List of historical ships in British Columbia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The following is a list of vessels notable in the history of the Canadian province of British Columbia, including Spanish, Russian, American and other military vessels and all commercial vessels on inland waters as well as on saltwater routes up to the end of World War II (1945). Royal Navy ships are listed separately in List of Royal Navy ships in the Pacific Northwest.

A[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Activo Activa Bodega y Quadra, Cosme Beltodano, Salvador Menéndez, Salvador Fidalgo, José María Narváez, others brigantine 200 ton, 16 guns, 2 masts (originally 195 ton displacement, carried twelve 3-pounders and two 3-pounder swivel guns) Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas Keel laid 9 December 1791; completed in 60 days; cost 29,854 pesos. Launched 29 February 1792. Remained in service of San Blas Naval Base until at least 1808. Built as a schooner specifically for Bodega's 1792 diplomatic voyage to Nootka Sound and named Activa. In 1793 or 1794 was reconfigured as a brigantine and renamed Activo.[1]
SS Abyssinia Abyssinia Steamship: passenger and freight liner 3651 tons CPR (chartered from Cunard) 1887, TransPacific record on inaugural CPR shipment from Orient to NY/UK 1887–1891 destroyed by fire First of CPR liners, pre-Empress series
Adventure Horcasitas, Orcasitas, Orcacitas Robert Haswell sloop, merchant U.S., Spain Boston merchants, then Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas First U.S. ship built in the Pacific, traded to Bodega y Quadra in 1792.
SS Albion
SS Alert
SS Alice[disambiguation needed]
Alpha steam launch Arrow Lakes and Columbia River during CPR construction
Amelia[disambiguation needed] formerly French Emilie[2] Owen United States 1793
Ann Hersey Schooner 204 tons US Bryant & Sturgis, Boston[3] Maritime Fur Trade 1823
Aránzazu Juan Bautista Matute, Jacinto Caamaño, John Kendrick, Jr., others frigate Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas scientific/ethnographic survey circa 1789-1795 Also spelled Aranzazú
Argonaut Argonauta James Colnett Britain King George's Sound Company, then joint company with John Meares and partners Captured by Spain during Nootka Crisis After captured by Spain was briefly part of the Spanish Navy at San Blas and called a packet boat, Argonauta. It was to be part of the 1790 fleet sailing to Nootka Sound under Eliza, but the San Carlos was used instead.[4]
SS Arthur
Astrolabe L'Astrolabe Fleuriot de Langle frigate 500 tons France French Navy La Pérouse Expedition. With Boussole, was 5th and 6th ships to visit Hawaii.[5] late 1780s see also Boussole
Atahualpa Captain Adams U.S., Russia Theodore Lyman and associates[6] attacked in Clayoquot Sound. Sold to Russians and renamed Bering.[5] 1790s; 1801–1805, 1807, 1813
Atlinto gasoline-screw None Sold to John Noland in 1927. Operated on Atlin Lake. 1911-present On display at Atlin. Built in 1911.

This boat is not to be confused with the sidewheeler Atlinto, built in 1904, and which became the Glengarry in 1906.

Atrevida José de Bustamante corvette 120 foot length, 306 tons, 16 officers and 86 men Spain Spanish Navy Launched 1788, returned to Spain 1794 Twin of the Descubierta

B[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
RMS BC Express Joseph Bucey sternwheeler Gross 449 Registered 283 Barnard's Express Launched at Soda Creek June 1912 Retired in 1920 at South Fort George
Beaver sidewheeler Britain HBC Maritime Fur Trade and military use from Columbia River to Alaska Panhandle 1836-1888 Wrecked at Prospect Point, Stanley Park Boulton and Watt beam engines
Belle Savage US 1801, attacked by 150 Haida in Fitz Hugh Sound, vessel nearly seized.[7] 1800-1802 sea otter Maritime Fur Trade vessel
Blair of Athol Steam-screw, one 6ʺ × 5½ʺ cyl. 11 Canada #111608 Joseph G. “Scottie” Morrison (1898-1902);

Margaret Ward (1902-1904); Northern Lumber Co. (1904-1905)

Operated on Atlin Lake. 1898-1905 Broken up in 1905. Built in 1900 by Morrison at New Westminster, B.C.
Bordelais Camille de Roquefeuil Ship 200 tons, 8 guns, 34 crew France Balguerie, Jr., Bordeaux, France Maritime Fur Trade 1817, 1818 1817, sailed from France to Chile, California, Nootka Sound.[3]
Boston John Salter "trading ship"[8] US On 22 March 1803, was seized by Maquinna, all but two of the crew "murdered"; a "desperate attempt by Maquinna to regain his prestige.[9] only survivors John Thompson and John R. Jewitt, the latter's account of his captivity is a classic in Pacific Northwest early history
Boussole La Boussole La Pérouse frigate 500 tons France French Navy With Astrolabe, 5th and 6th ships to visit Hawaii.[5] late 1780s
Butterworth William Brown 400 tons Britain William Brown Maritime fur trading in 1790s Part of the "Butterworth squadron", including Jackall and Prince Lee Boo
RMS B.X. Owen Forrester Browne sternwheeler Gross 513 Registered 283 16 inches Canada Barnard's Express Launched in Soda Creek May 13, 1910 Sank in August 1919, Salvaged and Retired October 1919

C[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Cadboro Schooner, 4 guns, 12 men 71 Britain HBC carried J. Douglas from Ft. Nisqually to site of Ft. Victoria, 1842 Launched 1826[10] Sold (1846?)[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade
SS Caledonia
Captain Cook Betsey (renamed Captain Cook in 1785)[11] Henry Laurie (or Lawrie)[11] brig 350 tons, crew of 61, including James Strange (1786 voyage)[11] Britain James Strange and David Scott (future chairman of East India Company)[11] Left John Mackay at Nootka Sound to collect furs until Strange returned, but he never did. Mackay was taken aboard the Imperial Eagle in 1787. Under direction of James Strange, explored and named Queen Charlotte Sound; continued north to Prince William Sound. Tried but failed to sail to Copper Island. Returned to Macau in December 1786.[11][11] 1786 Sailed with the Experiment
SS Cariboo Archibald Jameison Archibald Jameison At 2 in the morning on August 2, 1861 the ship exploded as it was leaving Victoria harbour. 7 people died. Sunk August 2, 1861
Casca sternwheeler, two 16ʺ x 72ʺ cyl. 590 Canada #103919 Casca Trading & Transportation Co. (1898 to 1899 or 1900);

