List of home computers

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A computer cassette
The cassette tape was a common low-cost and low-performance mass storage device for a generation of home computers

The home computers between 1977 and about 1990 were different from today's uniform and predictable machines. During this time it made economic sense for manufacturers to make microcomputers aimed at the home user. By simplifying the machines, and making use of household items such as television sets and cassette recorders instead of dedicated computer peripherals, the home computer allowed the consumer to own a computer at a fraction of the price of computers oriented to small business. Today, the price of microcomputers has dropped to the point where there's no advantage to building a separate, incompatible series just for home users.

While many office-type personal computers were used in homes, in this list a "home computer" is a factory-assembled mass-marketed consumer product, usually at significantly lower cost than contemporary business computers. It would have an alphabetic keyboard and a multi-line alphanumeric display, the ability to run both games software as well as application software and user-written programs, and some removable mass storage device (such as cassette tape or floppy disk).

This list excludes personal digital assistants, pocket computers, laptop computers, programmable calculators and pure video game consoles. Single-board development or evaluation boards, intended to demonstrate a microprocessor, are excluded since these were not marketed to general consumers.

Pioneering kit and assembled hobby microcomputers which generally required electronics skills to build or operate are listed separately, as are computers intended primarily for use in schools. A hobby-type computer often would have required significant expansion of memory and peripherals to make it useful for the usual role of a factory-made home computer. School computers usually had facilities to share expensive peripherals such as disk drives and printers, and often had provision for central administration.


Attributes are as typically advertised by the original manufacturer. Popular machines inspired third-party sources for adapters, add-on processors, mass storage, and other peripherals.

"Processor" indicates the microprocessor chip that ran the system. A few home computers had multiple processors, generally used for input/output devices. Processor speeds were not a competitive point among home computer manufacturers, and typically the processor ran either at its maximum rated speed ( between 1 and 4 MHZ for most processor types here), or at some fraction of the television color subcarrier signal, for economy of design. Since a crystal oscillator was necessary for stable color, it was often also used as the microprocessor clock source. Many processors were second-sourced, with different manufacturers making the same device under different part numbers. Variations of a basic part number might have been used to indicate minor variations in speed or transistor type, or might indicate fairly significant alterations to the prototype's capabilities. In the Soviet Bloc countries, manufacturers made functional duplicates of Western microprocessors under different part number series.

TV indicates the factory configuration produces composite video compatible with a home receiver. Some computers came with a built-in RF modulator to allow connection to the TV receiver antenna terminals; others output composite video for use with a free-standing monitor or external RF modulator. Still others had built-in or proprietary monitors. Often a composite video monitor (monochrome or color) would be substituted for the family TV. Some standard types of video controller ICs were popular, but see the very detailed List of home computers by video hardware for a discussion of video capabilities of different models. Memory and TV bandwidth restrictions meant that typical home computers had only a few color choices and perhaps 20 lines of 40 characters of text as an upper limit to their video capabilities.

Base mass storage was whatever came in the basic configuration. Some machines had built-in cassette drives or optional external drives, others relied on the consumer to provide a cassette recorder. Cassette recorders had the primary virtue of being widely available as a consumer product at the time. Typically a home computer would generate audio tones to encode data, that could be stored on audio tape through a direct connection to the recorder. Re-loading the data required re-winding the tape. The home computer would contain some circuits such as a phase-locked loop to convert audio tones back into digital data. Since consumer cassette recorders were not made for remote control, the user would have to manually operate the recorder in response to prompts from the computer. Random access to data on a cassette was impossible, since the entire tape would have to be searched to retrieve any particular item. A few manufacturers integrated a cassette tape drive or cassette-like tape mechanism into the console, but these variants were made obsolete by the reduction in cost of floppy diskette drives.

Floppy disk drives were initially very costly compared to the system purchase price. Plug-in ROM cartridges containing game or application software were popular in earlier home computers since they were easier to use, faster, and more reliable than cassette tapes. Once diskette drives became available at low cost, cartridges declined in popularity since they were more expensive to manufacture than reproducing a diskette, and had comparatively small capacity compared to diskettes. A few cartridges contained battery-backed memory that allowed users to save data (for example, game high scores) between uses of the cartridge.

