List of historical national anthems

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The Imperial Russian anthem, God Save the Tsar!,[trans 1] used words by Vasily Zhukovsky (left) and music by Alexei Lvov (right). Adopted in 1833, the anthem was used continuously until the Empire's dissolution in 1917.

The oldest national anthem, defined as "a song, as of praise, devotion, or patriotism",[1] is the Dutch national anthem Het Wilhelmus,[trans 2] which was written between 1568 and 1572, but not then given any official status.[2] The first anthem to be officially proclaimed as such was La Marcha Real,[trans 3] adopted by Spain in 1770.[3] Het Wilhelmus was declared the national anthem of the Netherlands in 1932; both of these anthems remain in use today. A royal or imperial anthem is a song that is similar in patriotic character to a national anthem, but which specifically praises a monarch, or royal dynasty. Some states have doubled their royal or imperial anthem as their national anthem; for example, the Imperial Anthem of Iran, used from 1933 to 1979, served both as national anthem and as an explicit celebration of the Pahlavi dynasty.

An anthem may fall out of use if the country that uses it ceases to exist, or because it adopts a new anthem; the rationale for a new national anthem is often political, perhaps based on a new ruling dynasty or system of government. For example, following the French Revolution, which overthrew the monarchy, La Marseillaise, a republican revolutionary song, became national anthem in 1795. Conversely, when the monarchy was restored 19 years later, the 16th-century royalist tune Vive Henri IV was revived and adapted to create Le Retour des Princes français à Paris, an overt celebration of the restored government.[trans 4] Following a number of further changes, La Marseillaise was readopted in 1870 and remains France's contemporary national anthem.

Some historical anthems share the same tune; for example, Heil dir im Siegerkranz,[trans 5] the Imperial German anthem, used the same music as Britain's national anthem, God Save the Queen. There are also instances of the music of a former national anthem still being used in a current anthem; for instance, the modern national anthem of Germany, Das Lied der Deutschen,[trans 6] uses the same tune as the 19th and early 20th-century Austro-Hungarian anthem Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser.[trans 7] Another well-known example is the Hymn of the Soviet Union,[trans 8] used until its dissolution in 1991, which was given new words and adopted by the Russian Federation in 2000 to replace the unpopular instrumental anthem it had introduced in 1993.[4][5]

This was not the first time that a country's de facto or de jure national anthem had proved controversial among its own people. My Country, 'Tis of Thee, a de facto anthem of the United States during the 19th century, divided opinion as it used the same tune as God Save the Queen.[note 1] A more recent example is Hej, Sloveni,[trans 9] the former Yugoslavian anthem which was retained by Serbia and Montenegro until 2006;[note 2] because it was frequently booed when played in public – at sporting events, for example – it was eventually replaced.[6]

Anthems[edit]

Country National anthem title
in local language(s)
English translation of title Period Lyrics writer Music writer Audio Notes
Kingdom of Afghanistan Afghanistan Soroud-e-Melli[trans 10] National Anthem 1943–1973 Makhtar, MohammedMohammed Makhtar Farukh, MohammedMohammed Farukh [7]
Afghanistan Afghanistan Soroud-e-Melli[trans 10] National Anthem 1973–1978 Benawa, Abdul RaufAbdul Rauf Benawa Brechna, Abdul GhafurAbdul Ghafur Brechna [7]
Afghanistan Afghanistan Soroud-e-Melli[trans 10] National Anthem 1978–1992 Laeq, SuleimanSuleiman Laeq Ghahlānd, JalīlJalīl Ghahlānd
Soroud-e-Melli
[7]
Afghanistan Afghanistan Soroud-e-Melli[trans 10] National Anthem 1992–1999
2002–2006
Unknown Qasim, UstadUstad Qasim [7]
 Armenian SSR Haykakan SSH orhnerg[trans 11] Anthem of the Armenian SSR 1944–1991 Sarmen Khachaturian, AramAram Khachaturian
 Austrian Empire Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser God Save Emperor Francis 1804–1835
1848–1854
Haschka, Lorenz LeopoldLorenz Leopold Haschka Haydn, JosephJoseph Haydn
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser                           
[note 3]
 Austrian Empire Segen Öst'reichs hohem Sohne Blessings to Austria's high son 1835–1848 Zedlitz, Joseph Christian vonJoseph Christian von Zedlitz Haydn, JosephJoseph Haydn
Segen Öst'reichs hohem Sohne
[note 3]
 Austrian Empire Volkshymne Anthem of the People 1854–1867 Seidl, Johann GabrielJohann Gabriel Seidl Haydn, JosephJoseph Haydn
Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze
[note 3]
 Austria-Hungary Volkshymne Anthem of the People 1867–1918 Seidl, Johann GabrielJohann Gabriel Seidl Haydn, JosephJoseph Haydn