Otto R. Bremmer (1899 or 1900 to 1903); Ironside, Rennie & Campbell Co. (1903-1904); White Pass & Yukon Route (1904-1911)

Operated on the Stikine River in 1898 and 1899. 1898-1899 Broken up at Lower Laberge, Yukon in 1911. Built in 1898 by the Esquimalt Marine Ry. Co. at Victoria, B.C.
SS Cecil
SS Champion
MV Charlotte Owen Forrester Browne Frank Odin sternwheeler Gross 217 Registered 79 Canada North British Columbia Navigation Company Launched at Quesnel on August 3, 1896 Wrecked at Fort George Canyon, salvaged and abandoned at Quesnel 1910
Chernui Orel Russia
Chichagoff Chichagov Russia
MV Chilco Nechacco John Bonser in 1909-10 George Ritchie 1910-11 sternwheeler Gross 129 Registered 76 Canada Fort George Lumber and Navigation Company Launched at Quesnel May 25, 1909 Tore apart in ice jam at Cottonwood Canyon in April 1911. Nothing recovered First sternwheeler to navigate the Grand Canyon of the Fraser
MV Chilcotin D.A. Foster sternwheeler Gross 435 Registered 274 Fort George Lumber and Navigation Company Launched at Soda Creek July 20, 1910 Retired 1914
City of Ainsworth Lean sternwheeler Canada Sank in storm on Kootenay Lake November 29, 1898, 9 lives lost Wreck is heritage site
Colonel Moody
Columbia Barque, 6 guns, 24 men 308 tons[10] Britain HBC Launched 1835 Sold (1850?)[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]
Columbia US Columbia River and Kootenay Steam Navigation Company Arrow Lakes-Columbia River service destroyed by fire
Columbia Rediviva Columbia Robert Gray, John Kendrick full rigged ship[12] Burthen: 213 tons.[12] Length: 83′6″. Beam: 24′2″. Draft: 11'. Crew: 16-18 min, 30-31 max.[12] U.S. First exploration of the Columbia River Built 1787 (or rebuilt, "rediviva" meaning "revived"), Plymouth, MA.[12] Decommissioned 15 Oct 1806, salvaged.[12] sometimes sailed with Lady Washington
SS Commodore
Concepción Francisco de Eliza, others depot-guardship, frigate, or corvette Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas Guarded Fort San Miguel in 1790 and 1791. Described by Bodega: "is no more than a corvette with 26 small-calibre guns."[13]
MV Conveyor Jack Shannon sternwheeler gross 725 registered 457 Canada Foley, Welch and Stewart Launched on Skeena River in 1909, Fraser River in 1912 Retired at Fort George Worked on both GTP and PGE rail construction
Convoy William H. McNeil Brig 135 tons US Josiah Marshall, Boston[3] Maritime Fur Trade 1826
SS Consort
Cortez Spain
SS Cowlitz Britain HBC Launched 1840 Sold 1851 HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]
Crusader Benjamin Pickens Brig 110 tons US Eliab Grimes.[3] Maritime Fur Trade 1832
Cutch Jessie Banning, Bogota schooner-rigged steamship Canada Union Steamship Company of British Columbia Union Steamship Co's first successful passenger ship Later served as a gunboat in South America

D[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Dare (schooner) 3-masted schooner rwewced Dec. 23, 1880 off Carmanah Point[14] while en route from San Francisco to Tacoma home port North Bend OR; Dare Point near Carmanah is named after the ship.
SS Demaris Cove
Descubierta Alessandro Malaspina corvette 120 foot length, 306 tons, 16 officers and 86 men Spain Spanish Navy Launched 1788, in Pacific Northwest 1791, returned to Spain 1794 Twin of the Atrevida
Dobraia Namerenia Russia
SS Dolphin
SS Dryad 204 tons[10] Britain HBC Launched 1825, purchased by HBC 1829.[10] Sold 1836[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]
Duchesnay Gen. Jeff C. Davis (1900-1933) sternwheeler, two 12ʺ x 54ʺ cyl. 277 Canada #107151 Canadian Pacific Ry. (1898-1899);

Edward J. Rathbone (1899-1900); U.S. Army (1900-1922); Alaskan Engineering Commission (1922-1923); The Alaska Railroad (1923-1933)

Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River in 1898. 1898-1899 Broken up at Nenana, Alaska in 1933. Built in 1898 by C.P. Ry. at Vancouver, Washington.
SS Duchess of San Lorenzo

