List of human evolution fossils

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The following tables give a brief overview of several notable hominin fossil finds relating to human evolution beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe in the late Miocene (roughly 6 million years ago).

As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare,[1] this overview is not complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating and the species name represents current consensus; if there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated. Deprecated classifications may be found on the fossil's page.

Most of the fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage.

Late Miocene[edit]

7 million - 5.3 million years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Sahelanthropus tchadensis - TM 266-01-060-1.jpg TM 266 (Toumai) 7 Ma[2] Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad Michel Brunet Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye
Orrorin tugenensis.jpg BAR 1000'00 6 Ma[3] Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,

Pliocene[edit]

5.3 million - 2.58 million years old[edit]

Image Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Ardi.jpg Ardi 4.4 Ma[4] Ardipithecus ramidus 1994 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KNM-LT 329 4.2 - 5 Ma[5] Australopithecus anamensis 1967 Kenya Arnold Lewis, Bryan Patterson[6][7][8]
KNM-TH 13150 4.15-5.25 Ma[9] Australopithecus anamensis 1984 Kenya -
KNM-KP 271 4 Ma[10] Australopithecus anamensis 1965 Kenya Bryan Patterson[6]
Laetoli footprints replica.jpg Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominid 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4 2.9 - 3.9 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[11]
KSD-VP-1/1 (Kadanuumuu) 3.58 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2005 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
K 12 (Abel) 3.5 Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Michel Brunet
Kenyanthropus platyops, skull (model).JPG Flat Faced Man[12] 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Lake Turkana, Kenya Justus Erus and Meave Leakey[13]
Little Foot 01.jpg Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus ? 1994 South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
SelamAustralopithecus.jpg DIK-1 (Selam) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
Lucy Mexico.jpg AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Ethiopia Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb National Museum of Ethiopia
AL 200-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Ethiopia Donald Johanson Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb
AL 129-1 3 - 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1973 Ethiopia Donald Johanson
[14] AL 444-2 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1991 Ethiopia Bill Kimbel

Pleistocene[edit]

Lower Paleolithic: 2.58 million - 300,000[edit]

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
Australopithecus africanus - Cast of taung child Face.jpg Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
Paranthropus aethiopicus.JPG KNM WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
Uraha Jawbone [15] Uraha 501 2.3 - 2.5 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1991 Malawi Tyson Msiska, Timothy Bromage, Friedemann Schrenk
[16] STS 14 2.04-2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
[17] STS 71 2.04 - 2.58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom and John T. Robinson
[18] STS 52 2.04 -2 .58 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
Mrs Ples Face.jpg STS 5
(Mrs. Ples)
2.04Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 South Africa Robert Broom
TM 1517 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche
[19] MH1 1.977-1.98 Ma[20] Australopithecus sediba 2008 South Africa Lee R. Berger
Homo habilis-KNM ER 1813.jpg KNM ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
Homo rudolfensis.jpg KNM ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo[21]
[22] OH 24
(Twiggy)
1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
[23] OH 8 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania
Paranthropus boisei skull.jpg OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.8 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
Dmanisi cranium D2700 (B).jpg D2700 (Dmanisi Skull 3) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2001 Georgia David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua
Dmanisiskull4.JPG D3444 (Dmanisi Skull 4) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2003 Georgia David Lordkipanidze
Dmanisi Skull 5 or D4500 Copyright Free Draw by Wikipedia User Simon Mer.jpg D4500 (Dmanisi Skull 5) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2005 ( published in 2013) Georgia David Lordkipanidze
KNM-ER 62000[24] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 62003 (mandibular fragment)[24] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
KNM-ER 60000 (mandible)[24] 1.78 -1.9 Mya Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
Homo Habilis Oh7.jpg OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
Homo ergaster.jpg KNM ER 3733 1.75 Ma Homo ergaster[25] (aka Homo erectus) 1975 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
KNM ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis 1973/4 Kenya Paul Abell
Yuanmou Man 1.7 Ma / 0.5-0.6 Ma (disputed)[26] Homo erectus 1965 China Fang Qian
Paranthropus-boisei-Nairobi.JPG KNM ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNM ER 732[27] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
[28] KNM ER 23000 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1990 Koobi Fora, Kenya Benson Kyongo
KNM WT 17400[citation needed] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Kenya
Turkana Boy.jpg KNM WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1984 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu Kenya National Museum
[29] StW 53 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo gautengensis 1976 South Africa A. R. Hughes
[30] SK 847 1.5 - 2 Ma Homo habilis 1949 South Africa
[31] DNH 7
(Eurydice)
1.5 - 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
[32] SK 46 1.5 - 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 South Africa Robert Broom
Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
[33] OH 9
(Chellean Man)
1.5 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Tanzania Louis Leakey
KNM ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
Mojokerto 1
(Mojokerto child)
1.43 - 1.49 Ma Homo erectus 1936 Indonesia Andojo, G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Fossil KNM-ER 3883.JPG KNM ER 3883 1.4 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1976 Kenya Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525[citation needed] 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Ethiopia A. Amzaye
Atapuerca Jawbone[34] 1.2 Ma Homo antecessor 2008 Spain Eudald Carbonell
Daka homo erectus calvaria.jpg Daka 1.0 Ma Homo erectus 1997 Ethiopia Henry Gilbert
Sangiran 4 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Homo antecessor.jpg 780k - 858k Homo erectus 1994 Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga
Calvaria Sangiran II (B).jpg Sangiran 2 0.7 - 1.6 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
[35] Trinil 2
Pithecanthropus-1
or
Java Man
0.7 -1 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois
Ternifine 2-3 now Tighennif [citation needed] 700k Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg
[36] Sangiran 17 700k Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
Peking Man Skull (replica) presented at Paleozoological Museum of China.jpg Peking Man 680k - 780k Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black Lost/stolen
[37] Madam Buya 600k - 1.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1997 Eritrea Ernesto Abbate
[38] Bodo 600k Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
Unterkiefer von Mauer (Replika).JPG Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
500k Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann
500k[39] Homo erectus 1923 India V. S. Wakankar
[40] Saldanha man 500k Homo rhodesiensis 1953 South Africa
Boxgrove-Tibia.jpg
Boxgrove Man 478k - 524k Homo heidelbergensis 1994 UK
Homo erectus tautavelensis.jpg
Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
450k Homo erectus 1971 France Henry de Lumley
[41] Hexian 400k - 500k Homo erectus 1980 China
Homo heidelbergensis-Cranium -5.jpg Skull 5 (Miguelón) 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell
Swanscombe Man 400k Homo heidelbergensis 1935 UK Alvan T Marston
Sale[citation needed] 400k Homo rhodesiensis 1971 Morocco
[42] Ndutu 350k Homo rhodesiensis 1973 Tanzania A.A. Mturi
Steinheimer Urmensch Schaedel.jpg Steinheim Skull 350k Homo heidelbergensis 1933 Germany

