List of human-powered aircraft

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This is a list of human-powered aircraft

Name Year Country Designer / Builder Notes
Abhilasha HPA 2009 Netherlands Jesse van Kuijk
Aerocicloplano 1906 Italy Aldo Corazzo
Aerocicloplano 1907 Italy Luigi Teichfuss
AeroVelo Atlas 2013 Canada Todd Reichert; Cameron Robertson 13 June 2013 winner of American Helicopter Society Igor I. Sikorsky Human-Powered Helicopter Challenge $250,000 prize with 64-second controlled flight from rest reaching 3.3 m above ground.
Airglow HPA 1990 Cambridge, UK John and Mark McIntyre
Bauer Bird 1973 USA Ted Bauer
Betterfly 2009 UK David Bardford
Bionic Bat 1983 California, USA Paul MacCready Jr. Two Kremer speed challenges won, doing 1500 M in 163.28 seconds 18 July 1984 and 143.08 seconds 2 December 1984.
Bird Ornithopter UK Bryn Bird Two prototypes built, but no record of any flights.
Bliesner 1 to 3 1978 Seattle, USA Wayne T. Bliesner unsuccessful precursors to Bliesners more successful efforts. No.3 crashed during towed flight attempts.
Bliesner 4 1979 Seattle, USA Wayne T. Bliesner 100 yards.
Bliesner 5 1980 Seattle, USA Wayne T. Bliesner 1 mile, crashed during testing.
Bliesner 6 1980 Seattle, USA Wayne T. Bliesner a few hops, crashed during testing.
Bliesner 7 1981 Seattle USA Wayne T. Bliesner 300 yards.
Boffin-Coffin 1988 New Zealand Walther Flight trials were unsuccessful, eventually abandoned after persistent ground-handling damage and a violent gust of wind entering the hangar where the aircraft was stored.
BURD 1972 USA Massachusetts Institute of Technology 'Biplane Ultralight Research Device'
BURD II 1974–1976 USA Massachusetts Institute of Technology 'Biplane Ultralight Research Device II'
Chrysalis HPA 1979 USA Parks, Youngren & Massachusetts Institute of Technology 40 pilots, some inexperienced.
Chyeranovskii BICh-18 1937 USSR Only known to have been launched as a glider with the wing mechanism locked, but flown at least once with the wings operated by the pilot after a launch as a glider.
Cochkanoff HPA 1974 USSR / Russia Cochkanoff
CT-2.2 RockHopper2 2005 Japan Yoshiyasu Hirano / Coolthrust Flew over 18 km at the 29th Japan international Birdman Rally in 2005 piloted by Sosuke Tanaka.
Czerwinski HPA 1967 Ottawa, Canada Czerwinski A two-seater with twin propellers built in Ottawa, but no record of any flights.
Daedalus 87 1987 Nov USA Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Daedalus Project.
Daedalus 88 1988 Mar USA Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT Daedalus Project.
Da Vinci II USA California Polytechnic State University
Da Vinci III 1989 USA California Polytechnic State University 8-second flight not controlled by pilot.
Dragonfly HPA 1975 Prestwick Scotland Roger Hardy short flights
Druiff-Neate Cycloplane 1909 Highbury, N London built by Messrs. C.G. Spencer & Co.
Dumbo-Mercury 1971 UK P.K. Green, W.F.Ball and M.J.Rudd / Weybridge MPAG Originally nickname 'Dumbo' at Weybridge. When taken over by John Potter at RAF Cranwell, it was renamed Mercury.
Dumoulin tracteur pour la navigation aérienne 1904 France Dumoulin A human powered circular winged biplane with archimedian screw propellers turned by hand.[1]
DUT Icarus 001 Netherlands Delft University of Technology with the Movement Science Faculty of the University of Maastricht.
Egret I 1973 Japan Kimura / Nihon University 37 yards.
Egret 2 1974 Japan Kimura / Nihon University 222 yards.
Egret 3 1974 Japan Kimura / Nihon University
Farman Aviette HPA 1912 France
Flycycle 1974
Frost Emmett HPA 1970s and 1984 Auckland, New Zealand John Frost / University of Auckland
Gamera HPH 1972 USA University of Maryland Human-Powered Helicopter.
Gamera II HPH 2012? USA University of Maryland Human-Powered Helicopter.
Gerhardt Cycleplane 1923 Dayton, Ohio, USA Flight Test Section at McCook Field 20-foot (6.1 m) hop.
Gokuraku Tombo 1986 - Japan Team Aeroscepsy Several HPAs built by the team are called the same name.
Two Japanese records set under the FAI rules, 4437m (May 1992) and 10881m (Aug. 2003)
the 22nd Japan International Birdman Rally (JIBR) HPA section won, 23688.24m *the first HPA reached at opposite shore (northwest shore) of Lake Biwa from start point at east shore.
the 30th JIBR HPA-Time trial section won.
Piloted by Hironori Nakayama.
Gossamer Albatross 1978 California, USA Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissamen. Kremer Prize for first cross-channel flight, 12 June 1979.
Gossamer Condor (Pasadena version) 1976 Pasadena, California, USA Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissamen. One short hop only, in the car park of the Pasadena Rose Bowl.
Gossamer Condor (Mojave version) 1976 Mojave, California, USA Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissamen. (Mojave version)
Gossamer Condor (Shafter airport version) 1977, March California, USA Paul MacCready Jr. & Peter Lissamen. Kremer Figure-Eight Prize 23 August 1977.
HV-1 Mufli 1935 Frankfurt, Germany Helmut Haessler & Villinger MUSKELFLUG INSTITUT (Institute of Muscle-Powered-Flight)

