List of indigenous peoples

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Main article: Indigenous peoples

This is a partial list of the world's indigenous / aboriginal / native peoples. Indigenous peoples are any ethnic group of peoples who are considered to fall under one of the internationally recognized definitions of Indigenous peoples, such as United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, i.e. "those ethnic groups that were indigenous to a territory prior to being incorporated into a national state, and who are politically and culturally separate from the majority ethnic identity of the state that they are a part of".[1]

Note that this is a listing of peoples, groups and communities. Many of the names are externally imposed, and are not those the people identify within their cultures. As John Trudell observed, "They change our name and treat us the same." Basic to the unethical treatment of indigenous peoples is an insistence that the original inhabitants of the land are not permitted to name themselves. Many tribal groups have reasserted their traditional self-identifying names in recent times,[2] in a process of geographical renaming where "The place-name changes herald a new era, in which Aboriginal people have increasing control over the right to name and govern their homelands."[3]

This list is grouped by region, and sub-region. Note that a particular group may warrant listing under more than one region, either because the group is distributed in more than one region (example: Inuit in North America and eastern Russia), or there may be some overlap of the regions themselves (that is, the boundaries of each region are not always clear and some locations may commonly be associated with more than one region).

Eastern Hemisphere[edit]

Eastern Hemisphere, from a Physical Geography point of view, comprises the continents of Africa, Eurasia, Oceania, and associated islands. The biggest part is formed by the landmass of Afro-Eurasia supercontinent.

Africa[edit]

The continent of Africa, including associated islands such as Madagascar, but excluding Arabia.

North Africa[edit]

North Africa generally includes African countries with borders on the Mediterranean and northern Red Sea and Atlantic Ocean, bounded largely by the Sahara Desert to the south. Generally includes lands and countries north of the Sahara Desert. Due to ethnic, cultural and climatic characteristics, among others, it is a different region of the African continent.

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

Sub-Saharan Africa includes the lands and African countries south of the Sahara desert. It is the biggest part of the African continent and has its own ethnic and cultural characteristics.

Central Africa[edit]

Central Africa generally includes the lands mainly of the Congo River basin, south of the Sahara and west of the East African Rift.

East Africa[edit]

East Africa, including the African Great Lakes region and the Indian Ocean islands.

Horn of Africa[edit]

The Horn of Africa includes Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia.

Southern Africa[edit]

Southern Africa generally includes lands from the Cape of Good Hope northwards to the borders of Democratic Republic of the Congo and Tanzania, and islands such as Madagascar.

West Africa[edit]

West Africa generally includes the region bounded by the Sahara Desert to the north and the Gulf of Guinea to the south.

Eurasia[edit]

The continent of Eurasia includes both Asia and Europe. Asia and Europe are, from a Physical Geography point of view, a single continent, because they are the same continental landmass and not two truly separate continents (they are a continuous, discrete mass of land and are not separate by an expanse of water). Europe can be considerate a western subcontinent of the larger landmass of Asia as the Indian Subcontinent is its southern one. Eurasia is the biggest landmass (continent) of Earth.

Asia[edit]

The continent of Asia including: the Asia Minor, south of the Caucasus Mountains, the West Asia to continental Eastern Mediterranean and the Arabian peninsula, Central Asia, the Indian subcontinent, North Asia east of the Ural mountains, Eastern Asia, continental South-East Asia and archipelagic regions of the Pacific and Indian oceans bordering the Australian continental shelf.

Central Asia[edit]

Central Asia generally includes the landlocked region east of the Caspian Sea, south of the Russian Taiga, to the Himalayas, and extending eastwards to Mongolia and the western Chinese provinces and autonomous regions.

East Asia[edit]

East Asia generally includes the People's Republic of China, the Korean Peninsula, and the associated Pacific islands, principally Japan and Taiwan.

North Asia[edit]

North Asia generally includes the Russian Far East and the northern and eastern parts of Siberia.

South Asia/Indian Subcontinent[edit]

South Asia generally includes the Indian subcontinental region, adjacent areas, and related islands of the Indian Ocean.

Southeast Asia[edit]

Southeast Asia generally includes the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

Mainland Southeast Asia

Maritime Southeast Asia

See also:Indigenous peoples of the Philippines

Western Asia/Southwest Asia[edit]

Western Asia or Southwest Asia (also known as the Middle East) includes the region of the Levant, the Dead Sea Transform, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor (Anatolia), the Caucasus region, the Iranian Plateau and the Arabian Peninsula.

Europe/Western Eurasia[edit]

Europe generally refers to the mass of the Eurasian peninsula westwards of the Ural Mountains, the islands of the northern area of the Mediterranean Sea and East North Atlantic Ocean.

Main article: Ethnic groups in Europe

Oceania[edit]

Oceania includes most islands of the Pacific Ocean, New Guinea and the continent of Australia.

Australia[edit]

Australia includes the continental landmass, and associated islands.

See also: List of Indigenous Australian group names

Melanesia[edit]

Melanesia generally includes New Guinea and other (far-)western Pacific islands from the Arafura Sea out to Fiji. The region is mostly inhabited by the Melanesian peoples.

Micronesia[edit]

Micronesia generally includes the various small island chains of the western and central Pacific. The region is mostly inhabited by the Micronesian peoples.