Gott erhalte, Gott beschütze
[note 3]
 Austria Deutschösterreich, du herrliches Land German Austria, you wonderful country 1920–1929
(de facto)
Renner, KarlKarl Renner Kienzl, WilhelmWilhelm Kienzl
 Austria Sei gesegnet ohne Ende Be Blessed Without End 1929–1938 Kernstock, OttokarOttokar Kernstock Haydn, JosephJoseph Haydn
Sei gesegnet ohne Ende
[note 3]
 Azerbaijan SSR Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikasının Himni Anthem of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic 1944–1992 Rustam, SuleymanSuleyman Rustam
Vurgun, SamadSamad Vurgun
Arif, HuseynHuseyn Arif
Hajibeyov, UzeyirUzeyir Hajibeyov
Azərbaycan SSR Himni
 Grand Duchy of Baden Badnerlied Song of Baden 1865–1871 Unknown Unknown [note 4]
 Bavaria Bayernhymne Hymn of Bavaria 1806–1871 Öchsner, MichaelMichael Öchsner Kunz, MaxMax Kunz [note 4]
 Biafra Land of the Rising Sun 1967–1970 Unknown Sibelius, JeanJean Sibelius
 Bophuthatswana Lefatshe leno la bo-rrarona This Land of Our Forefathers 1976–1994 Ntsime, J. M.J. M. Ntsime Mathibe, E. B.E. B. Mathibe
J. J. Loots
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Jedna si jedina The One and Only 1992–1998 Dervišhalidović, EdinEdin Dervišhalidović Dervišhalidović, EdinEdin Dervišhalidović
Jedna si jedina
 Empire of Brazil Hino da Independência Hymn of Independence 1822–1830 da Veiga, EvaristoEvaristo da Veiga Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro I of Brazil
Hino da Independência
 Empire of Brazil Hino Nacional Brasileiro Brazilian National Anthem 1830–1889 Estrada, Joaquim Osório DuqueJoaquim Osório Duque Estrada da Silva, Francisco ManuelFrancisco Manuel da Silva
Hino Nacional Brasileiro
[note 5]
Bulgaria Bulgaria Shumi Maritsa[trans 12] Maritsa Rushes 1886–1944 Zhivkov, NikolaNikola Zhivkov Vazov, IvanIvan Vazov
Shumi Maritsa
[note 6]
People's Republic of Bulgaria Bulgaria Republiko nasha, zdravey![trans 14] Hail to our Republic! 1944–1950 Penev, KrumKrum Penev Dimitrov, GeorgiGeorgi Dimitrov
People's Republic of Bulgaria Bulgaria Balgariyo mila[trans 15] Dear Bulgaria 1950–1964 Furnadshiev, NikolaNikola Furnadshiev
Mladen Issaev
Elisaveta Bagrjana
Dimitrov, GeorgiGeorgi Dimitrov
Georgi Zlatev-Tscherkin
Svetoslav Obretenov
 Byelorussian SSR Dzyarzhauny himn BSSR[trans 16] State Hymn of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic 1952–1991 Sakalowski, NestarNestar Sakalowski Klimovich, Mihas'Mihas' Klimovich
Dzyarzhauny himn BSSR
 Cambodia Song of the Khmer Republic[trans 17] Song of the Khmer Republic 1970–1975 Khieu Chum Khieu Chum
 Cambodia Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey[trans 18] Glorious Seventeenth of April 1976–1979 Unknown Unknown
Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey
 Cape Verde Esta É a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada This Is Our Beloved Country 1975–1996 Cabral, AmílcarAmílcar Cabral Cabral, AmílcarAmílcar Cabral [note 7]
 Central America La Granadera The Grenadier 1823–1839 Durón, RómuloRómulo Durón Unknown
La Granadera
 Qing China Li Zhong Tan Yue [trans 19] Tune of Li Zhongtang 1896–1906 Hongzhang, LiLi Hongzhang Hongzhang, LiLi Hongzhang
 Qing China Song Long Qi[trans 20] Praise the Dragon Flag 1906–1911 Collective Collective
 Qing China Gong Jin'ou[trans 21] Cup of Solid Gold 1911–1912 Fu, YanYan Fu Tong, BoBo Tong
Gong Jin'ou
 Republic of China Zhōngguó xióng lì yǔzhòujiān[trans 22] China Heroically Stands in the Universe 1915–1921 Chang, YinYin Chang Lu, WangWang Lu
 Republic of China Qing yun gē[trans 23] The Song to the Auspicious Cloud 1921–1926 Taiyan, ZhangZhang Taiyan Youmei, XiaoXiao Youmei
Qing yun gē
 Republic of China Guómín gémìng gē[trans 24] Revolution of the Citizens 1926–1928 Qianwu, LiaoLiao Qianwu Traditional
Guómín gémìng gē
 Chinese Soviet Republic Guójìgē[trans 25] The Internationale 1931–1937 Qiubai, QuQu Qiubai De Geyter, PierrePierre De Geyter [9]
 Ciskei Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika God Bless Africa 1976–1994 Sontonga, EnochEnoch Sontonga Parry, JosephJoseph Parry
 Comoros Wungwana Ngasi Nuwo We have the Freedom 1975–1978 Unknown Unknown
 Confederate States of America God Save the South 1861–1865
(de facto)
Miles, George HenryGeorge Henry Miles Ellerbrock, CharlesCharles Ellerbrock
God Save the South
[note 8]
 People's Republic of Congo Les Trois Glorieuses The Three Glorious Days 1969–1991 Lopès, HenriHenri Lopès Mockouamy, PhilippePhilippe Mockouamy
Corsica Corsican Republic Dio vi Salvi Regina God Save Our Queen 1755–1769
(de facto)
de Geronimo, FrancisFrancis de Geronimo de Geronimo, FrancisFrancis de Geronimo
Corsica Anglo-Corsican Kingdom Dio vi Salvi Regina God Save Our Queen 1794–1796 de Geronimo, FrancisFrancis de Geronimo de Geronimo, FrancisFrancis de Geronimo
 Czechoslovakia Kde domov můj?