This was set up in 1935, within the Gesellschaft Polytechnic, Frankfurt, director - Oskar Ursinus - 779 yards from bungee launch.

HVS HPA 1982 Germany Hutter/Villinger/Schule operated in 20 mph winds.
Hardy HPA Roger Hardy
Hartman HPO 1958 UK Emiel Hartman
Hill Flying Wing Hill
Hurel Aviette HPA 1974 France Maurice Hurel
HYPER-CHick "KoToNo Limited" 1992 Japan Toshiaki Yoshikawa / Team Active Gals First female flight in Japan on 5 July 1992 with Kotono Hori as pilot.

119.45 m (130.190 yards) / 22.98 seconds

Ibis HPA 1978 Japan Nihon University further development of the Jupiter - Stork line.
Icarus HPA-1 1977 California USA Taras Kiceniuk Jr. Longest flight of 30 seconds at Shafter Airport.
Jupiter HPA 1972 UK Christopher Roper 1171 yards 30 lb payload
Linnet I 1966 Japan Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University 47 yards, height 9 feet.
Linnet II 1967 Japan Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University 100 yards, height 5 feet.
Linnet III 1970 Japan Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University 34 yards.
Linnet IV 1971 Japan Prof. Kimura / Research Institute of Science and Technology, Nihon University 66 yards.
Lippisch 1929 Man-Powered Ornithopter 1929 Germany Alexander Lippisch Flown by Hans Werner Krause.
Liverpuffin 1972 UK Dr Keith Sherwin Built from the remains of the Puffin II by students from Liverpool University led by Dr Keith Sherwin.
Malliga I HPA[2] 1967 Austria Josef Malliga
Malliga II HPA[2] 1972 Austria Josef Malliga
Man-Eagle 1 1982 Seattle USA Wayne T. Bliesner short flights a.k.a. 'Bliesner 8'.
Man-Eagle 3 1983 Seattle USA Wayne T. Bliesner Kremer Speed Course.
Man-Eagle 4 1985 Seattle USA Wayne T. Bliesner
Maruoka Man-Powered Screw-Wing Machine 1902-3 Tokyo, Japan Katsura Maruoka [3]
Mayfly 1985 Essex, England Brian Kerry
McAvoy MPA-1 1970 USA James M. McAvoy Georgia Tech.
Michelob Light Eagle 1986 USA Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology 37 miles. Onboard test equipment.
Micron HPA 1976 Nottingham England Peter Wright
MiLan'81 1981 Japan Naito / Nihon University 645 yards.
MiLan'82 1982 Japan Naito / Nihon University 1800 yards.
Monarch A 1983 USA Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology 29 flights.
Monarch B 1983 USA Drela / Massachusetts Institute of Technology First Kremer Speed Prize.
Möwe6-B 1989 - 1990 Japan Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG) First Japanese record set under the FAI rules.
Distance: 3708.23m (Mar. 1990)
Möwe20 2002 - 2004 Japan Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG) the 27th Japan International Birdman Rally(JIBR) HPA section won, 34654.10m *pilot was not exhausted but took water by organizer direction because the HPA reached end of flyable area (southwest side of Lake Biwa) (Jul. 2003) - straight distance record in JIBR.
Japanese record set under the FAI rules. 11874m / 46min 40s (Aug. 2004). Piloted by Kai Hirawata.
