List of human clusters of differentiation

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The following is a list of human clusters of differentiation (or CD) molecules.


CD1 an MHC-like molecule that presents lipid molecules
CD2 a type I transmembrane protein found on thymocytes, T cells, and some natural killer cells that acts as a ligand for CD58 and CD59 and is involved in signal transduction and cell adhesion; expressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoma.
CD3 the signaling component of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex
CD4 a co-receptor for MHC Class II; also a receptor used by HIV to enter T cells
CD5 a type I transmembrane protein found on T cells, thymocytes, and some B cells that is a ligand for CD72 and is involved in cellular activation or adhesion; expressed in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and T-cell lymphoma.
CD6 adhesion molecule linking developing thymus-cells to thymus epithelial cells; co-stimulator to mature T cells; binds CD166
CD7 a type I transmembrane protein found on thymocytes, some T cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, and hematopoietic stem cells; expressed in patients with mycosis fungoides, some patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and a few patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia
CD8 a co-receptor for MHC Class I; also found on a subset of myeloid dendritic cells.
CD9 a member of the Tetraspanin superfamily expressed in a variety of cells, including: pre B cells, eosinophils, basophils and platelets.
CD10 a type II transmembrane protein found on pre-B cells, germinal-center B cells, some neutrophils, kidney cells, T-cell precursors, and epithelial cells that acts as a zinc metalloprotease cleaving peptide bonds on the amino side of hydrophobic amino acids; expressed in acute lymphocytic leukemia and follicular-center-cell lymphomas.
CD11a Integrin Alpha L (ITGAL), the alpha subunit of LFA-1, a membrane glycoprotein that provides cell-cell adhesion by interaction with ICAM-1
CD11b Integrin Alpha M (ITGAM), the alpha subunit of Mac-1, a complement receptor ("CR3") consisting of CD11b and CD18.
CD11c Integrin Alpha X (ITGAX), the alpha subunit of (iC3b) receptor 4 (CR4). It is a type I transmembrane protein found on monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and some B cells that induces cellular activation and helps trigger neutrophil respiratory burst; expressed in hairy cell leukemias, acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, and some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Also one of the defining markers for dendritic cells and hairy cell leukemia cells.
CD12w phosphoprotein of unknown function present on monocytes, granulocytes, and NK cells and absent from basophils, AML blasts, and bone marrow precursors.
CD13 a zinc metalloproteinase, also known as aminopeptidase N, which is found naturally on myelomonocytic cells from early differentiation through maturity; usually present on acute myeloid leukemia blasts and rarely found in some forms of lymphoma and lymphocytic leukemia
CD14 a membrane protein found on macrophages which binds to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
CD15 a carbohydrate adhesion molecule (not a protein) that mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils; expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias, acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and most acute nonlymphocytic leukemias. It is also called Lewis x and SSEA-1 (stage specific embryonic antigen 1) and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem cells, in which it plays an important role in adhesion and migration of the cells in the preimplantation embryo.
CD16 FcγRIII, a low-affinity Fc receptor for IgG. Found on NK cells, macrophages, and neutrophils.
CDw17 possible role in phagocytosis. Bacteria binding.
CD18 Integrin Beta 2 chain (ITGB2). Adhesion and signaling in the hematopoietic system.
CD19 B-lymphocyte surface antigen B4, component of the B-cell co-receptor
CD20 a type III transmembrane protein found on B cells that forms a calcium channel in the cell membrane allowing for the influx of calcium required for cell activation; expressed in B-cell lymphomas, hairy cell leukemia, and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Important for therapy of those diseases, as an antibody against CD20 exists: Rituximab
CD21 CR2, a type I transmembrane protein found in the cytoplasm of pre-B cells and on the surface of mature B cells, follicular dendritic cells, pharyngeal and cervical epithelial cells, some thymocytes, and some T cells that plays a role in signal transduction; expressed in hairy cell leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and some T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemias. Receptor for complement (C3d) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
CD22 a sugar binding transmembrane protein that specifically binds sialic acid with an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain located at its N-terminus. It is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and the SIGLEC family. CD22 functions as an inhibitory receptor for B cell receptor (BCR) signalling.