Nad Tatrou sa blýska
Where is my home? and Lightning over the Tatras 1918–1938
1945–1993
Tyl, Josef KajetánJosef Kajetán Tyl
Matúška, JankoJanko Matúška
Škroup, FrantišekFrantišek Škroup
Unknown
Československá hymna
[note 9]
 Free City of Danzig Für Danzig For Danzig [Gdańsk] 1920–1939 Enderling, PaulPaul Enderling Göhler, GeorgGeorg Göhler
 Kingdom of Egypt Eslami ya Misr[trans 26] Be Safe Oh Egypt 1923–1936 Al-Rafe'ie, Mostafa SaadeqMostafa Saadeq Al-Rafe'ie Ali, SafarSafar Ali [12]
 Egypt Walla Zaman Ya Selahy[trans 27] Oh My Weapon 1971–1979 Jahin, SalahSalah Jahin Al Taweel, KamalKamal Al Taweel
 Estonian SSR Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistliku Vabariigi hümn Anthem of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945–1991 Semper, JohannesJohannes Semper Ernesaks, GustavGustav Ernesaks
Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistliku Vabariigi hümn
 Ethiopia Ityopp'ya Hoy Dess Yibelish[trans 28] Ethiopia Be Happy 1930–1975 Collective Dalbandyan, KevorkKevork Dalbandyan
 Ethiopia Ityopp'ya, Ityopp'ya, Ityopp'ya qida mi[trans 29] Ethiopia, Ethiopia, Ethiopia Be First 1975–1991 Tessama, Assefa Gebre-MariamAssefa Gebre-Mariam Tessama Haggos, Daniel YohannesDaniel Yohannes Haggos
 France Vive Henri IV Long live Henri IV 16th century-1792 Unknown Unknown
Vive Henri IV
France France Chant du départ Song of the Departure 1799–1815 Chénier, Marie-JosephMarie-Joseph Chénier Méhul, Étienne NicolasÉtienne Nicolas Méhul
Chant du départ
[note 10]
Bourbon Restoration France Le Retour des Princes français à Paris The Return of the French Princes to Paris 1814–1815
1815–1830
Unknown Castil-Blaze, François-HenriFrançois-Henri Castil-Blaze
Le Retour des Princes français à Paris
 France La Parisienne The Parisian 1830–1848 Delavigne, CasimirCasimir Delavigne Auber, DanielDaniel Auber
 France Le Chant des Girondins The Song of Girondists 1848–1852 Dumas, AlexandreAlexandre Dumas
Auguste Maquet
Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle
Varney, AlphonseAlphonse Varney
 France Partant pour la Syrie Departing for Syria 1852–1870 de Laborde, AlexandreAlexandre de Laborde de Beauharnais, HortenseHortense de Beauharnais
 Georgian SSR Sakartvelos sabch'ota socialist'uri resp'ublikas sakhelmts'ipo himni[trans 30] State Anthem of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic 1946–1991 Abashidze, GrigolGrigol Abashidze
Abasheli, AlexanderAlexander Abasheli
Taktakishvili, OtarOtar Taktakishvili
SSSR Sakhelmts'ipo himni
 Georgia Dideba[trans 31] Praise 1918–1920
1990–2004
Potskhverashvili, KoteKote Potskhverashvili Potskhverashvili, KoteKote Potskhverashvili
Dideba
 German Empire Heil dir im Siegerkranz Hail to Thee in Victor's Crown 1871–1918 Harries, HeinrichHeinrich Harries Unknown
Heil dir im Sigerkranz
 Germany Das Lied der Deutschen The Song of the Germans 1918–1933 von Fallersleben, August Heinrich HoffmannAugust Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben Haydn, JosephJoseph Haydn
Das Lied der Deutschen
[note 11]
 Germany Das Lied der Deutschen The Song of the Germans 1933–1945 von Fallersleben, August Heinrich HoffmannAugust Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben Haydn, JosephJoseph Haydn
Das Lied der Deutschen
[note 12]
 Federal Republik of Germany Das Lied der Deutschen The Song of the Germans 1918–1933 von Fallersleben, August Heinrich HoffmannAugust Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben Haydn, JosephJoseph Haydn
Das Lied der Deutschen
[note 13]
 German Democratic Republic Auferstanden aus Ruinen Arisen from Ruins 1949–1990 Becher, Johannes R.Johannes R. Becher Eisler, HannsHanns Eisler
Auferstanden aus Ruinen
 Gran Colombia Marcha Libertadora Liberating March 1819–1830 Unknown Unknown
Marcha Libertadora
 Grenada Grenada National State Anthem 1967–1974 Rolstan 'Curry Boots' Adams John Fletcher
 Haiti Quand nos aïeux brisèrent leurs entraves When our ancestors broke their chains 1893–1904 Durand, OswaldOswald Durand Unknown
 Turkey İstiklâl Marşı Independence March 1938–1939 Ersoy, Mehmet AkifMehmet Akif Ersoy Osman Zeki Üngör, Osman Zeki Üngör
İstiklâl Marşı (1938)
 Hawaii God Save the King 1810–1860 Unknown Unknown
God Save the King
 Hawaii E Ola Ke Alii Ke Akua God Save the King 1860–1866 Lunalilo Unknown
 Hawaii He Mele Lahui Hawaii The Song of the Hawaiian Nation 1866–1876 Liliuokalani Unknown
 Hawaii Hawaii Ponoi Hawaii's Own True Sons 1876–1893 Kalakaua Berger, HenriHenri Berger
 Hong Kong God Save The Queen
Tin Jau Neo Wong'[trans 32]
1841-1941
1945-1997
Unknown Unknown
God Save the Queen
 Honduras La Granadera The Grenadier ca. 1838–1915 Durón, RómuloRómulo Durón Unknown
La Granadera
 Honduras Dios Salve a Honduras God Save Honduras ca. 1890-1915 Unknown Laurcano Campos
 Iran Salamati-ye Shah[trans 33] Health of the Shah 1868–1933 Unknown Lemaire, Alfred Jean BaptisteAlfred Jean Baptiste Lemaire
 Iran Sorood-e Shahanshahi Iran[trans 34] Imperial Salute of Iran 1933–1979 Afsar, Mohammad-HashemMohammad-Hashem Afsar Najmi Moghaddam, DavudDavud Najmi Moghaddam
Sorood-e Shahanshahi Iran
 Iran Ey Iran[trans 35] Oh Iran 1979–1980 Gol-e-Golab, HosseinHossein Gol-e-Golab Khaleghi, RuhollahRuhollah Khaleghi
Ey Iran
 Iran Payandeh Bada Iran[trans 36] A Lasting Iran 1980–1990 Halat, AbolghasemAbolghasem Halat
Mohammad Beglary-Pour
Beglary-Pour, MohammadMohammad Beglary-Pour
 Iraq Ardulfurataini Watan[trans 37] The Land of The Two Rivers 1981–2003 Alkamali, ShafiqShafiq Alkamali Gholmieh, Walid GeorgesWalid Georges Gholmieh
 Italy Marcia Reale d'Ordinanza Royal March of Ordinance 1861–1946 Unknown Gabetti, GiuseppeGiuseppe Gabetti
Marcia Reale d'Ordinanza
 Italian Social Republic Giovinezza Youth 1943–1945 Gotta, SalvatorSalvator Gotta Blanc, GiuseppeGiuseppe Blanc
Giovinezza
 Katanga La Katangaise The Katangan 1960–1963 Unknown Kiwele, S.E. JosephS.E. Joseph Kiwele
 Kazakh SSR Qazaq Sovettik Socïalïstik Respwblïkasınıñ memlekettik änuranı[trans 38] Anthem of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic 1945–1992 Tazhibaev, AbdildaAbdilda Tazhibaev
Mukhamedzhanov, SydykSydyk Mukhamedzhanov
Musirepov, GabitGabit Musirepov
Tulebayev, MukanMukan Tulebayev Brusilovsky, YevgenyYevgeny Brusilovsky Khamidi, LatifLatif Khamidi
Qazaq SSR memlekettik änuranı
 Kazakhstan Qazaqstan Respwblïkasınıñ memlekettik änuranı[trans 39] Anthem of the Republic of Kazakhstan 1992–2006 Alimbayev, MuzafarMuzafar Alimbayev Myrzaliyev, KadyrKadyr Myrzaliyev Moldigaliyev, TumanbaiTumanbai Moldigaliyev Daribayeva, ZhadyraZhadyra Daribayeva Tulebayev, MukanMukan Tulebayev Brusilovsky, YevgenyYevgeny Brusilovsky Khamidi, LatifLatif Khamidi
Qazaqstan Respwblïkasınıñ memlekettik änuranı
[note 14]
 Kirghiz SSR Kyrgyz SSR Mamlekettik Gimni[trans 40] Anthem of the Kirghiz SSR 1936–1991 K. Malikov