E[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
SS Eagle 193 tons[10] Britain HBC Launched 1824, purchased by HBC 1827.[10] Sold 1837[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]
Eleanora (ship) Eleanor Simon Metcalfe brig U.S. Almost captured during 1789 Nootka Crisis. Captured by Haida under Koyah. American maritime fur trading vessel
Eliza (merchant ship) James Rowan[15] US 1799
SS Eliza Anderson
Ellwood Sail 5 Canada #107637 Thomas H. Worsnop Operated on Atlin Lake. 1898-191_ Registry closed in 1916. Built in 1898 at Seattle, Washington.
SS Emily Harris
SS Emma Rooke
RMS Empress of Japan steamship/ocean liner 5,905 GRT Canada Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) trans-Pacific speed record until 1914 1926, scrapped
RMS Empress of Japan RMS Empress of Scotland, SS Hanseatic steamship/ocean liner 30,030 GRT Canada, Germany Canadian Pacific Steamships (CP) 1966, fire in NYC harbor
SS England
MV Enterprise JW Doane and Thomas Wright sternwheeler Canada Gustavus Blin-Wright Made one trip to Takla Lake for Omenica Gold Rush Launched at Alexandria May 9, 1863 Wrecked on Trembleur Lake 1871 First sternwheeler on upper Fraser River. First of only two to travel to Takla Lake
Enterprise (1861) William Alexander Mouat and George Rudlin sidewheeler Hudson's Bay Company The first wooden side-wheeler to travel between Victoria and New Westminster on the Fraser River Built at San Francisco in 1861 and bought by Hudson's Bay Company in 1862 Collided with the steamer R.P. Rithet (sternwheeler) 28 July 1885
SS Europa
SS Exact
Experiment John Guise[11] 150 tons, crew of "about 36"[11] Britain James Strange and David Scott (future chairman of East India Company)[11] Maritime fur trading along the coast from Nootka Sound to Prince William Sound. With James Strange aboard sailed to China, arriving at Macau in November 1786.[11] 1786 Sailed with the Captain Cook

F[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Fair American Thomas Humphrey Metcalf (Metcalfe?) schooner or brig U.S. Captured by Spain during 1789 Nootka Crisis, returned by 1790. Captured by Hawaiians in 1790 American maritime fur trading vessel. Captured, crewed and captained by Native Hawaiians in 1790
Fairy William Rogers[16] US (Boston)[16] William Douglas[16] Maritime Fur Trade 1791, 1794 Owned by William Douglas, captain of the Grace and formerly of the Iphigenia.[16]
Favorita Ignacio de Arteaga frigate Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas 1779 sailed with Princesa under Bodega y Quadra
Felice Felice Adventure, Felice Adventurer, Feliz Aventureira, Feliz Aventurero, Felice Aventura Ostensibly Francisco José Viana, but really John Meares[17] Portugal John Meares and partners Maritime Fur Trade vessel in the 1880s, captured with three others of Meares' ships by Spain in 1789, causing the Nootka Crisis but released in 1789 or 1790. In 1788 carried materials for building the North West America to Nootka Sound. Together with the Iphigenia, flying the Portuguese flag to evade East India Company monopoly in the region, but actually British in operation
Fenis and St. Joseph Sao Jao y Fenix, San José el Fénix Ostensibly John de Barros Andrade, but really Robert Duffin brig Portugal Probably John Meares and partners transported Zachary Mudge to China, as part of the Vancouver Expedition 1792 sailing under a flag of convenience
Florencia
Florinda
Flying Dutchman William Moore first lumber shipment from Burrard Inlet; Moodyville August 1863
MV Fort Fraser Doctor John Bonser (1910) George Ritchie (1911–13) sternwheeler gross 33, registered 21 Canada Fort George Lumber and Navigation Company launched at Soda Creek June 1910 retired in 1913 First sternwheeler to navigate the upper Fraser River to Tête Jaune Cache
SS Fort Yale
Forty-Nine Leonard White Big Bend Gold Rush/CPR Survey 1865-1866/1870s end of gold rush, revived for CPR survey Big Bend service was from Marcus, Washington to La Porte, British Columbia; from 1871 supply ship for Walter Moberly's survey party

G[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
SS Ganymede 214 tons[10] Britain HBC Launched 1827, purchased by HBC 1830.[10] Sold 1837.[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]
SS George Emery
SS Georgianna
Gladys Alcohol vapor screw (1899-1906);

Steam-screw (1906-1930)

9 Canada #107722 North-West Mounted Police (1899-1904);

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (1904-1910); Pine Creek Power Co. (1910-1914); Inland Trading Co. (1914-1930)

Operated on Atlin Lake. 1899-1930 Abandoned at Atlin in 1930. Built in 1899 by Marine Vapor Engine Co. at Jersey City, New Jersey.
Glengarry Atlinto (1904-1906) sidewheeler None William J. Smith and James D. Durie Operated on Atlin Lake. 1904 to 1907 or 1908 Retired in 1907 or 1908. Built in 1904 by Smith at Atlin.

This boat is not to be confused with a gasoline-screw boat of the name Atlinto, which was built in 1911, and which has been put on display at Atlin.

Golden Hind Golden Hinde, Golden Hynde, Pelican Francis Drake galleon 300 9 feet England circumnavigation Alleged to have visited the BC Coast
Grace William Douglas, Coolidge schooner 80 US (New York) Maritime Fur Trade. Sometimes sailed with Lady Washington under John Kendrick; together made first American contact with Japan in 1791. approx. 1790-1793 Captained by same William Douglas who earlier captained the Iphigenia and was a British associate of Meares; later captained American ships and flew under the US flag.
Griffon Charles Taylor Brig 180 tons, 8 guns, 24 crew.[3] US Maritime Fur Trade 1826
SS Growler
Guatimozin US Theodore Lyman and associates 1801-1803, 1805, 1807–1808 Maritime Fur Trade vessel
Gustavus III see Mercury

H[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Halcyon Charles William Barkley brig 80 tons. Or 60 tons.[18] Britain 1792 Sailed with Venus. Visited Alaska but probably not present-day British Columbia.
Hamlin sternwheeler, two 16ʺ x 72ʺ cyl. 515 Canada #107144 Canadian Pacific Ry. (1898-1901);

White Pass & Yukon Route (1901-1903); John Banser, William McCallum, and David Reider (1903-1904); Thomas J. Kickham (1904-1910); Edward J. Coyle (dealer, 1910-1911); Hamlin Towing Co. (1911-1917); James H. Green (1917-1918); Defiance Packing Co. (1918-1923)

Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River in 1898. In the Vancouver, B.C. area, 1903-1910. In the Victoria, B.C. area 1910-1911. On the Fraser River, 1911-1923. 1898 and 1903-1923 Foundered in the Fraser River in 1923. Built in 1898 by the C.P. Ry. at Vancouver. Not used under W.P.&Y.R. ownership.
Hancock Samuel Crowell brig 157 United States Messrs. Crowell & Creighton, Boston first vessel to penetrate Masset Sound 1791, 1792, 1793 Crowell and his men built a tender for the Hancock on Maast Island, off Masset, in the summer of 1791, which was the first European-type vessel to be built in the Queen Charlottes.[19][20][21]
SS Harmon
SS Harpooner
Hazel B No. 1 Harry A. Barrington, Sydney C. Barrington, W. Hill Barrington 340 H.P. Diesel-screw 102 U.S.A. #243456 Barrington Transportation Co. (1941-1945);

Harry Donnelley (1945-1949); Kuskokwim Transportation Co. (1949 to 1952 or 1953); Alaska Towing & Salvage, Inc. (from 1952 or 1953)

Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River from 1941 to 1944. 1941-1944 Abandoned between 1965 & 1967 Built in 1941 by Barrington at Wrangell. The first Barrington boat named Hazel B had been built in 1914, and never operated in British Columbia.
1st Hazel B No. 2 Harry A. Barrington, Sydney C. Barrington, W. Hill Barrington 180 H.P. gasoline-screw 135 U.S.A. #214262 Barrington Transportation Co. Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River from 1916 to 1931. 1916-1931 Destroyed by fire at Wrangell in 1932. Built in 1916 by Barrington at Anchorage, Alaska.
2nd Hazel B No. 2 Harry A. Barrington, Sydney C. Barrington, W. Hill Barrington 270 H.P. Diesel-screw 143 U.S.A. #231646 Barrington Transportation Co. (1932 to 1952 or 1953);

Alaska Dept. of Health (1952 or 1953 to 1955); Donald A. Peterson (1955-1967)

Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River from 1932 to 1941. 1932-1941 Registry closed between 1981 & 1988. Built in 1932 by Marine Construction Co. at Seattle, Washington.
Hazel B No. 3 Harry A. Barrington, Sydney C. Barrington, W. Hill Barrington, Alan V. Ritchie 95 H.P. gasoline-screw 14 U.S.A. #215503 Barrington Transportation Co. (1917-1944);

Barrington Ritchie and Early Co. (1944-1949)

Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River from 1917 to 1949. 1917-1949 Foundered on the Stikine River in 1949. Built in 1917 by Charles M. Binkley, Sr. at Wrangell.
Hazel B No. 4 Harry A. Barrington, Sydney C. Barrington, W. Hill Barrington 400 H.P. gasoline-screw 70 U.S.A. #218593 Barrington Transportation Co. Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River 1919-193_ Registry closed between 1933 & 1939. Built in 1919 by Barrington at Wrangell.
Hazelton John Bonser Joseph Bucey sternwheeler Canada Robert Cunningham and Hudson's Bay Company 1901-1912 made obsolete on Skeena River due to completion of GTP sold to Prince Rupert Yacht Club
Hope Joseph Ingraham brig U.S. Maritime Fur Trade 1792-94 captured in the Quasi-War and sold off in 1797

I[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Imperial Eagle Loudon, changed to Imperial Eagle when adopting the Austrian flag.[22] Charles Barkley full rigged ship 400 tons[22] Austria Private trading company; backers included John Meares[22] Maritime Fur Trade Sailed for PNW under Charles Barclay in Nov. 1786. In Hawaii, May 1787.[23] At Nootka Sound in 1788; largest ship to ever enter Friendly Cove.[22] Ship confiscated in India around 1790, by East India Company or John Meares.[22] British but registered as Austrian to illegally evade East India Company trade monopoly.[23] First ship to sail up the western shore of Oahu.[23] Frances Barkley was the first woman to visit and first to write about British Columbia.[22]
Inlander Joseph Bucey 1910-11 John Bonser 1911-12 sternwheeler Canada Prince Rupert and Skeena River Navigation Company 1910-1912 abandoned at Port Essington last sternwheeler on Skeena River
Iphigenia , Iphigenia Nubiana, Ephigenia Ostensibly Francisco José Viana (Portuguese), but really William Douglas[17] Portugal John Meares and partners Maritime Fur Trade on the PNW coast, 1788-89. Captured with three others of Meares' ships by Spain in 1789, causing the Nootka Crisis, released in 1789 or 1790. Maritime Fur Trade vessel in late 1780s and early 1790s; British but registered as Portuguese to illegal evade East India Company trade monopoly.
SS Isaac Todd
Isabella 195 tons[10] Britain HBC Purchased by HBC 1829.[10] Lost 1830.[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]

J[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Jackal Jackall Alexander Stewart, William Brown schooner Britain William Brown Maritime fur trading in 1790s Part of the "Butterworth squadron", including Butterworth and Prince Lee Boo
Jane Newbury[2] United States[2] 1793[2]
Jefferson Captain Roberts United States 1790s
Jenny Captain Baker Britain 1790s
John Bright wrecked near Clo-oose inconclusive piracy & murder investigation[24]

K[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
King George Nathaniel Portlock 320 tons, crew of 59.[11] Britain King George's Sound Company[11] 1786-87, Maritime Fur Trade in Pacific Northwest with Queen Charlotte under George Dixon Third ship to visit Hawaii, in 1786; after the two ships under Cook, 1778.[5]
Kingfisher Capt. Stephenson sloop three crew & captain massacred by Ahousaht Nuu-chah-nulth, 1864 punitive expedition by HMS Sutlej and HMS Devastation destroys eight villages
Komagata Maru steam liner Japan blockade of East Indian immigration, Vancouver 1914
Kootenai sternwheeler Japan CPR construction 1880s service was from Northport, Washington to Farwell (Revelstoke, British Columbia)