Typically there were several models or variants within a product line, especially to account for different international video standards and power supplies; see the linked articles for variants and consequences of variations. "Compatibility" indicates some measure of compatibility with a parent type, however, sometimes incompatibility existed even within a product family. A "clone" system has identical hardware and is functionally interchangeable with its prototype; a few clone systems relied on illicit copies of system ROMs to make them functional.

Manufacturers and models[edit]

Home computer models and manufacturers
Origin Manufacturer Model Processor Year Video Type Mass storage Video Chip
(see list)
Compatibility Remarks Ref
UK Acorn Computers Ltd Acorn Atom 6502 1980 TV Cassette 6847 [1]
UK Acorn Computers Ltd BBC Micro 6502 1981 TV Cassette, diskette option, cartridge 6845 Optional processor boards; Several models, see article [citation needed]
UK Acorn Computers Ltd Electron 6502 1983 TV Cassette, diskette option 6845 BBC Micro [citation needed]
UK Acorn Computers Ltd BBC Master 65SC12 1986 TV Diskette,cassette BBC Micro Several models, also sold as Olivetti Prodest PC128S [citation needed]
UK Acorn Computers Ltd Acorn Archimedes ARM RISC 1987 RGB Monitor Diskette, hard drive several models [citation needed]
UK Acorn Computers Ltd A7000 ARM RISC 1995 RGB Monitor Diskette, hard drive [citation needed]
UK Amstrad CPC 464, 664, 6128 Z80 1984 dedicated mono or RGB monitor cassette, diskette 6845 and custom LSI "Gate Array" Several models [citation needed]
UK Amstrad 464 Plus, 6128 Plus Z80 1990 dedicated mono or RGB monitor cassette, diskette, cartridge Custom ASIC Several models [citation needed]
UK Amstrad PCW Z80 1985 dedicated integrated monochrome diskette Several successive models [citation needed]
UK Amstrad PC-1512 8086 1986 dedicated mono or RGB Monitor Diskette, hard drive IBM PC PC compatible aimed at the home market [citation needed]
USA APF Electronics, Inc. Imagination Machine 6800 1979 TV Cassette, optional floppy,cartridge Expansion pack for a video game console that provided programmability [citation needed]
USA Apple Computer Apple II series 6502 1977 Monitor, TV Cassette, optional floppy Several models, several descendants, and many third-party clones [citation needed]
USA Apple Computer Apple IIe 6502 1983 Monitor,TV Cassette, optional floppy Apple [2]
USA Apple Computer Apple IIc 65C02 1984 Monitor,TV floppy disk drive Apple Portable, but not integrated like a modern laptop [2]
USA Apple Computer Apple IIc Plus 65C02 1988 Monitor,TV floppy disk drive Apple Portable, but not integrated like a modern laptop [citation needed]
USA Apple Computer Apple II Plus 6502 1979 Monitor,TV floppy disk drive Apple [citation needed]
USA Apple Computer Apple IIgs 65C816 1986 Monitor,TV floppy disk, optional hard drive Apple [citation needed]
UK Apricot Computers/Applied Computer Technology Apricot F1 8088 1984 Monitor floppy disk MS-DOS Ran MS-DOS but not IBM compatible; several descendant models [2]
Netherlands Aster Computers CT-80 Z80 1980 Monitor floppy disk TRS-80 [citation needed]
USA Atari Atari 400, 600, 800, XL, and XE 6502, -- late 400/800s and XL/XEs use a 6502C variant called "Sally" 1979–1985 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk,cartridge ANTIC+CTIA/GTIA custom LSI Also used as cartridge video game consoles [2]
USA Atari Atari ST 68000 1985 Monitor Floppy disk, optional hard disk Custom LSI Several related models [3]
USA Atari Atari TT 68030 1990 Monitor Floppy disk, hard disk Custom LSI Several related models
USA Bally Consumer Products Bally Brain video game/home computer Z80 1979 TV Cassette, cartridge A video game console with programmability [4]
USA Bally Consumer Products Bally Astrocade Z80 1977 TV Cassette,cartridge A video game console with programmability, several models and revisions [citation needed]
Romania Brasov Computer CoBra Z80 1986 Monitor Cassette, diskette ZX Spectrum CP/M [5]
UK Camputers Lynx Z80 1983 Monitor Cassette 6845 Several related models [citation needed]
Various Various manufacturers List of MSX compatible computers Z80 1983 TV Cassette,optional floppy,cartridge TMS 9918 MSX standard [citation needed]
USA Coleco Coleco Adam Z80 1983 Monitor, TV Cassette (custom built-in), optional floppies TMS9928A Apple-flavored BASIC, but otherwise one of a kind [2]
