, Papua New Guinea National Herbarium 300,000 LAE Papua New Guinea; Lae
Forest Research Institute Malaysia 250,000 KEP Malaysia; Kepong, Selangor
Philippine National Herbarium 200,000 PNH Philippines; Manila
Singapore Botanic Gardens 750,000 SING Singapore [32]
Sarawak Herbarium 160,000 SAR Malaysia; Kuching, Sarawak
Forest Research Center 230,000 SAN Malaysia; Sandakan, Sabah
University of the South Pacific 40,000 SUVA Fiji; Suva
Solomon Islands National Herbarium 35,000 BSIP Solomon Islands; Honiara
Musée de Tahiti et des Îles 15,000 PAP French Polynesia; Punaauia, Tahiti
National Tropical Botanical Garden 50,000 PTBG USA; Kalaheo, Kauai, Hawaii [33]
Bishop Museum, Herbarium Pacificum 600,000 BISH USA; Honolulu, Hawaii [34]


Europe[edit]

For herbaria with fewer than 300,000 specimens, see List of herbaria in Europe.
Herbaria in Europe
Name No. Specimens[1] Abbr. Location Website
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 9,500,000 P, PC France; Paris [35]
Komarov Botanical Institute (Ботанический институт имени В.Л. Комарова) 7,160,000 LE Russia; St. Petersburg [36]
Royal Botanic Gardens Kew 7,000,000 K UK; Kew, England [37]
Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève 6,000,000 G Switzerland; Geneva [38]
British Museum of Natural History 5,200,000 BM UK; London, England [39]
Naturhistorisches Museum Wien 5,000,000 W Austria; Vienna [40]
Swedish Museum of Natural History (Naturhistoriska riksmuseet) 4,400,000 S Sweden; Stockholm [41]
National Herbarium of the Netherlands (Nationaal Herbarium Nederland) 4,000,000 L Netherlands; Leiden [42]
Université Montpellier 4,000,000 MPU France; Montpellier [43]
Université Claude Bernard 4,000,000 LY France; Lyon [44]
Joint Herbarium of the University of Zurich and the ETH Zurich 3,500,000 Z+ZT Switzerland, Zurich [45]
National Botanic Garden of Belgium 3,500,000 BR Belgium, Meise [46]
Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem,
Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universität Berlin
3,000,000 B Germany, Berlin [47]
Finnish Museum of Natural History (University of Helsinki) 3,000,000 H Finland, Helsinki [48]
Botanische Staatssammlung München 3,000,000 M Germany, Munich [49]
University of Copenhagen 2,510,000 C Denmark, Copenhagen [50]
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh 2,000,000 E UK; Edinburgh, Scotland [51]
Herbarium Hamburgense 1,800,000 HBG Germany, Hamburg [52]
Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt 1,200,000 FR Germany, Frankfurt [53]
University of Cambridge 1,000,000 CGE UK; Cambridge, England [54]
University of Manchester 1,000,000 MANCH UK; Manchester, England [55]
Moscow State University (Московский государственный университет) 993,000 MW, MWG Russia; Moscow [56]
Real Jardín Botánico 850,000 MA Spain; Madrid [57]
Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Utrecht University branch 800,000 U Netherlands; Utrecht [58]
Władysław Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences 800,000 IB PAN Poland; Kraków [59]
University of Coimbra 800,000 COI Portugal; Coimbra [60]
Institut Botànic de Barcelona 700,000 BC Spain; Barcelona [61]
Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Grenoble 700,000 GRM France; Grenoble [62]
Saint Petersburg University (Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет) 700,000 LECB Russia; Saint Petersburg
National Botanic Gardens, Ireland 600,000 DBN Ireland; Dublin [63]
Wageningen University 600,000 WAG Netherlands; Wageningen [64]
Main Botanical Garden, Russia (Главный ботанический сад имени Н.В. Цицина) 570,000 MHA Russia; Moscow
Institut des Herbiers Universitaires de Clermont-Ferrand 550,000 CLF France; Clermont-Ferrand [65]
National Museum Wales 550,000 NMW UK; Cardiff, Wales [66]
N. I. Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (Всероссийский институт растениеводства имени Н.И. Вавилова) 524,000 WIR Russia; Saint Petersburg
Fielding-Druce Herbarium, University of Oxford 500,000 OXF UK; Oxford, England [67]
Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle d'Aix-en-Provence 420,000 AIX France; Aix-en-Provence [68]
Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle 400,000 AUT France; Autun
Muséum Requien 400,000 AV France; Avignon
Université de Liège 400,000 LG Belgium; Liège
CABI Bioscience UK Centre 385,000 IMI UK; Surrey, England [69]
Jardin Botanique de la Ville de Bordeaux 350,000 BORD France; Bordeaux
World Museum Liverpool 350,000 LIV UK; Liverpool, England
South Federal University (Южный Федеральный университет) 328,000 RV, RWBG Russia; Rostov-on-Don
Arboretum Gaston Allard 300,000 ANG France; Angers
Daubeny Herbarium, University of Oxford 300,000 FHO UK; Oxford, England [70]
Institut de Botanique 300,000 STR France; Strasbourg
Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical 300,000 LISC Portugal; Lisboa
Université Paul Sabatier 300,000 TL France; Toulouse
Universitat de Barcelona 300,000 BCN Spain; Barcelona
Universitat de Sevilla 300,000 SEV Spain; Seville
Agricultural University - Plovdiv (Аграрен университет - Пловдив) 150,000 SOA Bulgaria; Plovdiv [71]