Middle Paleolithic: 300,000 - 50,000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
[43] Petralona 1 250k - 500k Homo heidelbergensis 1960 Greece
Ngandong 7 250k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Altamura Man 250k Homo neanderthalensis Italy
Bontnewydd (Pontynewydd) 230k Homo neanderthalensis 1981 UK
[44] Dali 209k ±23k (disputed)[45] Homo erectus
or
Homo sapiens
1978 China Shuntang Liu
Rhodesian Man.jpg Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe Cranium
or
Rhodesian Man)
200k - 300k Homo rhodesiensis 1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
[46] Omo 1 190k Homo sapiens 1967 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
[47] Omo 2 190k Homo sapiens Ethiopia Richard Leakey
[48] Herto remains 160k Homo sapiens idaltu 1997 Ethiopia Tim White
[49] Jebel Irhoud 1 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 2 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
[50] Jebel Irhoud 3 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Jebel Irhoud 4 160k Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
[51] Tabun C1 120k Homo neanderthalensis 1967 Israel Arthur Jelinek
[52] Krapina 100k - 127k [53] Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
[54] Qafzeh 6 90k - 100k[53] Homo sapiens 1930 Israel R. Neuville M Stekelis
Qafzeh.JPG Qafzeh IX 90k - 100k[53] Homo sapiens[55] 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
[56] Qafzeh VI 90k - 100k[53] Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Scladina 80k - 127k[53] Homo neanderthalensis Belgium
Skhul.JPG Skhul V 80k - 120k Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul IX 80k - 120k Homo sapiens Israel
[57] Klasies River Caves 75k - 125k Homo sapiens 1960 South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Obi-Rakhmat 1[58] 75k [53] Homo neanderthalensis 2003 Uzbekistan
Teshik-Tash Skull[59] 70k Homo neanderthalensis 1938 Uzbekistan A. Okladnikov
Ferrassie skull.jpg La Ferrassie 1 70k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
Saccopastore 1.JPG
Saccopastore 1 60k Homo neanderthalensis Italy
Shanidar 1 60k - 80k Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.jpg La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon
[60] Amud 7 50k - 60k Homo neanderthalensis Israel