Japan Sord Computer Corporation CGL Home Computers Sord M5 CGL M5 Z80 1982 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk [citation needed]
USA Commodore PET 6502 1977 Built-in monochrome monitor Cassette Several 6502 descendants, more or less compatible [citation needed]
USA Commodore VIC-20 6502 1980 TV Optional cassette, optional floppy, cartridge VIC custom LSI PET-style BASIC, extended [1]
USA Commodore Commodore 64 6510 1982 TV Optional cassette, optional floppy, cartridge VIC II custom LSI Optional dual processor in cartridge could run CP/M plus version 3.0 [2]
USA Commodore Commodore Executive 64 6510 1982 Built-in color monitor Built-in floppy, optional cassette, cartridge VIC II custom LSI Portable with keyboard that attached to cover monitor and disk drive [2]
USA Commodore MAX Machine 6510 1982 TV Optional cassette, cartridge VIC II custom LSI [citation needed]
USA Commodore Commodore 16 and 116 8501 (6502) 1984 TV Optional cassette, optional floppy, cartridge TED custom LSI [2]
USA Commodore Plus/4 8501 (6502) 1984 TV Optional cassette, optional floppy, cartridge TED custom LSI [2]
USA Commodore Commodore 128 8502(6502)/ Z80 1985 TV Optional cassette, optional 5.25" floppy, Optional 3.5" floppy, cartridge VIC II and MOS 8563 custom LSI C64 compatibility mode Dual processor could run CP/M plus version 3.0 [citation needed]
USA Commodore Amiga 68000 (family) 1985 Monitor, composite video Diskette, optional hard drive Custom LSI Several models with 680X0 family processors [6]
Hong Kong Comx World Operations Comx-35 RCA CDP 1802 1983 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk CDP 1879 [citation needed]
Belgium Data Applications International DAI Personal Computer Intel 8080 1980 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk Programmable Graphics Generator custom LSI [citation needed]
Hong Kong Vtech VTech Laser 200 Z80 1985 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk 6847 Also sold by Dick Smith (retailer)s VZ200 and by others under other names [citation needed]
Hong Kong EACA Video Genie family Z80 1980–1982 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk TRS 80 Model 1 (mostly) Rebadged and sold by others, see article [citation needed]
Hong Kong EACA Colour Genie Z80 1983 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk,cartridge 6845 TRS 80 Model 1 (mostly) Rebadged and sold by others, see article [citation needed]
Hong Kong Rabbit Rabbit RX83 Z80 1983 TV Cassette 6847 Rebadged and sold by others, see article
Czechoslovakia Didaktik Alpha, Beta Z80 1986 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk [citation needed]
Czechoslovakia Didaktik Gama Z80 1987 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk ZX Spectrum Also M and portable variants, see article [citation needed]
UK Dragon Data Dragon 32/64 6809 1982 TV, composite video Cassette, optional floppy disk 6847 Radio Shack Color Computer [citation needed]
USSR Dubna Dubna 48K Z80 (compatible) 1991 TV Cassette, optional floppy disk Custom LSI ZX Spectrum [citation needed]
USSR Elektronika BK-0010 PDP 11 (compatible) 1985 TV Cassette, optional/home made floppy disk Custom LSI [citation needed]
USSR AGAT AGAT-9 Native/Apple II compatible 1984 TV/Monitor Floppy disk Custom LSI Agat computer Agat computer [7]
Serbia Elektronska Industrija Niš Pecom 32 Pecom 64 CDP 1802 (compatible) 1985 TV Cassette CDP 1869 COMX-35 [citation needed]
USA Exidy Exidy Sorcerer Z80 1978 Monitor Cassette, optional 3rd party expansion to diskettes [citation needed]
UK Locurnals/Intelligent Software Enterprise 64 and 128 Z80 1985 TV, monitor Cassette, Custom ASIC "Nick" [citation needed]
UK Lambda Electronics Lambda 8300 Z80 1985 TV Cassette, ZX81 compatible also sold as PC8300,Power 3000 and BASIC 2000 [citation needed]
USA Various manufacturers List of Apple II clones 6502 1979 TV, monitor Cassette,optional diskette Apple II Many annonymous or obscure companies made copies of the Apple II, some illegally duplicating the Apple ROM contents [citation needed]
USA Franklin Computer Corporation Franklin ACE series 6502 1982 TV, monitor Diskette, cassette Apple II [citation needed]
Japan Fujitsu FM Towns series 80386SX 1989 Monitor CD ROM, optional hard drive Semi Windows compatible Almost a video game console [citation needed]