T. Sydykbekov
M. Tokobaev
A. Tokombaev.
Vlasov, VladimirVladimir Vlasov
Maldybaev, AbdylasAbdylas Maldybaev
Fere, VladimirVladimir Fere
 Korean Empire Daehan jeguk aegukga[trans 41] Patriotic song of the Korean Empire 1902–1910 Unknown Eckert, FranzFranz Eckert
Daehan jeguk aegukga
 Kuwait As-salām al-amīrī[trans 42] Amiri Salute 1951–1978 Instrumental Adees, YusufYusuf Adees [note 15]
 Kingdom of Laos Pheng Xat Lao[trans 43] Anthem of the Lao people 1951–1975 Sounthonevichit, ThongdyThongdy Sounthonevichit Sounthonevichit, ThongdyThongdy Sounthonevichit [note 16]
 Latvian SSR Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskās Republikas himna Anthem of the Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945–1991 Rokpelnis, FricisFricis Rokpelnis
Vanags, JūlijsJūlijs Vanags
Liepiņš, AnatolsAnatols Liepiņš
Libya Libya Lībīya, Lībīya, Lībīya[trans 44] Libya, Libya, Libya 1951–1969 Al Arebi, Al BashirAl Bashir Al Arebi Wahab, Mohammed AbdelMohammed Abdel Wahab
Libya, Libya, Libya
[note 17]
 Libya Allahu Akbar[trans 45] God is Greatest 1969–2011 El-Sharif, MahmoodMahmood El-Sharif El-Din, Abdalla ShamsAbdalla Shams El-Din
Allahu Akbar
[note 18]
 Lithuanian SSR Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinės Respublikos himnas Anthem of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic 1950–1991 Venclova, AntanasAntanas Venclova Dvarionas, BalysBalys Dvarionas
Švedas, JonasJonas Švedas
 Macau A Portuguesa The Portuguese 1911–1999 Lopes de Mendonça, HenriqueHenrique Lopes de Mendonça Keil, AlfredoAlfredo Keil
A Portuguesa
[note 19]
 Mahabad Ey Reqîb Oh Enemy 1945–1947 Dildar Unknown [note 20]
 Marshall Islands Ij Io̧kwe Ļo̧k Aelōn̄ Eo Aō I Love the Islands 1986–1991 Unknown Langrine, SamuelSamuel Langrine
 Federated States of Micronesia Preamble 1989–1991 Unknown Unknown
 Moldavian SSR Imnul de Stat al RSS Moldoveneşti State Anthem of the Moldavian SSR 1945–1991 Bukov, EmilianEmilian Bukov
Bodarev, IvanIvan Bodarev
Neaga, ŞtefanŞtefan Neaga
Lazarev, EduardEduard Lazarev
 Montenegro Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori[trans 46] Our Beautiful Montenegro 1910–1918 Sundečić, JovanJovan Sundečić Ivanišević, JovoJovo Ivanišević
Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori
 Mozambique Viva, Viva a FRELIMO Long Live FRELIMO 1975–2002 Chemane, Justino SigaulaneJustino Sigaulane Chemane Chemane, Justino SigaulaneJustino Sigaulane Chemane
Viva, Viva a FRELIMO
   Nepal Rastriya Gaan[trans 47] May Glory Crown Our Illustrious Sovereign 1899–2007 Chalise, ChakrapaniChakrapani Chalise Budhapirthi, BakhatbirBakhatbir Budhapirthi
Rastriya Gaan
 Netherlands Wien Neêrlands Bloed Those in whom Dutch blood 1815–1932 Tollens, HendrikHendrik Tollens Wilms, Johann WilhelmJohann Wilhelm Wilms
Wien Neêrlands Bloed
 Netherlands Antilles Anthem without a title 2000–2010 Hiliman, ZahiraZahira Hiliman
Lucille Berry-Haseth
Hiliman, ZahiraZahira Hiliman
 Newfoundland Ode to Newfoundland 1907–1949 Boyle, CavendishCavendish Boyle Parry, HubertHubert Parry [note 21]
 Nicaragua Hermosa Soberana Beautiful and Sovereign 1893–1910 Unknown Cousin, AlejandroAlejandro Cousin
 Nigeria Nigeria We Hail Thee 1960–1978 Williams, Lilian JeanLilian Jean Williams Benda, FrancesFrances Benda
 Norway Norges Skaal Toast to Norway 1771–1819 Bruhn, Johan NordahlJohan Nordahl Bruhn Unknown
 Norway Sønner av Norge Sons of Norway 1820–c.1905 Bjerregaard, Henrik AnkerHenrik Anker Bjerregaard Blom, ChristianChristian Blom
 Oldenburg Heil dir, o Oldenburg Hail to thee, o Oldenburg 1844–1871 von Kobbe, TheodorTheodor von Kobbe Cecilia, Grand Duchess of Oldenburg, Cecilia, Grand Duchess of Oldenburg [note 4]
 Orange Free State Heft, Burgers, 't lied der vrijheid Sing, Citizens, the song of Freedom 1854–1902 Hamelberg, H. A. L.H. A. L. Hamelberg Nicolai, W. F. G.W. F. G. Nicolai [15]
 Ottoman Empire Mahmudiye Marşı March of Mahmud 1829–1839
1918–1922
Instrumental Donizetti, GiuseppeGiuseppe Donizetti [note 22]
 Ottoman Empire Mecidiye Marşı March of Abdülmecid 1839–1861 Instrumental Donizetti, GiuseppeGiuseppe Donizetti
 Ottoman Empire Aziziye Marşı March of Abdülaziz 1861–1876 Instrumental Guatelli, CallistoCallisto Guatelli
Aziziye Marşı
 Ottoman Empire Hamidiye Marşı March of Abdulhamid 1876–1909 Unknown Paşa, NecipNecip Paşa
Hamidiye Marşı
 Ottoman Empire Reşadiye Marşı March of Mehmed Reşad 1909–1918 Unknown Selvelli, ItaloItalo Selvelli
Reşadiye Marşı
 Papal States Noi vogliam Dio, Vergine Maria Virgin Mary, We Desire God 1800–1857 Unknown Unknown
 Papal States Marcia trionfale Triumphal March 1857–1869 Instrumental Hallmayer, ViktorinViktorin Hallmayer
