List of important publications in chemistry

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This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field.

Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important:

  • Topic creator – A publication that created a new topic
  • Breakthrough – A publication that changed scientific knowledge significantly
  • Influence – A publication which has significantly influenced the world or has had a massive impact on the teaching of chemistry.

Contents

Foundations[edit]

The Sceptical Chymist[edit]

Description: Boyle, in the form of a dialogue, argued that chemical theories should be firmly grounded in experiment before their acceptance, and for the foundation of chemistry as a science separate from medicine and alchemy.

Importance: Topic Creator, Influence. Boyle, in this book, became the first to argue that experiment should form the basis of all theory, a common practice in chemistry today. He also expounded on a rudimentary atomic theory and the existence of chemical elements beyond the classic earth, fire, air, and water.[1] He is seen as the father of chemistry,[2] and this is his most celebrated book,[3] with continued relevance to the present day.[4]

Traité Élémentaire de Chimie (Elementary Treatise of Chemistry)[edit]

  • Antoine Lavoisier
  • Traité Élémentaire de Chimie, 1789, available in English as Elementary Treatise of Chemistry

Description: This book was intended as an introduction to new theories in chemistry and as such, was one of the first Chemistry textbooks.[5]

Importance: Introduction, Influence. Aside from being one of the first chemistry textbooks, the book was one of the first to state the Law of conservation of mass, define a chemical element, and contain a list of known elements.[6][7][8]

Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique[edit]

Description: This publication laid out a logical system for naming chemical substances (mainly chemical elements and inorganic compounds).

Importance: Prior to this publication, a multitude of names were often used for the same substance. This publication led to an international consensus on how to name chemical substances.

A New System of Chemical Philosophy[edit]

Description: This book explained Dalton's theory of atoms and its applications to chemistry.

Importance: Topic Creator, Breakthrough, Influence. The book was one of the first to describe a modern atomic theory, a theory that lies at the basis of modern chemistry.[9] It is the first to introduce a table of atomic and molecular weights.[10] Surprisingly, given the period in which the book was written, of the five properties of atoms that Dalton listed, only two have been shown to be incorrect.

The Dependence Between the Properties of the Atomic Weights of the Elements[edit]

Description and Importance: In this paper the periodic table was introduced.[11] Notice that the table in the above link is the original one. Since then the table structure was slightly changed and new elements were added to it.

Organic chemistry[edit]

Science of Synthesis: Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations[edit]

  • Volume editors are here. Article authors for each volume can be found here.
  • Thieme: Stuttgart, 48 volumes, 2000 – 2009 (print and electronic version available)

Description: Contains synthetic models selected by world-renowned experts, with full experimental procedures and background information. Considers methods from journals, books, and patent literature from the early 19th century up to the present day and presents important synthetic methods for all classes of compounds. Critically evaluates the preparative applicability and significance of the synthetic methods.

Importance: A reference publication.[12]

March's Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure[edit]

Description: A comprehensive reference for organic chemistry with over 25,000 references.

Importance: A reference publication.[13]

The Logic of Chemical Synthesis[edit]

Description: Describes the logic underlying the rational design of complex organic synthesis.

Importance: Breakthrough, Influence

Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis[edit]

Description: A comprehensive reference for the usage of protecting groups in organic synthesis.

Importance: A reference publication.

Comprehensive Organic Transformations[edit]

Description: A standard reference for the practicing organic chemist. These books are just enormous lists of key references indexed by functional group transformations.

Importance: A reference publication.

Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds[edit]

Description: systematic and complete exposition of all aspects of organic stereochemistry

Importance: standard advanced text for organic stereochemistry.[14]

Classics in Total Synthesis[edit]

Description. The synthesis of famous molecules done by the masters of organic chemistry

Importance. A standard postgraduate text book for the study of total synthesis and a valuable reference work for experts. "..destined to become a classic itself".[15]

Inorganic chemistry[edit]

Chemical Applications of Group Theory[edit]

  • F. Albert Cotton
  • Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated, 1st Ed. 1963, 3rd Ed. 1990.

Description: Explains the use of symmetry groups in describing molecular symmetry and its rôle in determining molecular properties.

Importance: Significant influence by introducing group theory to a much wider group of chemists.

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry[edit]

Description: A classic general textbook for an undergraduate course in inorganic chemistry

Importance: This book is not only a good introduction to the subject, it was very different from earlier texts and "led to a fundamental shift in the way in which inorganic chemistry was studied".[16] It seemed to be symbolic of the renaissance in inorganic chemistry starting in the 1950s. Every new text in inorganic chemistry since this text has had to respond to it.

Physical chemistry[edit]

Physical Chemistry (1978)[edit]

  • P. W. Atkins
  • Oxford University Press, 1st Ed. 1978, 7th Ed. 2002 (with Julio de Paula)

Description: A classic general textbook for an undergraduate course in physical chemistry

Importance: This book is not only a good introduction to the subject, it was very different from earlier texts and altered the way physical chemistry was taught. The first edition was very widely used where English is the language of instruction. Other texts had to respond to the lead from Atkins. The current edition is the 9th edition.