North America[edit]

For herbaria with fewer than 200,000 specimens, see List of herbaria in North America.
Herbaria in North America
Name No. Specimens[1] Abbr. Location Website
New York Botanical Garden 7,200,000 NY USA; The Bronx, New York City, New York [72]
Missouri Botanical Garden 6,231,759 MO USA; St. Louis, Missouri [73]
Harvard University Herbaria 5,005,000 A, AMES, ECON, FH, GH, NEBC USA; Cambridge, Massachusetts [74]
United States National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution 4,340,000 US USA; Washington, D.C. [75]
Field Museum 2,650,000 F USA; Chicago, Illinois [76]
University and Jepson Herbaria, University of California, Berkeley 2,200,000 UC/JEPS USA; Berkeley, California [77]
California Academy of Sciences, Herbarium 1,950,000 CAS/DS USA; San Francisco, California [78]
University of Michigan Herbarium 1,700,000 MICH USA; Ann Arbor, Michigan [79]
Academy of Natural Sciences 1,500,000 PH USA; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [80]
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Vascular Plant Herbarium 1,335,000 DAO, DAOM Canada; Ottawa, Ontario
Wisconsin State Herbarium (@ University of Wisconsin-Madison 1,200,750 WIS USA; Madison, Wisconsin [81]
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 1,120,000 MEXU Mexico; Mexico City [82]
University of Texas at Austin 1,006,000 TEX USA; Austin, Texas [83]
Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1,001,000 BRIT-SMU-VDB USA; Fort Worth, Texas [84]
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico 950,000 ENCB Mexico; Mexico City [85]
Royal Ontario Museum 860,000 TRT, TRTC Canada; Toronto, Ontario
Herbier Marie-Victorin, Université de Montréal 850,000 MT Canada; Montreal, Quebec [86]
National Herbarium of Canada, Canadian Museum of Nature 838,000 CAN, CANM Canada; Ottawa, Ontario [87]
Rocky Mountain Herbarium, University of Wyoming 806,800 RM USA; Laramie, Wyoming [88]
Herbier Louis-Marie, Université Laval 770,000 ULF Canada; Quebec City, Quebec [89]
University of North Carolina Herbarium 665,000 NCU USA; Chapel Hill, North Carolina [90]
University of British Columbia 560,000 UBC Canada; Vancouver, British Columbia [91]
The Ohio State University Herbarium, The Ohio State University 500,000 OS USA; Columbus, Ohio [92]
University of Florida Herbarium, Florida Museum of Natural History 470,000 FLAS USA; Gainesville, Florida [93]
Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática 400,000 HAC Cuba; Havana
Marion Ownbey Herbarium, Washington State University 380,000 WS USA; Pullman, Washington [94]
University of Alberta 320,000 ALTA Canada; Edmonton, Alberta
Pringle Herbarium, University of Vermont 310,400 UVM USA; Burlington, Vermont [95]
Instituto de Ecología, A.C. 310,000 XAL Mexico; Xalapa, Veracruz [96]
UCDavis Center for Plant Diversity 300,000 DAV; DAVH; AHUC USA; Davis, California [97]
Milwaukee Public Museum Herbarium 250,000 MIL USA; Milwaukee, Wisconsin [98]
Herbario Paul C. Standley, Escuela Agrícola Panamericana 240,000 EAP Honduras; Tegucigalpa [99]
UAM Herbarium, University of Alaska Museum of the North 240,000 ALA USA; Fairbanks, Alaska [100]
USF Herbarium, University of South Florida 235,000 USF USA; Florida [101]
Herbario Nacional, Museo Nacional de Costa Rica 215,000 CR Costa Rica; San José [102]
Robert K. Godfrey Herbarium, Florida State University 206,000 FSU USA; Tallahassee, Florida [103]
E.C. Smith Herbarium, Acadia University 200,000 ACAD Canada; Wolfville, Nova Scotia [104]