Japan Fujitsu FM-7 series 6809 1982 TV Diskette Radio Shack Color Computer Several models [citation needed]
UK Grundy Business Systems Grundy NewBrain Z80 1982 TV, monitor, built-in 1 line display Cassette, Floppy diskette Radio Shack Color Computer BASIC Several models [citation needed]
Brazil Gradiente Gradiente Expert Z80 1985 TV,RGB monitor Cassette,cartridge, diskette expansion available MSX compatible Several models [citation needed]
USA Honeywell Honeywell 316#Kitchen Computer DDP 16 Minicomputer 1969 Binary lights None offered (contemporary systems would have used paper tape) No video Honorary home computer, marketed but never sold. [8]
USA IBM PCjr 8088 1984 Monitor, composite video Cassette, floppy diskette,cartridge VGA IBM PC [2]
USA IBM IBM PS/1 8088 1990 Monitor, Floppy diskette, hard drive IBM PC [citation needed]
USA Interact Interact Home Computer 8080 1979 TV Cassette [citation needed]
USA Intelligent Systems Corporation Compucolor II 8080 1977 TV Diskette ( I: 8-track) [citation needed]
USSR Intercompex Hobbit Z80 compatible 1990 TV, monitor Cassette, floppy drive ZX Spectrum Several models for export and home markets [citation needed]
USSR Iskra Iskra-1030 8086 compatible 1989 floppy drive [9]
Croatia Ivasim Ivel Ultra 6502 compatible 1984 floppy drive Apple II [10]
Croatia Ivasim Ivel Z3 6502 compatible Built-in monitor floppy drive Apple IIe [citation needed]
UK Jupiter Cantab Jupiter ACE Z80 1982 TV Cassette, 3rd party diskette custom ASIC FORTH instead of BASIC [citation needed]
Sweden Luxor ABC 80 Z80 1978 TV Cassette, 3rd party diskette also made in Budapest, ABC 800 office versions had disk drives [citation needed]
USA Mattel Aquarius Z80 1983 TV Cassette, cartridge [citation needed]
France Matra Matra Alice 6803 1983 TV Cassette Radio Shack TRS 80 MC 10 [citation needed]
UK Memotech Memotech MTX500, MTX512, RS128 Z80 1983 TV,monitor Cassette,diskette, hard drive, cartridge [2]
UK Memotech Memotech MTX500, MTX512, RS128 Z80 1983 TV,monitor Cassette,diskette, hard drive, cartridge [citation needed]
Australia Microbee Systems MicroBee series Z80 1983 TV,monitor Cassette,later models floppy diskette, 6545 Several models [citation needed]
Brazil Comércio de Componentes Eletrônicos CCE MC-1000 Z80 1985 TV,monitor Cassette,cartridge 6847 Probably based on Belgian GEM 1000 followed up by MC-4000 [citation needed]
Brazil Microdigital Eletronica TK82C series Z80 1985 TV,monitor Cassette,cartridge ZX80,ZX81 TK90X Several models [citation needed]
UK Miles Gordon Technology SAM Coupé Z80 1989 Monitor, composite video Floppy diskette, Custom ASIC ZX Spectrum [citation needed]
Taiwan Multitech Microprofessor III 6502 1983 TV, Monitor Floppy diskette, cassette Apple IIe [citation needed]
Japan NEC NEC PC-100 8086 1983 Monitor Floppy diskette, MS-DOS Various models, many too costly for home market [citation needed]
Japan NEC NEC PC-8801 series Z80 1981 RGB Monitor Cassette, later models with floppy diskettes, CP/M Several models, also called PC-88 [citation needed]
USA Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer CoCo, Coco 2, Coco 3 6809 1980 Monitor Cassette,Floppy diskette,cartridge Several models [2]
USA Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 1 Z80 1977 Monitor (built in) Cassette, optional floppy diskette See List of TRS-80 clones. Later models aimed more at hobby/small business, but this one was priced like a home computer. [citation needed]
USA Radio Shack TRS-80 MC-10 6803 1980 TV Cassette, 6847 See also Matra Alice [citation needed]
USA Radio Shack Tandy 1000series 8088 (depends on model) 1987 TV, Monitor Cassette,Floppy diskette IBM PC Jr Several models in series [citation needed]
UK Oric Int'l/Tangerine Oric 1 6502 1983 TV, Monitor Cassette, optional floppy drive semi-custom ASIC (ULA) [11]
UK Oric Int'l/Tangerine Oric Atmos 6502 1984 TV, Monitor Cassette, optional floppy drive semi-custom ASIC (ULA) [11]
UK Oric Int'l/Tangerine Oric Telestrat 6502 1986 TV, Monitor Cassette, optional floppy drive, ROM based Cartridge semi-custom ASIC (ULA) [11]
Croatia PEL Varaždin Galeb 6502 1981 TV, Monitor Cassette [citation needed]
Croatia PEL Varaždin Orao 6502 1984 TV, Monitor Cassette [citation needed]
Netherlands Philips P2000 Z80 1980 TV, Monitor Cassette, optional floppy diskette, cartridge Teletext chip Several models, disk models fairly costly by home computer standards [citation needed]