Physical Chemistry (1980)[edit]

Description: An encyclopedic text and reference suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate study.

Importance: This massive text by outstanding research workers begins with simple systems and proceeds logically to the more complex phenomena of physical chemistry. The original literature is cited extensively, making the work useful as a reference as well as a textbook. Many topics of current research are treated. Its advanced and exhaustive coverage of the field, together with extensive coverage of modern topics, eclipses the former champion, the text by E. A. Moelwyn-Hughes.

Biochemistry[edit]

A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid[edit]

Description: In this paper the structure of DNA was proposed. It consisted of a double helix with a phosphate backbone, unlike Linus Pauling and R.B. Corey's double helix where the backbone consisted of the bases. They conclude with the sly remark: "It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material."

Importance: Topic creator, Breakthrough, Influence

Analytical chemistry[edit]

Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building[edit]

Importance: Although almost devoid of classical chemistry, this is the definitive text for any experimentalist. This is particularly true for any chemist measuring or studying the properties or effects of chemical compounds, mixtures or other substances.

Description: Starting with examples comparing two sets of experimental data, this text explains variance and the calculation of standard deviations, degrees of freedom, the null hypothesis and the "Student's" t-Test by William J. Gosset. Further chapters discuss the importance of randomization and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using F distributions before delving into the use of statistically designed experiments including block and factorial designs. The book finishes with least squares regression analysis along with response surface and mechanistic modeling.

Though chemical examples were few, it should be mentioned that co-author William G. Hunter, George Box's protege, had a Bachelor's and a Master's degree in Chemical Engineering with the book written in such a manner that its concepts would easily apply to chemical investigations.

Polymer chemistry[edit]

Principles of Polymer Chemistry[edit]

Importance: First major text on polymer chemistry; presents both organic and physical chemistry aspects. Written by a chemist who made major contributions to the physical chemistry of polymers, for which he won the Nobel prize in 1974.

Description: Discusses structure and stereochemistry of synthetic polymers, polymerization kinetics, behaviour of polymers in solution, chain dimensions.

Environmental chemistry[edit]

Aquatic Chemistry, Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters[edit]

  • Stumm, Werner and James J. Morgan.
  • John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1st Edition 1970, 3rd Edition 1996, ISBN 0-471-51185-4.

Description. This book covers the full spectrum of the discipline including acid/base equilibria, carbonate chemistry, mass transfer, complexation, sorption phenomenon, oxidation/reduction, colloid chemistry, and flocculation/coagulation. The authors generally present the material using a ground up approach that emphasizes fundamental principles of thermodynamics and kinetics.

Importance. The publication is one of the most widely cited texts in environmental chemistry. In 1999, Stumm and Morgan received the Stockholm Water Prize for their contributions in the field. The citation specifically mentioned Aquatic Chemistry where it was described as a "seminal book" which is "used in education all over the world".[17]

Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atom-catalysed destruction of ozone[edit]

Mario J. Molina and F. S. Rowland, Nature 249, 810–812 (1974)

Description: This paper warned of the danger of ozone depletion due to man-made chlorofluorocarbons. The main atmospheric sink for these compounds was identified as ultraviolet photolysis, liberating chlorine atoms which catalyze the destruction of stratospheric ozone and have the potential to significantly deplete the ozone layer.

Importance: Influence, as described in the presentation speech for the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995: “The findings presented by this year's laureates in chemistry have had an enormous political and industrial impact. This was because they clearly identified unacceptable environmental hazards in a large, economically important sector.” [1]

Pharmacology[edit]

Chemical thermodynamics[edit]

On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances[edit]

  • Gibbs, Willard
  • Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. III, pp. 108–248, 1876; pp. 343–524, 1878.

Description: paper applied the thermodynamic theory of steam engines to atomic level chemical reactions; i.e., it established equilibrium criteria necessary to predict the thermodynamic tendency of chemical reactions at constant temperature and pressure.

Importance: topic creator; historian Bill Bryson states, in his A Short History of Nearly Everything, that Gibbs’ Equilibrium paper is "the Principia of thermodynamics".[18] In addition, this paper, in many ways, functions as the mathematical foundation of physical chemistry.

Electrochemistry[edit]

Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications[edit]

Description: The defining reference for electrochemistry, coupling thousands of electroanalytical methods with the theory behind them.

Importance: A reference publication.

Theoretical chemistry, Quantum chemistry and Computational Chemistry[edit]

Valence and the structure of atoms and molecules[edit]

Description: Discusses ionic and covalent bonding (polar and non-polar).

Importance: The book that introduced the modern concept of the covalent bond as the sharing of electron pairs, and tried to reconcile the chemist's empirical view of the atom with the physicist's and spectroscopist's quantum mechanical view. It could be considered a precursor to Pauling's books.

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Chemistry[edit]

Description: A classic and excellent introduction to quantum mechanics.