Marcia trionfale
[note 23]
 Philippines Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan Noble Hymn of the Tagalogs 1895–1899 Nakpil, JuanJuan Nakpil Nakpil, JuanJuan Nakpil
 Portugal Hymno Patriótico Patriotic Hymn 1809–1826 Unknown Portugal, Marcos AntónioMarcos António Portugal
Hymno Patriótico
 Portugal Hino da Carta Hymn to the Charter 1826–1911 Pedro IV of Portugal, Pedro IV of Portugal Pedro IV of Portugal, Pedro IV of Portugal
Hino da Carta
 Prussia Borussia Prussia 1820–1830 Dunker, Joseph Friedrich LeopoldJoseph Friedrich Leopold Dunker Spontini, GaspareGaspare Spontini
 Prussia Preußenlied Song of Prussia 1830–1840 Thiersch, BernhardBernhard Thiersch Neithardt, AugustAugust Neithardt
 Rhodesia and Nyasaland God Save The Queen 1953–1963 Unknown Unknown
God Save the Queen
 Rhodesia God Save the Queen 1965–1970 Unknown Unknown
God Save the Queen
[note 24][16]
 Rhodesia Rise, O Voices of Rhodesia 1974–1979 Bloom, MaryMary Bloom Beethoven, Ludwig vanLudwig van Beethoven
Rise, O Voices of Rhodesia
[note 24][16]
 Romania Trăiască Regele Long live the King 1881–1947 Alecsandri, VasileVasile Alecsandri Hübsch, EduardEduard Hübsch [17]
 Romania Zdrobite cătuşe Broken Handcuffs 1948–1953 Baranga, AurelAurel Baranga Socor, MateiMatei Socor [17]
 Romania Te slăvim, Românie We glorify thee, Romania 1953–1977 Frunză, EugenEugen Frunză
Dan Deşliu
Socor, MateiMatei Socor
Te slăvim, Românie
[17]
 Romania Trei culori Three Colours 1977–1989 Unknown; adapted from the original Cântecul tricolorului Porumbescu, CiprianCiprian Porumbescu
Trei culori
[17]
 Russian Empire Molitva russkikh[trans 48] The Prayer of Russians 1816–1833 Zhukovsky, VasilyVasily Zhukovsky Unknown (same tune as God Save the Queen)
Molitva russkikh
 Russian Empire Bozhe, Tsarya khrani![trans 1] God Save the Tsar! 1833–1917 Zhukovsky, VasilyVasily Zhukovsky Lvov, AlexeiAlexei Lvov
Bozhe, Tsarya khrani!
Russia Russian Republic Rabochaya Marselyeza[trans 49] Worker's Marseillaise 1917 Lavrov, PyotrPyotr Lavrov Lisle, Claude Joseph Rouget deClaude Joseph Rouget de Lisle
Rabochaya Marselyeza
 Russian SFSR Rabochaya Marselyeza[trans 49] Worker's Marseillaise 1917–1918 Lavrov, PyotrPyotr Lavrov Lisle, Claude Joseph Rouget deClaude Joseph Rouget de Lisle
Rabochaya Marselyeza
[note 25]
 Russian SFSR Internatsional[trans 50] The Internationale 1917–1944 Pottier, EugèneEugène Pottier De Geyter, PierrePierre De Geyter
Internatsional
[note 25]
 Russian Federation Patrioticheskaya Pesnya'[trans 51] The Patriotic Song 1990–2000 Instrumental Glinka, MikhailMikhail Glinka
Patrioticheskaya Pesnya
[18]
 Rwanda Rwanda Rwacu Our Rwanda 1962–2002 Habarurema, MichaelMichael Habarurema
Abanyuramatwi
Habarurema, MichaelMichael Habarurema
Abanyuramatwi
 San Marino Giubilanti d'amore fraterno Praise of Brotherly Love ?–1896 Balsimelli, UlisseUlisse Balsimelli Muccioli, AurelioAurelio Muccioli
 Kingdom of Sarawak Gone Forth Beyond the Sea ?–1946 Brooke, MargaretMargaret Brooke Unknown
 Sarawak Fair Land Sarawak 1946–1973 Ogden, FCFC Ogden Freeth, GeorgeGeorge Freeth
 Sardinia S'hymnu sardu nationale The Sardinian National Anthem 1842–1861 Angius, VittorioVittorio Angius Gonella, GiovanniGiovanni Gonella
 Saxony Sachsen Hymne Hymn of Saxony 1806–1871 Hallbauer, MaximilianMaximilian Hallbauer Otto, Ernst JuliusErnst Julius Otto [note 4]
 Serbia and Montenegro Hej, Sloveni Hey, Slavs 1991–2006 Tomášik, SamuelSamuel Tomášik Ogiński, Michał KleofasMichał Kleofas Ogiński
Hej, Sloveni
[note 2]
 Seychelles En Avant Forward 1976–1978 Unknown Unknown
 Seychelles Fyer Seselwa Be Proud Seychellois 1978–1996 Unknown Dastros-Gèze, PierrePierre Dastros-Gèze
 Siam Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami[trans 52] Siamese Royal Anthem 1913–1932 Nuvadtivongs, NarisaraNarisara Nuvadtivongs
Vajiravudh
Unknown
Phleng Sansoen Phra Barami
[note 26]
 Slovenia Naprej, zastava slave Forward, Flag of Glory 1860–1990 Jenko, SimonSimon Jenko Jenko, DavorinDavorin Jenko
Naprej, zastava slave
[note 27]
 Somalia Heesta qaranqa Soomaaliya National anthem of Somalia 1960–2000 Instrumental Blanc, GiuseppeGiuseppe Blanc
 Somalia Soomaaliyeey toosoo Somalia, Wake Up 2000–2012 Mire Awale, AliAli Mire Awale Mire Awale, AliAli Mire Awale
Yusuf Haji Aden
Soomaaliyeey toosoo
[note 28]
 South Africa Die Stem van Suid-Afrika The Call of South Africa 1957–1997 Langenhoven, Cornelis JacobusCornelis Jacobus Langenhoven de Villiers, Marthinus LourensMarthinus Lourens de Villiers
Die Stem van Suid-Afrika
[note 29][21]
 South Africa Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika God Bless Africa 1994–1997 Sontonga, EnochEnoch Sontonga Parry, JosephJoseph Parry [note 29][21]