Netherlands Philips G7480 Z80 1983 TV Cassette, cartridge Home computer expansion module for G7400 game console [citation needed]
Netherlands Philips Philips :YES 80186 1985 Monitor Floppy diskette IBM PC semi-compatible [citation needed]
Bulgaria Pravetz Pravetz series 8, including -83, -83, -84, -8M/E/A/S. CM630 (6502 clone) 1985 TV, Monitor Cassette, floppy diskette Apple II Several models, company later made IBM PC compatibles. [12]
Bulgaria Pravetz Pravetz 8D 6502 1982 TV, Monitor Cassette, floppy diskette Oric 1/Atmos [13]
Bulgaria Pravetz IMKO-1 6502 1980 TV, Monitor Cassette, floppy diskette Apple II High cost compared to later Western home computers [12]
Brazil Prológica Prológica CP-400 6809 1984 TV, Monitor Cassette, floppy diskette Radio Shack Color Computer [citation needed]
East Germany Robotron/VEB KC 85 Z80 compatible 1984 TV Cassette Theoretically available to consumers, but a difficult purchase in 1984 East Germany. [citation needed]
East Germany Robotron KC87 Z80 compatible 1987 TV Cassette, cartridge Theoretically available to consumers [citation needed]
East Germany Robotron Z1013 Z80 compatible 1985 TV Cassette [citation needed]
Japan Sega SC-3000 Z80 compatible 1983 TV Cassette,cartridge,optional floppy [citation needed]
Japan Sharp MZ series Z80 compatible 1979 TV Cassette,cartridge,optional floppy Many models in the series, escalating to small business systems [citation needed]
Japan Sharp Sharp X1 Z80 compatible 1982 TV, dedicated monitor Cassette,cartridge,optional floppy Several models [citation needed]
Japan Sharp Sharp X68000 68000 1987 Monitor Floppy diskette, optional hard disk Several models [citation needed]
UK Sinclair Research ZX80 Z80 1980 TV Cassette Custom ASIC Initially also available as a kit, and see MicroAce for an unlicensed knock-off [citation needed]
UK Sinclair Research ZX81 Z80 1981 TV Cassette Custom ASIC See also List of ZX80/81 clones and Timex Sinclair [1]
UK Sinclair Research ZX Spectrum Z80 1982 TV Cassette, later models floppy diskette Custom ASIC See List of ZX Spectrum clones [citation needed]
UK Sinclair Research: Sinclair QL 68008 1984 TV,monitor "Microdrive" tape ZX8301 Custom ASIC Spin-off to several related products, see List of Sinclair QL clones [2]
New Zealand Technosys Aamber Pegasus 6809 1984 TV,monitor Cassette Educational network version made [citation needed]
USA Texas Instruments TI-99/4, TI-99/4A TMS 9900 1979 TV,monitor Cassette, optional floppy disk drive TMS9918 Several models, more common 4A in 1981; some compatibles made by others [citation needed]
Czechoslovakia Tesla PMD 85 8080 1985 TV,monitor Cassette [citation needed]
Czechoslovakia Štátny majetok Závadka š.p., Závadka nad Hronom MAŤO 8080 1989 TV,monitor Cassette PMD 85 Also made as a kit [14]
France Thomson TO7 6809 1982 TV,monitor Cassette,cartridge [citation needed]
France Thomson MO5 aka Olivetti Prodest PC128 6809 1984 TV,monitor Cassette,cartridge Successor model MO6 in 1986, and others [citation needed]
Timex Sinclair Timex Sinclair 1000 and 1500 Z80 1982 TV,monitor Cassette, optional cartridge [2]
Timex Sinclair Timex Sinclair 2048 Z80 1984 TV Cassette, cartridge Custom ULA ZX Spectrum [citation needed]
Portugal Timex Sinclair Timex Computer 2048 Z80 1984 TV Cassette, cartridge Custom ULA ZX Spectrum [citation needed]
Timex Sinclair Timex Computer 2068 Z80 1983 TV Cassette, cartridge Custom ULA ZX Spectrum Several related models [citation needed]
Timex Sinclair Komputer 2086 Z80 1986 TV Cassette, cartridge, optional floppy diskette Custom ULA Sinclair 2068 [citation needed]
Japan Tomy Tomy Tutor (US) /Grandstand Tutor (UK) TMS 9900 1986 TV Cassette, cartridge, optional floppy diskette Texas Instruments TI-99/4Anear-compatible [citation needed]
USSR Vector Vector-06C 8080 compatible 1987 TV Cassette, 3rd party cartridge and floppy diskette [citation needed]
USA Videobrain VideoBrain Family Computer Fairchild F8 1977 TV Cartridge, optional cassette [citation needed]
Hungary Videoton TVC Z80 1986 TV Cassette, floppy diskette [15]
Belgium GEM (Groupement européen d'études) GEM 1000 also known as GEM 1000 Junior Computer, and the French Charlemagne 999 Z80 1985 TV,monitor Cassette,cartridge 6847 French BASIC for the Charlemagne, but uses QWERTY [citation needed]