L[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Lady of the Lake Sail None William J. Smith Operated on Atlin Lake. by 1904 until 1908 Retired in 1908. Built by 1904.
Lady Washington see Washington) Robert Gray, John Kendrick sloop, refitted as brig 90 tons U.S. 1788-1794 foundered in the Philippines in 1797 sometimes sailed with Columbia Rediviva
La Flavie
La Solide
La Plata Spain
Labouchere John Swanson[disambiguation needed], W.A. Mouat paddle steamer Great Britain Hudson's Bay Company sank off Point Reyes, California, on April 15, 1866, with the loss of two lives
SS Lady of the Lake Great Britain Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, Douglas Road
SS Langley
SS Lama 150 tons[10] Britain HBC Launched 1826, purchased by HBC 1831.[10] Sold 1837.[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]
SS Lausanne
SS Leviathan
SS Lillooet survey ship
Loriot Lieut. Lieut. William A. Slacum, Capt. Bancroft brig, exploration U.S. 1836
Lummi 3 Renfrew, Friendship Horace Tattersol(s) Commercial 47 6′11″ Canadian Edward Pieters/Paula Matthei(s) Constructed by Lummi Bay Packers by George Wrang in 1919/Bellingham, WA/ San Diego, CA 1919 - 1956 Currently in San Diego, CA Constructed for transportation to BC and Alaskan canneries
Lydia Henry Gyzelaar Schooner U.S. Maritime Fur Trade and California Hide Trade 1816 Sold to Kamehameha I in 1816.[3]

M[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Margaret Captain Magee United States 1790s
SS Marquis of Bute
SS Marsella
SS Marten William Alexander Mouat
SS Mary Dare April 11, 1842 Built under the name 'Brisies' [Cooper] [William Alexander Mouat] Brig later converted to Brigantine at Robinson's ship yard Honolulu 148 12 feet British 1)Captain Robert Hatson Dare, 2)Hudson's Bay Company,3) John Pratt & Co May 7, 1842 resurveyed at London renamed 'Mary Dare'. December 16, 1857 "The MARY DARE of Wivenhoe, [Captain] Taylor, from Seaham to London with coals, was in contact off Huntcliffe Fort yesterday morning with the ADONIS, [Captain] Goodwin, from London to Hartlepool, had her foremast carried away and shortly after went down;
USS Massachusetts Lt. Richard W. Meade screw steamer 765 4.6 m (15 ft) US US Navy Puget Sound War 1855-1856 gutted of engines and converted to a bark used as a storeship, and renamed Farallones, in 1863. Sold off in 1867. One crewman was the first US sailor to die in action in the Pacific Northwest
SS Maurelle Douglas Road, Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, Lillooet Lake
McConnell sternwheeler, two 16ʺ x 72ʺ cyl. 729 Canada #107152 Canadian Pacific Ry. (1898-1901);

White Pass & Yukon Route (1901)

Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River in 1898. 1898 only Broken up in 1901. Hull sold to Adair Bros. Built in 1898 by the C.P. Ry. at Vancouver, B.C. Not used under W.P.&Y.R. ownership.
SS Meg Merrilies Capt. Pamphlet schooner Took loggers and oxen to log at Port Neville, B.C. Transported coal between Nanaimo, B.C. and Victoria. 1864, 1865 [25]
Mentor George Newell Ship US Bryant & Sturgis, Boston[3] Maritime Fur Trade 1823
Mercury see Gustavus III Cox brig Britain LaterGustavus III under Swedish flag.[2]
SS Mexican
Mexicana Cayetano Valdés y Flores goleta (schooner and brig) 46 foot long (43 foot on the keel), 12-foot (3.7 m) beam, 33 "toneladas" burden, complement of 21 men Spain Spanish Navy Built 1791 in San Blas. Explores Vancouver Island 1792. Sister ship of Sutil
SS Milton Badger
Mono sternwheeler, two 10ʺ x 74ʺ cyl. 278 Canada #107102 Teslin Transportation Co. Operated on the Stikine River in 1898. 1898 Destroyed by fire (arson) near Dawson City, Yukon in 1902. Built in 1898 by Frank P. Armstrong and A. F. Henderson on the Stikine River.
Mount Royal SB Johnson sternwheeler Canada Hudson's Bay Company Built Albion Iron Works (VMD) Victoria 1902-1907 Wrecked in Kitselas Canyon, six lives lost
SS Moyie sternwwheeler Canada Canadian Pacific Railway and in 1957, Kootenay Lake Historical Society after a nearly 60 year career, was the last passenger sternwheeler to operate in Canada launched October 22, 1898. taken out of service April 27, 1957 berthed and restored at Kaslo, now a National historic site World's oldest surviving intact passenger sternwheeler
SS Mumford Collins Overland Telegraph

N[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
SS Nanaimo Packet
SS Nancy
MV Nechacco Chilco John Bonser George Ritchie sternwheeler Gross 129 Registered 76 Canada Fort George Lumber and Navigation Company launched May 25, 1909, at Quesnel Tore apart in ice jam at Cottonwood Canyon April 1911 First sternwheeler to navigate the Grand Canyon of the Fraser
Nellie Sail 5 Canada #107638 Thomas H. Worsnop Operated on Atlin Lake. 1898-191_ Registry closed in 1916. Built in 1898 at Seattle, Washington.
SS Nereide Ship, 10 guns, 26 men 253 tons.[10] Britain HBC Launched 1821, purchased by HBC 1833.[10] Sold 1840.[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]
Nootka John Meares snow[26] 200 tons, crew of 50[11] Britain Bengal Fur Company (John Henry Cox, Meares and others)[11] 1786, sailed from Calcutta to Alaska. Wintered Prince William Sound, trapped in ice; 23 men die. May 1787, rescued by George Dixon of the Queen Charlotte. October 1787, arrived at Macau.[11] 1786-1787 Sailed without licences from the East India Company and South Sea Company. Consort of the Sea Otter under Captain Tipping; sometimes sailed together.[11]
Norgold 35 H.P. gasoline-screw 6 None Norgold Mines, Ltd. (1934-1935);

Bobjo Mines (1935-1937); White Pass & Yukon Route (1937-1952); A. E. Prince (1952-19__); Canadian Park Service (19__-present)