CD23 a type II transmembrane protein found on mature B cells, monocytes, activated macrophages, eosinophils, platelets, and dendritic cells that enhances capture and processing of antigen complexed with IgE.
CD24 a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts. This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and in many B cells. The encoded protein is anchored via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) link to the cell surface. An alignment of this gene's sequence finds genomic locations with similarity on chromosomes 3p26, 15q21, 15q22, 20q11.2 and Yq11.1. Whether transcription, and corresponding translation, occurs at each of these other genomic locations needs to be experimentally determined (source: NCBI). Is also known as Heat Stable Antigen (HSA).
CD25 a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T cells, activated B cells, some thymocytes, myeloid precursors, and oligodendrocytes that associates with CD122 to form a heterodimer that can act as a high-affinity receptor for IL-2; expressed in most B-cell neoplasms, some acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, and neuroblastomas.
CD26 Membrane-bound protease. T-cell costimulatory molecule. Cell adhesion molecule
CD27 TNF-receptor. Present on the surface of resting memory B cells.
CD28 present on all T-cells, and when matched with the appropriate ligand, labeled B7 which can be either CD80 or CD86, it has costimulatory effect on the T-cell. It is also expressed on Eosinophil granulocytes, especially after tissue infiltration. There its ligation leads to release of potent neurotoxins, IL-2 and IL-13 as well as IFN-γ
CD29 AKA integrin beta-1 - a cell adhesion molecule.
CD30 a type I transmembrane protein present on activated T and B cells that may play a role in cell activation and/or differentiation; expressed in Hodgkin disease, some T-cell lymphomas, and anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
CD31 PECAM-1, a cell adhesion molecule on platelets and endothelial cells
CD32 FcγRII, a receptor for the Fc (constant) region of immunoglobulin G (IgG)
CD33 a marker of unknown function found on immature myeloid cells, including acute myeloid leukemia blasts and mature monocytes. Anti-CD33 monoclonal antibodies are extensively used for the diagnosis of all types of AMLs.
CD34 stem cell marker, adhesion, found on hematopoietic precursors (found in high concentrations in umbilical cord blood), capillary endothelium, and embryonic fibroblasts
CD35 Complement receptor 1 (C3b/C4b receptor)
CD36 Platelet glycoprotein IV or IIIb (GP IV / GP IIIb)
CD37 A leucocyte restricted tetraspanin expressed primarily in B cells, but also found on T cells, Monocytes and Granulocytes.
CD38 involved in ecto-ADP-ribosyl cyclase and cell activation on many hematopoietic, plasma, and B & T activated cells; marker increases with HIV seroconversion, coexpression with CD8 associated with progression (indicates persistent viral stimulation)
CD39 Also known as Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1). Hydrolyzes nucleotide substrates at extremely high turnover rates, converting ATP directly into AMP without releasing ADP. Forms oligomers that are essential for its enzymatic activity.
CD40 a costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells. CD40 combines with CD154 (CD40L) on T cells to induce antibody isotype switching in B cells.
CD41 Integrin subunit αIIb; Gene ITGA2B. Glycoprotein IIb (GPIIb): Component of the integrin αIIbβ3 (GPIIb-IIIa) fibrinogen receptor; major role is in platelet aggregation.[1] Mutations in ITGA2B can be causative for Glanzmann thrombasthenia.
CD42 the platelet Glycoprotein Ib/V/IX complex(GPIb/V/IX). Expressed on platelets and is a late, specific marker of megakaryocyte differentiation. The Glycoprotein Ib/V/IX complex is essential for normal haemostasis; deficiency results in Bernard-Soulier Syndrome, a syndrome of thrombocytopenia and giant platelets.
CD43 CD43 is a sialomucin.
CD44 A family of matrix adhesion molecules formed by alternative mRNA splicing, that adhere to hyaluronate, collagen, laminin, and fibronectin. Helps maintain polarization of epithelial cells. Found on bone marrow stromal cells and many other cells.