Upper Paleolithic: 50,000 - 10,000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Date
discovered
Country Discovered by Now Located at
Sidrón Cave 49k Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Spain
La Quina 5[citation needed] 45k - 60k[53] Homo neanderthalensis France
La Quina 18[citation needed] 45k - 60k[53] Homo neanderthalensis France
Kents Cavern 41k - 45k Homo sapiens 1927 UK
[61] Amud 1 41k [62] Homo neanderthalensis June 28, 1961 Israel Hisashi Suzuki
Mungo Man.jpg Mungo Man 40k - 60k Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
WLH-50 Homo sapiens 1982 Australia
[63] Mt. Circeo 1 40k - 60k Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
[64] Neanderthal 1 40k Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Denisova hominin (X-Woman) 40k Homo ? 2008 Russia Johannes Krause, et al.
hominin finger bone 40k Homo ? (possible Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid) 2011 Russia
37k Homo sapiens 2012 Sri Lanka
Hofmeyr Skull.jpg Hofmeyr Skull 36k Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
[65] Peștera cu Oase 36k Homo sapiens 2002 Romania
Red Lady of Paviland 33k Homo sapiens 1823 UK William Buckland
Yamashita-Cho Man 32k Homo sapiens 1962 Japan
Engis 30k-50k [53][66] Homo neanderthalensis 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling
Neanderthal skull from Forbes' Quarry.jpg Gibraltar 1 30k-50k [53] Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Captain Edmund Flint
Le Moustier 30k-50k Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
Denisovan tooth 30k - 50k Homo ? 2000 Russia
Cro-Magnon.jpg Cro-Magnon 1 30k Homo sapiens 1868 France Louis Lartet
NG 6 27k - 53k Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and GHR von Koenigswald
[67] Predmost 3 26k Homo sapiens 1894 Czech Republic K.J. Maska
[68] Lapedo Child 24.5k Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens 1998 Portugal João Zilhão
[68] Eel Point 24k Homo sapiens 1997 UK
Homo floresiensis.jpg LB 1 (Hobbit) 18k Homo floresiensis 2003 Indonesia Peter Brown
[69] Minatogawa 1 16k - 18k Homo sapiens 1970 Japan
Tandou[citation needed] 15k Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Skull of Gough's Cave.jpg Gough's Cave[70][71] 14.7k Homo sapiens 2010 UK
Iwo Eleru Skull 13k[72] Homo sapiens 1965 Nigeria
Moulage de crâne, Raymonden, Chancelade, Dordogne.jpg Chancelade find 17-12k[73] Homo sapiens 1888 France
Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1-Homo Sapiens 11,500 Years Old.jpg Luzia 11.5k[74] Homo sapiens 1975 Brazil Annette Laming-Emperaire
[75] Cerro Sota 2[76] 11k Homo sapiens 1936 Chile Junius Bird
Wadjak 1[77] 10k - 12k Homo sapiens 1888 Indonesia B.D. van Rietschoten

Holocene[edit]

Mesolithic / Neolithic: 10,000 - 5000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
discovered
Country Discovered by Now located at
La Brea Woman ~ 10k Homo sapiens 1914 United States
Homo sapiens Combe Capelle.jpg Combe Capelle 9.6 k[78] Homo sapiens 1909 France O. Hauser
Cheddar Man 9k Homo sapiens 1903 UK
Kowswamp1.JPG Kow Swamp 1 9k - 13k Homo sapiens 1968 Australia A.G. Thorne
Afalou 13[citation needed] 8k - 12k Homo sapiens 1920 Algeria C. Arambourg
Wadi Halfa 25[citation needed] 8k - 12k Homo sapiens 1963 Sudan G. Armelagos, E. Ewing, D. Greene
Wadi Kubbaniya[citation needed] 8k - 20k Homo sapiens 1982 Egypt Fred Wendorf
Mnwomanskull.jpg Minnesota Woman 7.8 - 8k Homo sapiens 1931 Minnesota, United States Albert Jenks, via construction crew
Lo 4b[citation needed] 6k - 9k Homo sapiens 1965 H. Robbins B.M. Lynch
Tepexpan man 5k - 11k Homo sapiens 1947 Mexico H. de Terra
SDM 16704[citation needed] 4.9k - 11.8 Homo sapiens 1929 United States M.J. Rogers

Abbreviations used in fossil catalog name[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ "Bar 10200'". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  4. ^ Amos, Jonathan (2009-10-01). "Fossil finds extend human story". BBC News. 
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  6. ^ a b c Hill, Andrew; Ward, Steven (1988). "Origin of the Hominidae: the record of African large hominoid evolution between 14 My and 4 My". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 31 (59): 49–83. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330310505. 
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  8. ^ lothagam mandible fragment
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External links[edit]