 South African Republic Volkslied van Transvaal National anthem of the Transvaal 1875–1902 van Rees, CatharinaCatharina van Rees van Rees, CatharinaCatharina van Rees
Volkslied van Transvaal
[22]
 Soviet Union Internatsional[trans 50] The Internationale 1922–1944 Pottier, EugèneEugène Pottier De Geyter, PierrePierre De Geyter
Internatsional
 Soviet Union Gosudarstvenniy Gimn SSSR[trans 53] Hymn of the Soviet Union 1944–1991 Mikhalkov, SergeySergey Mikhalkov Alexandrov, AlexanderAlexander Alexandrov
Gosudarstvenniy Gimn SSSR
Spain Spain Himno de Riego Anthem of Riego 1931–1939 Gomis, José MelchorJosé Melchor Gomis Gomis, José MelchorJosé Melchor Gomis
Himno de Riego
[23]
  Switzerland Rufst du, mein Vaterland When you call, my fatherland c. 1850–1961 Wyss, Johann RudolfJohann Rudolf Wyss
Henri Roehrich
Unknown (same tune as God Save the Queen)
Rufst du, mein Vaterland
[24]
 Tajik SSR Gimni Respublikai Sovetii Sotsialistii Tojikiston[trans 54] State Anthem of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic 1946–1994 Lahouti, AbolqasemAbolqasem Lahouti Yudakov, SuleimanSuleiman Yudakov
 Transkei Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika God Bless Africa 1976–1994 Sontonga, EnochEnoch Sontonga Parry, JosephJoseph Parry
 Tunisia Salam al-Bey[trans 55] Beylical Salute 1846–1958 Unknown Unknown
 Tunisia Ala Khallidi[trans 56] Immortal and Precious 1958–1987 Naccache, JalaleddineJalaleddine Naccache El Mahdi, SalahSalah El Mahdi
 Turkmen SSR Türkmienistan Soviet Socialistik Riespublikasy Döwlet Gimni State Anthem of the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic 1946–1997 Kekilov, AmanAman Kekilov Mukhatov, VeliVeli Mukhatov
Türkmienistan SSR Döwlet Gimni
[note 30]
 Two Sicilies Inno al Re Hymn to the King 1816–1861 Unknown Paisiello, GiovanniGiovanni Paisiello
 Ukrainian SSR Derzhavnyy himn URSR[trans 57] State Anthem of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic 1949–1991 Lebednyets, Anton DmytrovychAnton Dmytrovych Lebednyets Tychyna, PavloPavlo Tychyna
Derzhavnyy himn URSR
 United Arab Republic Walla Zaman Ya Selahy[trans 27] Oh My Weapon 1960–1971 Jahin, SalahSalah Jahin Al Taweel, KamalKamal Al Taweel
 United States My Country, 'Tis of Thee c. 1831–1931
(de facto)
Smith, Samuel FrancisSamuel Francis Smith Unknown (same tune as God Save the Queen)
My Country 'Tis Of Thee
[note 1]
 Upper Volta Hymne National Voltaïque Voltaique National Anthem 1960–1984 Ouedraogo, RobertRobert Ouedraogo Ouedraogo, RobertRobert Ouedraogo
 Uzbek SSR O'zbekiston Sovet Sotsialist Respublikasining davlat madhiyasi State Anthem of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic 1947–1992 Fattah, TimurTimur Fattah
Tula, TurabTurab Tula
Burkhanov, MutalMutal Burkhanov
  Vatican City Marcia trionfale Triumphal March 1869–1950 Instrumental Hallmayer, ViktorinViktorin Hallmayer
Marcia trionfale
[note 23]
 Venda Pfano na vhuthihi Peace and Togetherness 1979–1994 Unknown Unknown
 Vietnam Đăng đàn cung The King mounts his throne 1802–1945 Thieu, UngUng Thieu Chaigneau, J.B.J.B. Chaigneau
 South Vietnam Tiếng Gọi Công Dân Call to the Citizens 1955–1975 Phuoc, Luu HuuLuu Huu Phuoc Phuoc, Luu HuuLuu Huu Phuoc
Tiếng Gọi Công Dân
[note 31]
Morning Star flag.svg West Papua Hai Tanahku Papua Oh My Land Papua 1961–1963 Kijne, Izaak SamuelIzaak Samuel Kijne Kijne, Izaak SamuelIzaak Samuel Kijne
 Württemberg Württemberger Hymne Hymn of Württemberg 1806–1871 Unknown von Lindpaintner, Peter JosefPeter Josef von Lindpaintner [note 4]
 Kingdom of Yugoslavia Himna Kraljevine Jugoslavije Hymn of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918–1941 Đorđević, JovanJovan Đorđević
Mihanović, AntunAntun Mihanović
Jenko, SimonSimon Jenko
Jenko, DavorinDavorin Jenko
Runjanin, JosifJosif Runjanin
Himna Kraljevine Jugoslavije
[note 32]
 SFR Yugoslavia Hej, Sloveni Hey, Slavs 1977–1991 Tomášik, SamuelSamuel Tomášik Ogiński, Michał KleofasMichał Kleofas Ogiński
Hej, Sloveni
[27]
 Zaire La Zaïroise The Zairian 1972–1997 Lutumba, JosephJoseph Lutumba Londi, Simon-Pierre Boka Di MpasiSimon-Pierre Boka Di Mpasi Londi
La Zaïroise
 Zimbabwe Ishe Komborera Africa God Bless Africa 1980–1994 Sontonga, EnochEnoch Sontonga Parry, JosephJoseph Parry [note 33]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

An autograph score, including lyrics, for a piano version of the first Austrian national anthem, Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser, handwritten and signed by Joseph Haydn in 1797. The tune, today more associated with Germany, was last used by Austria in 1938.