CD45 leucocyte common antigen, a type I transmembrane protein present on all hemopoietic cells except erythrocytes that assists in cell activation; expressed in lymphomas, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
CD46 Inhibitory complement receptor which is ubiquitously expressed on human cells. Binding site for viral H (Hemagglutinin) protein.
CD47 Membrane protein, which is involved in the increase in intracellular calcium concentration that occurs upon cell adhesion to extracellular matrix.
CD48 CD48 is a human protein encoded by the CD48 gene. It is a universal cell membrane molecule present on all leukocytes.
CD49a Integrin alpha 1 subunit.
CD49b Very late antigen (VLA) alpha 2 chain; found on platelets and activated B and T cells.
CD49c Very late antigen (VLA) alpha 3 chain; found on nonhematopoietic bone marrow cells. Receptor for collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and thrombospondin.
CD49d Integrin alpha 4 subunit. Unlike other integrin alpha chains, alpha 4 neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage.
CD49e Integrin alpha 5 subunit. Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 to form a fibronectin receptor.
CD49f Integrin alpha 6 subunit.
CD53 A leucocyte restricted tetraspanin expressed by B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, monocytes, NK cells and Granulocytes.
CD54 Intercellular adhesion molecule -1 (ICAM-1): facilitates adhesion between leukocytes to endothelial cells during the immune and inflammatory responses
CD55 Complement Decay-Accelerating Factor (DAF): regulatory factor in one of the three pathways of the immune system complement cascade
CD56 140 kD isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule), a marker for natural killer cells and some T-lymphocytes
CD57 Is expressed by Natural Killer Cells subsets of T Cells, B Cells, and Monocytes. Represents a carbohydrate epitope that contains a sulfoglucuronyl residue.
CD58 a membrane protein present on many hemopoietic cells and fibroblasts that acts as a ligand for CD2 and may be involved in T-cell function.
CD59 Membrane attack complex inhibition factor (MACIF); MAC-inhibitory protein (MAC-IP); Antigen MEM43; Protectin: Immune system complement cascade regulatory factor
CD61 Integrin subunit β3; Gene ITGB3. Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa): Component of the integrin αIIbβ3 (GPIIb-IIIa) fibrinogen receptor; major role is in platelet aggregation.[1] Mutations in ITGB3 can be causative for Glanzmann thrombasthenia.
CD62E E-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule expressed only on endothelial cells activated by cytokines.
CD62L L-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule found on leukocytes.
CD62P P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule (CAM) found in granules in endothelial cells (cells lining blood vessels) and activated platelets.
CD63 Member of the Tetraspanin family expressed in activated platelets, monocytes and macrophages.
CD64 commonly known as Fc-gamma receptor 1 (FcγRI) with high-affinity to IgG. CD64 is found on macrophages and monocytes.
CD68 110 kDa highly glycosylated transmembrane protein which is mainly located in lysosomes. Present in macrophages in many human tissues including Kupffer’s cells and macrophages in the red pulp of the spleen, in lung alveoli, in lamina propria of the gut, and in the bone marrow. Used as immunocytochemical marker for staining of monocytes/macrophages.
CD69 An early activation marker on T cells and NK cells.
CD71 Transferrin receptor, mediates cellular uptake of iron
CD72 Mediator of B-cell - T-cell interactions
CD73 Also known as 5'-ribonucleotide phosphohydrolase. Is expressed on subsets of B-cells and T-cells, endothelial cells, pericytes, follicular dendritic cells, fibroblasts, epithelial cells, cardiomyocytes, neurons, osteoblasts and trophoblasts. Is also expressed on and used as an identification marker of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Catalyzes the conversion of AMP to bioactive adenosine at neutral pH. Also has functions independent of its enzyme activity and can transmit potent activation signals in T-cells when ligated by antibodies. Upon binding of the antibody on lymphocytes, but not on endothelial cells, CD73 delivers a tyrosine phosphorylation inducing signal. Also functions as a cell adhesion molecule and mediates lymphocyte binding to endothelial cells and adhesion between B-cells and follicular dendritic cells
CD74 Transmembrane protein that assists and maintains the assembly of MHC-II complexes in the ER until its loaded with peptide in Endosomes. Present in all professional APCs expressing MHC-II. It is more commonly named "Invariant chain" and coded in the HLA-II gene cluster.