South America[edit]

Herbaria in South America
Name No. Specimens[1] Abbr. Location Website
Fundación Miguel Lillo 700,000 LIL Argentina; Tucumán [105]
Universidad de Buenos Aires 700,000 BAA, BAF Argentina; Buenos Aires
Instituto de Botánica Darwinion 650,000 SI Argentina; Buenos Aires [106]
Museo de La Plata 500,000 LP Argentina; Buenos Aires [107]
Herbario Nacional Colombiano,
Universidad Nacional de Colombia
500,000 COL Colombia; Bogotá
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos 500,000 USM Peru; Lima [108]
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro 500,000 R Brazil; Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria 480,000 BAB Argentina; Buenos Aires
Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro 420,000 RB Brazil; Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro
Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela 400,000 VEN Venezuela; Caracas [109]
Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste 400,000 CTES Argentina; Corrientes
Instituto de Botânica (pt) 370,000 SP Brazil; São Paulo, São Paulo [110]
Universidad Nacional de Córdoba 320,000 CORD Argentina; Córdoba
Museu Botânico Municipal 250,000 MBM Brazil; Curitiba, Paraná
Universidade de Brasília 230,000 UB Brazil; Brasília, Distrito Federal
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia 205,000 INPA Brazil; Manaus, Amazonas
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador 200,000 QCA Ecuador; Quito
Universidad de Concepción 170,000 CONC Chile; Concepción
Embrapa Amazônia Oriental 165,000 IAN Brazil; Belém, Pará
Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 161,000 MG Brazil; Belém, Pará
Herbier de Guyane, Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) 160,000 CAY French Guiana; Cayenne
Universidad de Antioquia 160,000 HUA Colombia; Medellín, Antioquia
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 145,000 SGO Chile; Santiago [111]
Universidade Estadual de Campinas 143,000 UEC Brazil; Campinas, São Paulo
Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul 140,000 ICN Brazil; Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul
Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales 130,000 QCNE Ecuador; Quito
Universidade de São Paulo 126,000 SPF Brazil; São Paulo, São Paulo
Instituto Anchietano de Pesquisas/UNISINOS 120,000 PACA Brazil; São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul
Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul 108,000 HAS Brazil; Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul
Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana 108,000 HUEFS Brazil; Feira de Santana, Bahia
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais 107,000 BHCB Brazil; Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais
Herbario del Oriente Boliviano,
Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado - Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno
100,000 USZ Bolivia; Santa Cruz de la Sierra [112]
Herbario Nacional de Bolivia 100,000 LPB Bolivia; La Paz
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural,
Universidad de la República
90,000 MVM, MVFA Uruguay; Montevideo
Universidad Nacional de Asunción 80,000 FCQ Paraguay; San Lorenzo


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Holmgren, P. K.; N. H. Holmgren (1998, continuously updated). Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York: New York Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 

External links[edit]