  1. ^ a b My Country, 'Tis of Thee is generally considered to have been the de facto national anthem of the United States prior to 1931, but not universally. Alternatives included Hail, Columbia, and the modern anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner.[25][26]
  2. ^ a b Serbia and Montenegro was called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until 4 February 2003.[19]
  3. ^ a b c d e The same tune was used for numerous Austrian and Austro-Hungarian national anthems; only the lyrics changed. Although the official lyrics were in German, versions of the anthems used during the imperial period (until 1918) existed in several other languages from throughout the empire: Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Polish and Slovene.[8]
  4. ^ a b c d e The anthems of the previously independent German kingdoms and duchies continued to be used as regional anthems until the fall of the German Empire in 1918.
  5. ^ Brazil became a republic in 1888, but retained Hino Nacional Brasileiro as its national anthem.
  6. ^ From 1908 a royal anthem, Anthem of His Majesty the Tsar,[trans 13] was adopted and played immediately after the anthem whenever the monarch was present.
  7. ^ Esta É a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada was adopted in 1975 by both Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau on their respective independence from Portugal. Cape Verde introduced a unique anthem in 1996, but it remains the national anthem of Guinea-Bissau.
  8. ^ The Confederate States never adopted an official national anthem. The Civil War Trust firmly states that the "honor rightly belongs to" God Save the South, the first piece of music published in the country, "because of its stirring poetry and its outstanding musical setting". Commonly cited alternatives include the popular song Dixie and The Bonnie Blue Flag, a marching song.[10][11]
  9. ^ Only the first verses of each anthem were sung during the union of the Czech lands with Slovakia.
  10. ^ Although it is the first to appear on this list, Chant du départ was not the original national anthem of France; La Marseillaise, the modern national anthem, was originally used from 1795 to 1799. It was readopted in 1870.
  11. ^ During Germany's Weimar period, all three verses of Das Lied der Deutschen were sung, whereas today only the third verse is sung.
  12. ^ During Germany's Nazi period, only the first verse of Das Lied der Deutschen was sung, and followed by Horst-Wessel-Lied, the SA song written by Horst Wessel.
  13. ^ Only the third verse, as well as today.
  14. ^ The same melody was used for the Kazakh national anthem in the early years of independence, before it was replaced with the current anthem, Meniñ Qazaqstanım.
  15. ^ The modern national anthem of Kuwait, adopted in 1978, retains Amiri Salute in its entirety as an opening fanfare.[13]
  16. ^ After the founding of the present Lao People's Democratic Republic, Pheng Xat Lao had its words, but not its music, changed.
  17. ^ Lībīya, Lībīya, Lībīya, relinquished in 1969, was re-adopted as the national anthem of Libya after the victory of the National Transitional Council over the Gaddafi forces in 2011, the only difference being the omission of a verse glorifying King Idris.
  18. ^ As of June 2011, Lībīya, Lībīya, Lībīya is used as Libya's national anthem by the National Transitional Council (NTC), the political body that represents Anti-Gaddafi forces. The NTC is recognised by several United Nations members as the legitimate government of Libya.[14]
  19. ^ From 1802 until 1911 the anthem of Macau was Hymno Patriótico followed by Hino da Carta, the same as that of Portugal.
  20. ^ The song Ey Reqîb is still used as the regional anthem of Iraqi Kurdistan, and as the anthem of the Kurdish people in general.
  21. ^ When Newfoundland joined the Canadian Confederation in 1949, Ode to Newfoundland lost its status as a national anthem. The Canadian province of Newfoundland became the first to adopt a provincial anthem in 1980 when the song was readopted.
  22. ^ The last Ottoman sultan, Mehmed VI, decided not to have a special march for himself, but used the first Ottoman anthem, Mahmudiye.
  23. ^ a b The Papal States became part of Italy in 1869, but the anthem was retained as the Vatican City's first anthem until 1950.
  24. ^ a b Rhodesia's 1965 Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) went unrecognised by the United Kingdom and the United Nations, both of which continued to consider Rhodesia to be the British colony of Southern Rhodesia. Despite declaring independence, the de facto Rhodesian government still maintained loyalty to Elizabeth II and so retained Britain's national anthem, God Save the Queen, until it declared Rhodesia a republic in 1970. A replacement anthem was not adopted until 1974, when Rise, O Voices of Rhodesia came into use. God Save the Queen remained Rhodesia's de jure national anthem throughout the UDI period of 1965 to 1979.
  25. ^ a b The Worker's Marseillaise was briefly used alongside The Internationale by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1918.
  26. ^ Although replaced as national anthem in 1932, Sansoen Phra Barami was retained as Siam's (and, following the country's change of name in 1939, Thailand's) royal anthem.
  27. ^ Naprej, zastava slave is still used by the Slovenian Armed Forces.
  28. ^ Served as Somalia's national anthem until 2012, when it was replaced with Qolobaa Calankeed.
  29. ^ a b The Call of South Africa and God Bless Africa became co-national anthems of South Africa in 1994. The modern South African national anthem, adopted in 1997, uses elements from each in separate segments.[20]
  30. ^ The anthem continued to be used in the early years of Turkmenistan's independence, until the adoption of the current anthem in 1997.
  31. ^ The song was originally called Thanh Niên Hành Khúc (English: March of the Youths); the title and words were altered significantly when it became national anthem, though the music remained the same. Luu Huu Phuoc was still officially credited for both the music and the lyrics.
  32. ^ The anthem was a medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naša domovino and Naprej, zastava slave, the anthems of Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia respectively.
  33. ^ Ishe Komborera Africa is a translation of Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika from Xhosa into Shona and Ndebele.

Translations and transliterations[edit]

  1. ^ a b Russian: Боже, Царя храни!; transliterated as Bozhe, Tsarya khrani!