Operated on Tagish Lake, 1934-1937. Operated on Atlin Lake, 1937-1950. 1934-1950 Hull is hopelessly rotted. Built in 1934 by Boeing Aircraft of Canada, Ltd. at Vancouver, B.C.
Norman Morrison
North West America Robert Funter sloop or schooner About 40-50 tons Britain John Meares and partners First non-indigenous ship built in Pacific Northwest; captured by Spain during Nootka Crisis, renamed Santa Gertrudis la Magna and later Santa Saturnina Launched September 20, 1788

O[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Ogilvie sternwheeler, two 16ʺ x 72ʺ cyl. 742 Canada #107148 Canadian Pacific Ry. (1898-1901);

White Pass & Yukon Route (1901)

Operated between Wrangell, Alaska and points on the Stikine River in 1898. 1898 only Broken up in 1901. Hull sold to Adair Bros. Built in 1898 by the C.P. Ry. Not used under W.P.&Y.R. ownership.
Omineca sternwheeler, two 16ʺ x 72ʺ cyl. 583 Canada #126248 Foley, Welch and Stewart (1909-1916);

Alaskan Engineering Commission (from 1916)

Used on the Skeena River for construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific Ry. (1909-1914);

used on the Susitna River and the Cook Inlet to ship supplies for construction of The Alaska Railroad (1916-1917)

1909-1916 between 1923 & 1930 Built in 1909 at Victoria, B.C. by Alexander Watson, Jr. Retired at the end of 1917.
MV Operator Con Myers sternwheeler gross 698 registered 439 Canada Foley, Welch and Stewart Launched on Skeena River in 1909, Fraser River in 1912 Retired at Fort George Worked on both GTP and PGE rail construction
Orcasitas see Adventure
Orel see ['Chernui Orel Russia
Orizaba Spain
SS Orpheus U.S. Sinking of SS Pacific wrecked on Cape Beale
Otter William Alexander Mouat United KingdomBritain HBC
Owhyhee William Henry, Eliab Grimes Brig 166 tons US Marshall & Wildes, Boston[3] Maritime Fur Trade 1822

P[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
SS Pacific U.S. collision with SS Orpheus off Cape Flattery sunk, 300 or more lost, 2 survivors
Palerma
SS Pallas
SS Pedler
SS Petrel
Phoenix Hugh Moore barque sea otter trade 1792-1794 Phoenix, although of Bengal,[27] was not an East Indiaman
SS Polly
SS Prince Albert
SS Prince George
Prince Lee Boo Captain Gordon, Captain Sharp Britain William Brown Maritime Fur Trader in 1790s Part of the "Butterworth squadron", including Butterworth and Jackall. Served as tender to Butterworth
Prince of Wales James Colnett, James Johnstone 171 tons, complement of 35 men, carried 14 cannons King George's Sound Company and joint company with John Meares and partners Maritime Fur Trade in the Pacific Northwest, late 1780s and early 1790s Launched about 1752 Crew included Archibald Menzies[28]
SS Prince of Wales Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, Douglas Road, Lillooet Lake
SS Prince Rupert 8 feet 6 inches (2.59 m) GTP Coastal passenger service, use as hospital ship 1910-1956 decommissioned marooned on Ripple Rock in 1927 in near-disaster
SS Prince William Henry
Princesa Bodega y Quadra, Esteban José Martínez, Salvador Fidalgo, Jacinto Caamaño, others corvette 189 tons burthen Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas 1779, sailed to Alaska under Bodega y Quadra. 1788, sailed to Alaska under Martínez. 1792 used to occupy Neah Bay. late 18th and early 19th centuries One of the primary warships of Spain's San Blas Naval Department. Heavily used for exploration of Pacific Northwest and supply of Alta California
Princess Royal Princesa Real Britain, Spain King George's Sound Company, Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas Lloyd's Register, 1789, lists as a sloop of 60 tons (Old Measure), Class A1, Copper sheathed, single deck with beams, draft 8 ft. when laden, owners Etches & Co.[29]
SS Princess Sophia 2,320 tons Canadian Pacific 1918
HMS Providence 1.William Bligh, 2.William R. Broughton sixth rate frigate 420 tons Britain Royal Navy second breadfruit expedition to Tahiti under Capt.William Bligh 1791-1793;

exploration and survey of East Asia under Ltd. William R. Broughton 1795-1797

1791 - 1797 wrecked 1797 southwest of Okinawa

Q[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Queen Charlotte George Dixon 200 tons, crew of 33.[11] Britain King George's Sound Company 1786-87, maritime fur trading in Pacific Northwest with King George under Nathaniel Portlock. Fourth ship to visit Hawaii, May 1786.[5] late 1780s namesake of Queen Charlotte Islands
MV Quesnel City of Quesnel Donald Arthur Foster sternwheeler Gross 130 Registered 177 Canada Telesphore Marion {Quesnel Merchant} Launched in May 1909 at Quesnel Wrecked at Fort George Canyon May 1921 Last sternwheeler on upper Fraser River

R[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
SS Recovery
Resolution US Maritime Fur Trade crew massacred by Cumshewa and his people at Cumshewa Inlet, 1794
MV Robert C Hammond sternwheeler Gross 250 Registered 158 Canada Fort George Lake and River Transportation Company Launched on May 22, 1913 at Central Fort George Retired 1914
SS Rosalind
SS Royal Charlie
SS Ruby
Ruth sternwheeler, two 5ʺ x 20ʺ cyl. 52 Canada #107518 John Irving (1898-1899);

Northern Lakes & Rivers Navigation Co. (1899-1900); Atlin Transportation Co. (1900-1902)

Operated on Tagish Lake, 1898-1899. Operated on Atlin Lake, 1900-1902. 1898-1902 Destroyed by fire on Atlin Lake in 1902. Built in 1898 by James H. Calvert at Bennett, B.C.