CD80 when bound to CD28 on T-cells, can provide the costimulatory effect; also referred to as B7.1, one of the B7 molecules. Causes up-regulation of a high affinity IL-2 receptor allowing T cells to proliferate.
CD81 A tetraspanin expressed in a wide variety of tissues, which plays an important role in B cells as part of the B cell co-receptor complex with CD19, Leu 13 and CD21. Also expressed in T cells, NK cells, Dendritic cells, Monocytes and blood progenitors.
CD82 Member of the tetraspanin family of transmembrane proteins. Broad tissue distribution including B cells, T cells, Granulocytes, Monocytes and CD34+ progenitors.
CD83 a 45 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily. Expressed on cultured dendritic cells, interdigitating, follicular, and circulating dendritic cells as well as some proliferating lymphocyte of all human cell lines. Functionally unclear, but can serve as a useful marker for mature human blood dendritic cells.
CD86 when bound to CD28 on T-cells, can provide the costimulatory effect; also referred to as B7.2, one of the B7 molecules. Causes up-regulation of a high affinity IL-2 receptor allowing T cells to proliferate.
CD87 also referred to as the urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor, provides a binding point for urokinase type plasminogen activator
CD88 C5a receptor
CD89 FcalphaRI - receptor for IgA
CD90 Thy-1 Thymus cell antigen.
CD91 Low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) (also known as α2-macroglobulin receptor), a major endocytotic receptor with over 35 known ligands including amyloid precursor protein (APP), ApoE, and many proteins involved with protease regulation
CD95 Fas Receptor- receptor for Fas ligand, an extrinsic apoptotic signal
CD96  
CD100 also known as semaphorin 4D and is known as a potent proangiogenic molecule.
CD103 a type I transmembrane protein present on intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, some circulating leukocytes, and some T cells that facilitates adhesion to epithelia; expressed in hairy cell leukemia and some B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias.
CD105 Endoglin, a regulatory component of the TGF-beta receptor-cell complex. Mediates cellular response to TGFbeta.
CD106 VCAM-1; Alpha 4 beta 1 ligand. Adhesion molecule involved in white blood cell migration.
CD107 Found on Platelets
CD107a Lysosome-associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP1)
CD107b Lysosome-associated Membrane Protein 2 (LAMP2)
CD109 r150, Gov alloantigen, an accessory receptor of the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Mediates cellular response to TGFbeta. Presents Gov alloantigens and ABH blood antigens.
CD115 a cell-surface protein encoded, in humans, by the CSF1R gene. Also known as colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) and/or as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR). It is a receptor for a cytokine called colony stimulating factor 1.
CD117 c-kit, the receptor for Stem Cell Factor, a glycoprotein that regulates cellular differentiation, particularly in hematopoiesis
CD120 a receptor for Tumour Necrosis Factor, an inflammatory cytokine
CD122 beta subunit of IL-2 receptor
CD123 Also known as interleukin-3 receptor (IL-3R), is a molecule found on cells which helps transmit the signal of interleukin-3, a soluble cytokine important in the immune system. It is found on pluripotent progenitor cells, induces tyrosine phosphorylation within the cell, and promotes proliferation and differentiation within the hematopoietic cell lines.
CD127 the IL-7 receptor alpha chain
CD132 gamma subunit of IL-2 receptor
CD133 a hematopoietic and CNS stem cell marker. A 5 transmembrane domain protein, with no known function. Also known as AC133.
CD134 Also known as OX40; A T cell secondary costimulatory molecule which enhances proliferation, cytokine production and survival.
CD135 Also known as fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (Flt3) or fetal liver kinase-2 (Flk2); A cytokine receptor for Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) important in early hematopoiesis.
CD138 a plasma cell-surface glycoprotein, known as syndecan-1. Syndecan functions as the alpha receptor for collagen, fibronectin and thrombospondin.
CD141 Thrombomodulin or BDCA-3, an integral membrane protein. On endothelial cells, it is involved in anticoagulation. It also occurs, with unknown function, on a very rare subtype of dendritic cells.