Möwe21 2003 - 2005 Japan Nihon University Aero Student Group (NASG) Japanese records set under the FAI rules. 49172m/ 1h 48m 12s (6 Aug. 2005). Current Japanese records. Piloted by Nariyuki Masuda.
Mozi HPA 2009 PRC OXAI Aircraft Company / Mao Yiqing
Musculair I 1984 Munich Germany Günther Rochelt & Schoberl Two different prizes; first passenger.
Musculair II 1985 Munich Germany Günther Rochelt & Schoberl Kremer Speed Prize.
Newbury Manflier 1979 Newbury, Berks, England Nick Goodhart Two-seater with separate pods; pilot control tasks shared.
Nextz 2009 Japan Team 'F' Winner of 33rd Japan International Birdman Rally HPA-Time trial section.
First Japanese record of speed under the FAI rules: 1500m in 3min 15sconds = 27.69km/h (22 Oct. 2012). As of 2012 current Japanese record.
Nieuport Aviette 1921 1921 France
Northrop Institute of Technology HPA 1972 USA Malcolm Smith / NIT two-seater; not completed.
Pedaliante 1937 Italy Enea Bossi & Vittorio Bonomi  ? 40 unaided flights?
Pelargos 2 1983, Dec Mohlin Switzerland Horlacher/Mohlin/Dubs 1100 yards.
Pelargos 3 1985, May Mohlin Switzerland Horlacher/Mohlin/Frank 875 yards.
Perkins Inflatable HPA 1959 USA Daniel Perkins Precursor to the Reluctant Phoenix.
Phillips Mk.1 HPA 1976 ? Humberside England Ron Phillips First female pilot.
Phillips Mk.2 HPA 1976 ? Humberside England Ron Phillips Two-seater.
Posniak HPA 1936 Italy B. Posniak
Poulain/Farman Aviette 1921 France Gabriel Poulain / Farman
Privett HPA USA Privett
PSU Zephyrus USA Pennsylvania State University
Puffin 1 1961 UK Wimpenny, Vann & Hatfield Man Powered Aircraft Club 993 yards.
Puffin 2 1965 UK Wimpenny, Vann & Hatfield Man Powered Aircraft Club 875 yards, height 17 feet, turns.
Raven Project 2001 USA Paul Illian
Ray 2008 Japan Tohoku University Windnauts (HPA club at Tohoku University) Winner of 32nd Japan International Birdman Rally (JIBR) HPA-Distance section. 36km round-trip; 18km one-way (longest distance under the rules at the time). Piloted by Wataru Nishiwaki; round trip distance record in JIBR.
Reluctant Phoenix 1950's and 60's RAE Cardington, UK Daniel Perkins The culmination of Daniel Perkins' attempts to build a viable inflatable human-powered aircraft; flown inside the R100 airship hangars.
Rickman umbrella wing 1909 UK Rickman
Royal Spoonbill 1983 to 1987 RAE Cardington, UK Robert Le Johnno-Johnson / NZHPFG Never completed due to a redesign after being vandalised.
Sato Maeda SM-OX
Seehase MD-2 1937 Germany Hans Seehase
Singapore University Man powered Aircraft 1
Singapore University Man powered Aircraft 2
Singapore Singapore University students / Dr Keith Sherwin Of the two projects only one flew.
SM-OX 1969 Japan Hiroshi Sato, Kenichi Maeda / Fukuoka Daiichi Highschool Department of Aeroengine 31 yards, height 6 feet.
Snowbird HPO 2010 Canada University of Toronto
Stewart HPOs 1959 - UK Alan Stewart several unsuccessful human-powered ornithopters built between 1959 and 1979.
Stork A 1976 Japan J. Ishii / Nihon University 651 yards - Re-designed Jupiter from the UK.