Importance: One of the earliest books that introduced quantum mechanics to chemists. It remains well loved by many to this day.[19]

Valence[edit]

  • C. A Coulson
  • Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1952.
  • The latest edition is called Coulson's Valence, 3rd Edition, Roy McWeeny, Oxford University Press, 1980

Description: A classic introduction to valence and the theory of chemical binding.

Importance: This book is credited with causing the expansion of interest in molecular orbital theory from the 1950s.[20]

The Nature of the Chemical Bond and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals; An Introduction to Modern Structural Chemistry[edit]

  • Linus Pauling
  • Ithaca, N.Y., London, Cornell University Press; H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1940.

Description: A classic that was the first general book to introduce quantum mechanics to chemists.

Importance: Probably more than any other book, introduced quantum mechanics and, in particular, valence bond theory to experimental chemists.[19][20]

Density-Functional Theory of Atoms and Molecules[edit]

  • R. G. Parr and W. Yang,
  • Oxford University Press, New York, 1989.

Description: A very thorough and scholarly account of density functional theory.

Importance: This is a good introduction to the subject, but has particular significance in the way it describes how the theory throws new light on old chemical concepts such as electronegativity.

Supramolecular chemistry[edit]

Supramolecular Chemistry – Concepts and Perspectives[edit]

Description: Comprenhensive textbook written by topic creator.

Importance: Most-popular textbook on subject (according to Amazon.com). Lehn coined the term "supermolecule" in '73, developed the concept of supramolecular chemistry in '78, and won the Nobel Prize for his supramolecular chemistry work in ’87.

Supramolecular Medicinal Chemistry [edit]

Description: Selected articles: "Supramolecular Medicinal Chemistry: Mixed-Ligand Coordination Complexes".Mol. Pharmaceutics, 2007, 4 (3), pp 373–385;"Pharmaceutical co-crystals".Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2006, 95 (3), pp 499–516;"Crystal engineering of pharmaceutical co-crystals from polymorphic active pharmaceutical ingredients". Chem. Commun, 2005, pp 4601 – 4603; "Recent advances of discrete coordination complexes and coordination polymers in drug delivery". Coord. Chem. Rev., 2011, 255, pp 1623–1641.

Importance: Breakthrough, Influence

Medicinal chemistry[edit]

The Practice of Medicinal Chemistry[edit]

Description: A great overview of the theory, methodology, and techniques of drug design.

Importance: Introduction, Influence

Combinatorial chemistry[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "From the mazy and incoherent alchemical and iatrochemical doctrines, the former based on false conceptions of matter, the latter on erroneous views of life processes and physiology, a new science arose – the study of the composition of substances. The formulation of this definition of chemistry was due to Robert Boyle. In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction." 1911 Britannica
  2. ^ Famous Chemists, Sir William A. Tilden, George Routledge & Sons Ltd., (1921), pg 1 – 21.
  3. ^ A History of Chemistry, Volume 2, J. R. Partington, Macmillan, reprinted 1969, pg 497.
  4. ^ Doubts and paradoxes, Mike Sutton, Chemistry World, Volume 6, Number 4, April 2011, Page 46 – 49, Royal Society of Chemistry, ISSN 1473-7604
  5. ^ Traité Élémentaire de Chimie – Details and contents (in French)
  6. ^ "The spread of Lavoisier's doctrines was greatly facilitated by the defined and logical form in which he presented them in his Traite Elementaire de Chimie (presente dans un ordre nouveau et d'apres les decouvertes modernes) (1789)." 1911 Britannica
  7. ^ Leicester & Klickstein 1969, p. 154
  8. ^ McKenzie 1988, p. 410
  9. ^ Leicester & Klickstein 1969, p. 251
  10. ^ McKenzie 1988, p. 437
  11. ^ Leicester & Klickstein 1969, p. 438
  12. ^ Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship review by Judith N. Currano
  13. ^ "His seminal reference-Advanced Organic Chemistry-is known worldwide and has been a mainstay among chemists for 30 years". New York Times obituary.
  14. ^ Book review of Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds in Journal of Chemical Education
  15. ^ Myers, Andrew G. (1997). "Review of "Classics in Total Synthesis"". Journal of the American Chemical Society 119 (33): 7906–7907. doi:10.1021/ja965773v. 
  16. ^ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1544265/Professor-F-Albert-Cotton.html An Obituary of F. Albert Cotton]
  17. ^ The Stockholm International Water Institute Follow links to "Stockholm Water Prize", "Laureates", "1999", and "Read more".
  18. ^ Bryson, Bill (2005). A Short History of Nearly Everything. Broadway Books. ISBN 0-7679-0817-1. 
  19. ^ a b Linus Pauling as an Evangelical Chemist, Dudley Herschbach
  20. ^ a b Textbooks as Manifestos: C. A. Coulson after Linus Pauling and R. S. Mulliken, Ana Simões A lecture by video and transcript by a historian of science that clearly and in detail discusses the importance of Coulson's book in relation to the earlier work of Pauling and Mulliken.

References[edit]