S[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
St. Roch Henry Larsen Canada RCMP First voyage through Northwest Passage
San Carlos Gonzalo López de Haro, Salvador Fidalgo, Francisco de Eliza, others packet ship and storeship 72 foot long (keel), 22-foot (6.7 m) beam, 15-foot (4.6 m) draft, 16 four-pound cannons Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas Reached Unalaska in 1788, under Haro. late 18th to early 19th centuries Carried a 28-foot (8.5 m) longboat. Also used in discovery of San Francisco Bay by Juan de Ayala. There were two packet ships named San Carlos operating out of San Blas, but not simultaneously.
Santa Gertrudis la Magna Santa Gertrudis José María Narváez sloop or schooner About 40-50 tons Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas Was the North West America, captured during Nootka Crisis and renamed Built 1788, captured by Spain in 1789, rebuilt in 1790 as Santa Saturnina
Santa Saturnina La Orcasitas, Horcasitas José María Narváez, Juan Carrasco schooner 32 tonales burden 32 foot 10 inch length, 11-foot-10-inch (3.61 m) beam, 5-foot (1.5 m) draft, 4 three-pound cannons. Carried 8 two-man oars and 20 days supply of food, complement of 22 men. Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas Built in 1790 from the disassembled Santa Gertrudis 1790-91 36 feet long; beam of 12 feet; "drawing 5 feet of water"; equipped with 8 oars[29]
Santa Saturnina Alonso de Torres "large warship" Spain Spanish Navy Transferred from Peru to San Blas and Pacific Northwest in 1792 Crew in 1792 included naturalist José Moziño, who observed the Nuu-chah-nulth and recommended Spanish abandonment of Nootka Sound
Santiago Juan Pérez, Bruno de Heceta, Bodega y Quadra Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas 1774, under Pérez, sailed to Pacific Northwest; 1775, under Heceta, found mouth of Columbia River
USS Saranac sloop of war (sail and sidewheel) 1463 depth of hold 26 ft 6 in (8.08 m); draft 17 ft 4 in (max.) United States US Navy first steam vessel to fall prey to Ripple Rock, June 18, 1875
Scotia E. W. Spencer (1899); John McDonald (1911) stern-wheeler, two 7½ʺ x 20ʺ cyl. 214 (100, 1898–1901) Canada #107829 White Pass & Yukon Route (John Irving Nav. Co., 1898 only) Operated on Atlin Lake, 1898-1917. 1898-1967 Demolished by fire, 1967. Built by John Irving Navigation Co.
SS Sea Bird namesake of Sea Bird Island near Agassiz
Sea Otter Harmon[30] James Hanna[11] brig 60 tons, crew of 30[11] Britain John Henry Cox and "friends connected with the East India Company[11] Conducted the first purely commercial Maritime Fur Trade voyage between the Pacific Northwest and China; first British ship to visit the Northwest Coast since Captain Cook.[11] 1785 Hanna's two voyages were on different ships but both were named Sea Otter.[11]
Sea Otter (II) James Hanna[11] snow[30] 120 tons,[11] or 100 tons.[30] Britain Under Hanna, sailed from Macau to Nootka Sound and explored Queen Charlotte Sound and Clayoquot Sound; returned to China in early 1787.[11] 1786-1787 Hanna's two voyages were on different ships but both were named Sea Otter.[11]
Sea Otter (III) William Tipping snow[30] 100 tons[11] Britain Bengal Fur Company (John Henry Cox, Meares and others)[11] Sailed from Calcutta, March 1786, surveyed coast of Japan, then went to Northwest Coast.[11] 1786 Foundered during a storm in the Gulf of Alaska, 1786.[11] Consort of Nootka under Meares; sometimes sailed together.[11] Not the same vessel as either Sea Otter previously under Hanna.[31]
SS Sierra Nevada
SS Sir James Douglas
Skeena Magar 1909-1911 Charles Seymour 1914-1925 sternwheeler Canada Grand Trunk Pacific Railway 1908-1914 Charles Seymour 1914-1925 Last sternwheeler on lower Fraser River Launched in 1909, sold and converted to barge in 1925 Delivered meat for Pat Burns
MV Skuzzy Ausbury Insley and SR Smith sternwheeler Canada Took 16 days to navigate 16 miles (26 km) of Fraser River from Hells Gate Canyon to Boston Bar Launched on May 4, 1882, at Spuzzum First sternwheeler to arrive in Lytton
Sonora Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, Juan Manuel de Ayala (briefly) schooner 37 feet (11 m) in length. Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas 1775, sailed to Alaska 1775 Crew complement of 16.
SS Sophia U.S. Inside Passage & passenger disaster during Klondike Gold Rush sunk in Lynn Canal
Sultan Reynolds Ship 274 tons U.S. Boardman & Pope, Boston Maritime Fur Trade 1816 1816 sailing schedule: Boston, Sitka, California, Columbia River, Northwest Coast, Hawaii, Marquesas, Hawaii, Canton.[3]
Sumatra
SS Surprise (I)
SS Surprise (II)
SS Susan Sturges
Sutil Dionisio Alcalá Galiano goleta (brig) 46 foot long (43 foot on the keel), 12-foot (3.7 m) beam, 33 "toneladas" burden, complement of 20 men Spain Spanish Navy Dept. of San Blas Built 1791 in San Blas Sister ship of Mexicana
SS Sutil
SS Swiss Boy

T[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Tagish Alcohol vapor screw None North-West Mounted Police (1899-1904);

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (1904-1910); British Columbia Government (1908-19__)

Operated on Atlin Lake. 1899-19__ After 1908. Built in 1899 by Marine Vapor Engine Co. at Jersey City, New Jersey.
Tarahne Charles Coghlan (1919) 180 H.P. gasoline-screw (80 H.P. 1917-1928) 286 (177, 1917–1928) Canada #138539 White Pass & Yukon Route Operated on Atlin Lake, 1917-1936. 1917–present On display at Atlin, B.C. Built by Cousins Bros.
MV Taseco
SS Templar
Tepic Spain
SS Thames City Brought the second detachment of Royal Engineers to British Columbia in spring, 1959
Three Brothers[disambiguation needed] Alder[2] 1792-93 Consort of Prince William Henry[2]
MV T'lagunna Canada BC DoH
Tonquin U.S. American Fur Company Founding of Ft. Astoria blown up/scuttled in Clayoquot Sound
SS Tory
SS Tynemouth

U[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
SS Umatilla paddle steamer Fraser & Cariboo Gold Rushes
SS Una
Union John Boit sloop United States In 1795 attacked by Haida at Ninstints. Chief Koyah killed.