Stork B 1976 Japan J. Ishii / Nihon University 2290 yards.
SUMPAC 1961 UK Ann Marsden, Alan Lassiere & David Williams / Southampton University Man-powered Aircraft Committee First independently observed unaided flight. Flown by Derek Piggott.
Swift A Japan Naito / Nihon University
Swift B Japan Naito / Nihon University
To Phoenix Inflatable HPA 1982 UK Frederick E. To / Air-Plane Co. Ltd.[4]
Toucan 1 1972 Radlett, Herts, England Pressnell / Hertfordshire Pedal Aeronauts Two-seater; Bryan Bowen & Derek May.
Toucan II 1974–1978 Radlett, Herts, England Pressnell / Hertfordshire Pedal Aeronauts
Ursinus 1925 HPA 1925 Germany Oskar Ursinus
Vélair 88 1988 Stuttgart, Germany Peer Frank 3390 yards
Vélair 89 1989 Stuttgart, Germany Peer Frank 3390 yards
Vertigo HPH 1987 Yeovil, England Andrew Cranfield Human-powered helicopter; achieved short hops, but transmission problems slowed development.
Vine HPA 1962 South Africa S.W. Vine 200 yards - One flight only at Krugersdorp, Transvaal, South Africa.
VMM HPA 1974 Belgium Verstralte/Masschelin/Masschelin Heights of 15 ft at Calais-Marck airport due to Belgian authorities refusing permission to fly.
Wright HPA 1972 Nottingham England Peter Wright 300 yards at 4 feet - elevator not used.
Yuri I HPH 1994 Japan Akira Naito, Nihon Aero Student Group (NASG) Human-powered helicopter.
Zaschka Human-Power Aircraft 1934 Berlin, Germany Engelbert Zaschka
Zephyrus β 1997 Japan Ochanomizu Human-powered aircraft study group Japanese female record set under the FAI rules, 1004.25m / 3min. 3sec. (16 Nov. 1997). Piloted by Chihiro Muraoka - current Japanese female records.
Zinno Olympian ZB-1 1976 North Kingstown R.I. USA Lt.Col. Joe Zinno, USAF (Ret.) First controlled flight in Americas [Bernhard C. F. Klein, USA, millpab=aol.com, 05.07.2008

This pedal-powered "aircraft" was designed and built by Lt.Col. Zinno, USAF (Ret.) On his fourth try on April 21, 1976, at Quonset Point, RI., Joe Zinno barely got off the ground for a few seconds. The machine was damaged in a hangar by a gust of wind coming in the open door.]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Opdycke, Leonard E. (1999). French Aeroplanes before the Great War. Atglen: SchifferPublishing Limited. ISBN 0 7643 0752 5. 
  2. ^ a b Keimel, Reinhard (1980). Propeller-Luftfahrzeugkonstruktionen seit 1945 (1. Aufl. ed.). Graz: H. Weishaupt Verlag. ISBN 3-900310-02-5. 
  3. ^ Mikesh, Robert and Shorzoe Abe. Japanese Aircraft 1910–1941. London: Putnam, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-840-2
  4. ^ Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. Jane's Publishing Company. London. 1983. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2

Bibliography[edit]

  • Mikesh, Robert and Shorzoe Abe. Japanese Aircraft 1910–1941. London: Putnam, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-840-2.
  • Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. Jane's Publishing Company. London. 1983. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]