CD142 Tissue factor, a major initiator of blood-clotting
CD143 Angiotensin-converting enzyme
CD144 VE-Cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule at intercellular junctions, found mainly in the vascular endothelium. Recent research indicates that CD144 may be present on some leucocytes as well.
CD147 Neurothelin. An extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer.
CD151 Tetraspanin with a wide tissue distribution, including platelets, Megakaryocytes, Granulocytes and erythroleukemia.
CD152 Also called Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). Expressed in CD4+ T Lymphocytes but also found in some B Lymphocytes. Binds to CD80 and CD86 receptors with a higher affinity than CD28, and inhibits T cell activation.
CD154 The ligand for CD40. This is a costimulatory molecule that plays many roles, best known for activating B cells but also known to induce the activation of an APC in association with T cell receptor stimulation by MHC molecules on the APC.
CD155 The poliovirus receptor, a protein that in humans that is encoded by the PVR gene.
CD156 A member of A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease family ADAM8.
CD158 Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) with two extracellular domains, variously expressed on NK cells. CD158a is KIR2DL1, CD158b is KIR2DL3, CD158d is KIR2DL4.
CD163 M130; HbSR; RM3/1 antigen. A glycoprotein endocytic scavenger receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes. Found specifically on monocytes/macrophages and some dendritic cells. Involved in anti-inflammatory processes. Soluble form shed upon Toll-like receptor activation.
CD165 Used to monitor platelet function
CD166 activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM); ligand for CD6 and involved in neurite extension
CD168 receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM).
CD184 CXCR4, Stromal Derived Factor 1 (SDF1). Receptor for the CXC chemokine SDF1. A receptor involved in mesenchymal stem cell homing and migration.
CDw186 CXCR6, a G-protein-coupled receptor for the chemokine CXCL16
CD195 CCR5, a beta chemokine recpeptor to which the natural chemokine ligands RANTES and macrophage inflammatory protein bind. It is commonly used by HIV as a co-receptor to enter its target cells.
CD197 CCR7, a beta chemokine receptor to which chemokines involved in the migration of T lymphocytes across high endothelial venules bind.
CDw199 CCR9, a beta chemokine receptor involved in mucosal immunity. The specific ligand of this receptor is CCL25.
CD209 DC-SIGN, C-type lectin receptor found on dendritic cell subsets
CD202a Tie2, the receptor for angiopoietins, a family of angiogenic factors
CD220 The insulin receptor (INSR) is a transmembrane receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity whose ligand is insulin. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of various metabolic pathways, as well as regulating aspects of the cell cycle, such as cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mutations in the insulin receptor have been found to be associated with both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
CD221 IGF-I-receptor
CD235a Glycophorin, a protein on blood cells
CD271 is the p75 Nerve Growth factor receptor (NGFR)
CD273 also called PD-L2 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2) on surface of Antigen-presenting cells eg Dendritic cells, Macrophages. Ligand for PD-1 (CD279)
CD274 also called PD-L1 (Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 1) on surface of Antigen-presenting cells eg Dendritic cells, Macrophages. Ligand for PD-1 (CD279) and also CD80.
CD279 is pro B-Cell marker in ALL. Also known as PD-1 (Programmed Cell Death 1) receptor. Targeted by Nivolumab and other cancer monoclonal antibody drugs.
CD303 BDCA-2, a type II C-type lectin which is involved in endocytosis of antigens for processing in plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Activation decreases type I interferon production.
CD304 Neuropilin-1 (NP-1) or BDCA-4, has a wide range of functions. On neurons, it is a receptor for axon growth guidance class-3 semaphorins SEMA3A and plexin-1, on endothelial and some tumor cells it is a VEGF165 receptor, and on plasmacytoid dendritic cells it has a similar role to CD303 but does not decrease interferon production upon activation.
CD309 Kinase insert domain receptor, a type III tyrosin kinase receptor involved in angiogenesis.
CD326 Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) or Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1 (TACSTD1). Expressed on epithelial cells and on many tumors; used as a target for anti-tumor drugs. CD326 is expressed in pluripotent stem cells.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bennett JS. Structure and function of the platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3. J Clin Invest 2005; 115:3363-9.