V[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Vancouver Andrew Cook Mott Barque, 6 guns, 24 men 324 Britain HBC Launched 1838.[10] First to sail directly London-Victoria, 1845 Lost 1848.[10] HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade.[10]
Vancouver US Theodore Lyman and associates 1802-1808 Maritime Fur Trade vessel
SS Vancouver (II)
Venus William Hervey, Henry Shepherd or Shepard brigantine[18] 110 tons, crew of 22 men, "mostly negros of Julu", i.e., Sulu.[18] Britain At Nootka Sound during Vancouver-Bodega negotiations 1792 Sailed with Barkley's Halcyon. Crew of 22, "mostly black"[32] Trading out of Bengal.[18]
Victoria Charles Brewer Schooner US William French, Honolulu.[3] Maritime Fur Trade 1832
MV Victoria JW Doane and Thomas Wright sternwheeler Canada G.B. Wright Built at Quesnel in 1868 Berthed at Alexandria 1886
SS Vigilant

W[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Washington
SS William and Ann 161 tons[10] Britain HBC Launched 1818, purchased by HBC 1824 1824-1829 Lost 1829 HBC ship used for the PNW coast trade
SS Woodpecker

Y[edit]

Ship Other names Captain(s) Type Tons Draft Registry (flag) Owner(s) Events/locations Dates in BC Demise Comments
Yascathchnoi Yasashna Russia

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tovell, Freeman M. (2008). At the Far Reaches of Empire: The Life of Juan Francisco De La Bodega Y Quadra. University of British Columbia Press. pp. 182, 297. ISBN 978-0-7748-1367-9. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ships on the Northwest Coast, John Robson
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ogden, Adele (1975). The California Sea Otter Trade, 1784-1848. University of California Press. pp. 166–176. ISBN 978-0-520-02806-7. 
  4. ^ At the Far Reaches of Empire, p. 144
  5. ^ a b c d e Ships to Hawaii before 1880, Hawaiian-roots.com
  6. ^ Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods, pp. 181, 299-310
  7. ^ Gibson, James R. (1992). Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods: The Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast, 1785-1841. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-7735-2028-7. 
  8. ^ At the Far Reaches of Empire, p. 237
  9. ^ Quotes from At the Far Reaches of Empire, p. 237
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods, p. 312
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Pethick, Derek (1976). First Approaches to the Northwest Coast. Vancouver: J.J. Douglas. pp. 77–100. ISBN 0-88894-056-4. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Columbia Rediviva, Discovering Lewis and Clark
  13. ^ At the Far Reaches of Empire, p. 304
  14. ^ BCGNIS Geographical Name Details
  15. ^ Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods, p. 227
  16. ^ a b c d Pethick, Derek (1980). The Nootka connection: Europe and the Northwest coast, 1790-1795. Douglas & McIntyre. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-0-88894-279-1. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  17. ^ a b At the Far Reaches of Empire, pp. 206-207
  18. ^ a b c d A Discovery Journal: George Vancouver's First Survey Season, pp. 215, 230
  19. ^ "Crowell Point". BC Geographical Names. http://apps.gov.bc.ca/pub/bcgnws/names/29710.html.
  20. ^ "Crowell Rock". BC Geographical Names. http://apps.gov.bc.ca/pub/bcgnws/names/29707.html.
  21. ^ "Hancock Point". BC Geographical Names. http://apps.gov.bc.ca/pub/bcgnws/names/29105.html.
  22. ^ a b c d e f BARKLEY, Frances, ABCBookWorld
  23. ^ a b c Imperial Eagle Oahu, Massey Marine Art
  24. ^ see Artifacts could finally prove hanging for murder unjust, Denise Titian, Ha-Shilth-Sa newspaper, Jan 10, 2010
  25. ^ British Colonist May 25, 1864 p3; June 20, 1864 p.3; October 10, 1865 p3.
  26. ^ Lewis & Dryden's marine history of the Pacific Northwest, by E.W. Wright
  27. ^ Lewis and Clark expedition (1990). Volume 6 of Journals of the Lewis & Clark expedition (November 2, 1805 - March 22, 1806). University of Nebraska Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-8032-2893-1. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  28. ^ Colnett, James (2004). A Voyage to the North West Side of America: The Journals of James Colnett, 1786-89. UBC Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7748-4001-9. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  29. ^ a b Crosse, John (Winter 1991–1992). "The Spanish Discovery of the Gulf of Georgia". British Columbia Historical News, Journal of the B.C. Historical Federation 25 (1): 30–32. ISSN 0045-2963. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
  30. ^ a b c d Strange, James, ABC BookWorld
  31. ^ A Discovery Journal: George Vancouver's First Survey Season, by John E. Roberts
  32. ^ The Nootka Connection, p. 128
  • British Columbia Chronicle: Adventurers by Sea and Land, Helen B. Akrigg and G.P.V. Akrigg, Discovery Press, Vancouver, 1975. ISBN
  • British Columbia Chronicle: Gold and Colonists, Helen B. Akrigg and G.P.V. Akrigg, Discovery Press, Vancouver, 1977. ISBN
  • The Nootka Connection, Derek Pethick, Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver, 1980. ISBN
  • British Columbia Archives
  • Walbran, Captain John T. (1971), British Columbia Place Names, Their Origin and History (Facsimile reprint of 1909 edition ed.), Vancouver/Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, ISBN 0-88894-143-9 

External links[edit]