  2. ^ Translates from Dutch as The William
  3. ^ Translates from Spanish as The Royal March
  4. ^ Translates from French as The Return of the French Princes to Paris
  5. ^ Translates from German as Hail to Thee in Victor's Crown
  6. ^ Translates from German as The Song of the Germans
  7. ^ Translates from German as God save Emperor Francis
  8. ^ Russian: Государственный гимн СССР; transliterated as Gosudarstvenniy Gimn SSSR
  9. ^ Translates from Serbo-Croatian as Hey, Slavs
  10. ^ a b c d Persian: سرود ملی
  11. ^ Armenian: Հայկական ՍՍՀ օրհներգ
  12. ^ Bulgarian: Шуми Марица
  13. ^ Bulgarian: Химн на Негово Величество Царя; transliterated as Himn na Negovo Velichestvo Tsarya
  14. ^ Bulgarian: Републико наша, здравей!
  15. ^ Bulgarian: Бъларио мила
  16. ^ Belarusian: Дзяржаўны гімн БССР
  17. ^ Khmer: បទចំរៀងនៃសាធារណរដ្ឋខ្មែរ
  18. ^ Khmer: ដប់ប្រាំពីរមេសាមហាជោគជ័យ
  19. ^ Chinese: 李中堂乐
  20. ^ Chinese: 颂龙旗
  21. ^ Chinese: 鞏金甌
  22. ^ Chinese: 中國雄立宇宙間
  23. ^ Chinese: 卿云歌
  24. ^ Chinese: 國民革命歌
  25. ^ Chinese: 国际歌
  26. ^ Egyptian Arabic: اسلمى يا مصر
  27. ^ a b Egyptian Arabic: والله زمان يا سلاحي
  28. ^ Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ ሆይ ደስ ይበልሽ?
  29. ^ Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ, ኢትዮጵያ, ኢትዮጵያ ቅደሚ?
  30. ^ Georgian: საქართველოს საბჭოთა სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკის სახელმწიფო ჰიმნი
  31. ^ Georgian: დიდება
  32. ^ Chinese: 天佑女王
  33. ^ Persian: سلامتی شاه
  34. ^ Persian: سرود شاهنشاهی ایران
  35. ^ Persian: ای ایران
  36. ^ Persian: پاینده بادا ایران
  37. ^ Iraqi Arabic: أرض الفراتين
  38. ^ Kazakh: Қазақ Советтiк Социалистік Республикасының мемлекеттік әнұраны
  39. ^ Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасының Мемлекеттік Әнұраны
  40. ^ Kirghiz: Кыргыз ССР Мамлекеттик Гимни
  41. ^ Korean: 대한제국 애국가
  42. ^ Arabic: السلام الأميري
  43. ^ Lao: ເພງຊາດລາວ
  44. ^ Libyan Arabic: لیبیا، لیبیا، لیبیا
  45. ^ Libyan Arabic: الله أكبر
  46. ^ Serbian Cyrillic: Убавој нам Црној Гори
  47. ^ Nepali: राष्ट्रिय गान्
  48. ^ Russian: Молитва русских
  49. ^ a b Russian: Рабочая Марсельеза
  50. ^ a b Russian: Интернационал
  51. ^ Russian: Патриотическая Песня
  52. ^ Thai: เพลงสรรเสริญพระบารมี
  53. ^ Russian: Государственный гимн СССР
  54. ^ Tajik: Гимни Республикаи Советии Сотсиалистии Тоҷикистон
  55. ^ Arabic: سلام الباي
  56. ^ Arabic: ألا خلّدي
  57. ^ Ukrainian: Державний гімн УРСР

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ "Anthem". Reference.com. Lexico Publishing Group. Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  2. ^ "The Dutch Royal House". Dutch Royal House. Archived from the original on 2008-02-10. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  3. ^ "Lost for words". The Economist. 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 
  4. ^ "National Anthem". Russia's State Symbols. RIA Novosti. 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  5. ^ Zolotov, Andrei (2000-12-01). "Russian Orthodox Church Approves as Putin Decides to Sing to a Soviet Tune". Christianity Today Magazine (Christianity Today International). Retrieved 2009-12-19. 
  6. ^ "Serbia Montenegro song falls flat". London: BBC Sport. 2004-08-11. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  7. ^ a b c d Bristow. "Afghanistan National Anthem (1943-1973)". Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Jones, David Wyn (2009). Oxford Composer Companions: Haydn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 120. 
  9. ^ "History of Chinese national anthems in a hundred years". People's Daily (in Chinese) (Communist Party of China). Retrieved 2011-07-15. 
  10. ^ "Civil War Music: God Save the South". Washington, D.C.: Civil War Trust. Retrieved 2011-07-22. 
  11. ^ Sacks, Howard L.; Sacks, Judith (1993). Way up North in Dixie: A Black Family's Claim to the Confederate Anthem. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-252-07160-3. 
  12. ^ "The social and cultural conception of Mustafa Sadiq Alrafii". Asian and African studies (Jerusalem Academic Press) 13: 101–129. 1979. ISSN 0066-8281. 
  13. ^ "National anthem". Kuwait Info. Government of Kuwait. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  14. ^ "Germany recognises Libya rebels as sole government". London: BBC News. 2011-06-13. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  15. ^ Sousa 1890, p. 180
  16. ^ a b Bristow. "Rhodesia". Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  17. ^ a b c d Bristow. "Romania". Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  18. ^ Bristow. "Russian Federation". Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  19. ^ "Timeline: after Milosevic". London: BBC News. 2006-06-06. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  20. ^ a b "National anthem". Government of South Africa. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  21. ^ a b Bristow. "South Africa". Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  22. ^ Sousa 1890, p. 253
  23. ^ "The 10... most preposterous opening ceremonies". The Observer. London: Guardian News and Media. 2004-01-18. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  24. ^ Kreis, Georg (1991). Der Mythos von 1291. Zur Entstehung des schweizerischen Nationalfeiertages. Basel: F. Reinhardt. pp. 67–69. 
  25. ^ Snyder, Lois Leo (1990). Encyclopedia of Nationalism. Paragon House. p. 13. ISBN 1-55778-167-2. 
  26. ^ Barton, Laura (2009-01-23). "Hail, Hail, Rock'n'Roll". The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 2011-06-21. 
  27. ^ Bristow. "Yugoslavia". Retrieved 2011-06-20.