List of hobby, kit, or trainer computers[edit]

This type of microcomputer required significant electronics skills to assemble or operate. They were sometimes sold in kit form that required the user to insert and solder components in a printed circuit board. They may have had just blinky lights and toggle switches, or a hexadecimal display and a numeric keypad. While some units were possibly expandable to the "checkbook balancing/homework typing" stage, most were intended more for education on the use and application of microprocessors. See also Microprocessor development board, Single-board computer.

School computers[edit]

These were aimed at the class room, not the living room. Some types were popular in the centrally planned economies of eastern Europe where Western computers were scarce, or in the early days of computer education in Western schools. Popular home computers of the period[clarification needed] were fitted with various types of network interfaces[clarification needed] to allow sharing of files, large disk drives, and printers, and often allowed a teacher to interact with a student, supervise the system usage, and carry out administrative tasks from a host computer.

Cardboard and demonstrator "computers"[edit]

Logic demonstrators illustrated some of the logical principles of computer circuits, but were incapable of automatic operation or non-trivial calculations. Some were literally cardboard, others used combinations of switches and lamps to show how logical operations worked. Some products demonstrated logical operations purely mechanically.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Survey of 150 computers, Computing Now, September 1984 pp. 8-31
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Survey of 200 computers, Computing Now ISSN 0823-6437, April 1985 pp. 14-44,
  3. ^ Eric Jensen The Atari 520ST, BYTE Vol.11 No. 6 ISSN 0360-5280 pg. 233-238
  4. ^ What's New, BYTE Magazine July 1979 pg. 240
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Bill Markwick, The Amiga 500, Electronics and Technology Today February 1988 pp. 18-20
  7. ^ Rezun, Miron (1996). Science, technology, and ecopolitics in the USSR. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 71–72. ISBN 0-275-95383-1. 
  8. ^ Paul Atkinson, The Curious Case of the Kitchen Computer: Products and Non-Products in Design History, from Journal of Design History, Vol. 23 No.2 doi:10.1093.jdh/epq010
  9. ^ Iskra 1030 retrieved 2012 Dec 4
  10. ^ retrieved 2011 02 03
  11. ^ a b c [2]
  12. ^ a b retrieved 2011 02 03
  13. ^ retrieved 2011 02 03
  14. ^ Mato Retrieved 2012 Dec 4
  15. ^ Videoton TV Computer, retrieved 2011 03 27

External links[edit]