Polynesia[edit]

Polynesia generally includes New Zealand and the islands of the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The region is mostly inhabited by the Polynesian peoples.

Eastern Polynesia

Western Polynesia

Polynesian outliers: Peoples of polynesian ancestry that dwell outside Polynesia (mainly in Melanesia, some in Micronesia, but have strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links with Polynesia)

Western Hemisphere[edit]

Western Hemisphere, from a Physical Geography point of view, comprises the Americas, the continents of North America, South America, and associated islands.

Americas[edit]

The Americas is the continent (or super-continent) comprising North and South America, and associated islands.

North America[edit]

North America includes all of the (sub-)continent and islands east of the Bering Strait and north of the Isthmus of Panama; it includes Greenland, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central American and Caribbean countries. However a distinction can be made between a broader North America and a narrower Northern America due to ethnic and cultural characteristics.

Northern America[edit]

Northern America generally includes Canada, the United States and Greenland.

Middle America[edit]

Middle America generally includes the countries of the Caribbean, Central America and Mexico.

The Caribbean[edit]

The Caribbean, or West Indies, generally includes the island chains of the Caribbean.

Central America[edit]

Central America generally includes the countries of the isthmus connecting North and South Americas: Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. It can be included in the broader region of Middle America or the Mesoamerica.

Mexico[edit]

Mexico is a country of the North American continent (more specifically it can be included in the Middle America, or the Mesoamerica, due to ethnic and cultural characterics).

South America[edit]

South America generally includes all of the (sub-)continent and islands south of the Isthmus of Panama.

Transcontinental Regions[edit]

Transcontinental regions could be defined as regions that are in different continents but have one or more common characteristics (climatic, watered by the same ocean or sea, ethnic, cultural, etc.)

Circumpolar North[edit]

The Circumpolar North includes the lands surrounding the Arctic Circle in the continents of Eurasia (Asia and Europe) and North America.

See also[edit]

See also[edit]

See all pages that start with indigenous people or indigenous

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sanders, Douglas (1999). "Indigenous peoples: Issues of definition". International Journal of Cultural Property 8 (1): 4–13. doi:10.1017/S0940739199770591. 
  2. ^ Ritzer, G., and Ryan, M.J., eds., The Concise Encyclopedia of Sociology, Wiley, 2011, p.313
  3. ^ Alia, V., Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada, Berghahn Books, 2008, p.143
  4. ^ Unrepresented Nations and People Organization | UNPO, Assyrians the Indigenous People of Iraq [1]
  5. ^ Sawahla & Dloomy (2007, pp. 425–433)
  6. ^ The UN Refugee Agency | UNHCR, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples [2]
  7. ^ Department of Evolutionary Biology at University of Tartu Estonian Biocentre | Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Israeli Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation, Molecular Anthropology Group [3]
  8. ^ Rouse (1992)

References[edit]

Bachmann, Anna Sophia (2007), "The Marsh Dwellers of Iraq" (PDF online edition), in Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.), The Indigenous World 2007, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217), Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers, pp. 420–424, ISBN 978-87-91563-23-2, OCLC 30981676 
Dowty, Alan (2008), Israel/Palestine, London, UK: Polity, ISBN 978-0-7456-4243-7, "Palestinians are the descendants of all the indigenous peoples who lived in Palestine over the centuries; since the seventh century, they have been predominantly Muslim in religion and almost completely Arab in language and culture." 
Farsoun, Samih K. (2005), "Palestinian Diasporas", in Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World 2, New York, NY: Springer, ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9, OCLC 315151735, "The Palestinians are the indigenous people of Palestine." 
Forman, Geremy; Kedar, Alexandre (2003), Colonialism, Colonization and Land Law in Mandate Palestine: The Zor al-Zarqa and Barrat Qisarya Land Disputes in Historical Perspective, Theoretical Inquiries in Law 4 (2): 491–539, doi:10.2202/1565-3404.1074 
Kipuri, Naomi (2007), "Kenya" (PDF online edition), in Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.), The Indigenous World 2007, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217), Marianne Wiben Jensen (Horn of Africa and East Africa regional ed.), Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers, pp. 468–476, ISBN 978-87-91563-23-2, OCLC 30981676 
The Local Preparatory Committee of Palestinian NGOs in Israel (n.d.), Statement submitted to: World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Haifa, Israel: Adalah – The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel, retrieved 6 April 2011, "Palestinians are also an indigenous group entitled to the recognition of their historical claims and the receipt of compensation, as outlined in the Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples." 
Minority Rights Group International (1997), World Directory of Minorities, London, UK: Minority Rights Group International, ISBN 978-1-873194-36-2 
Mossawa Center – The Advocacy Center for Arab Citizens of Israel (June 2006), The Palestinian Arab Citizens of Israel: Status, Opportunities and Challenges for an Israeli-Palestinian Peace, Haifa, Israel: Mossawa Center – The Advocacy Center for Arab Citizens of Israel, retrieved 6 April 2011, "Consisting of those who remained and were internally displaced during the creation of the state and their descendents, Palestinian Arab citizens are an indigenous population to Israel." 
Peled, Yoav (2007), Citizenship Betrayed: Israel's Emerging Immigration and Citizenship Regime, Theoretical Inquiries in Law 8 (2): 603–628, doi:10.2202/1565-3404.1162, "Israel is the effective sovereign in the entire area of Mandatory Palestine, and it has incorporated the indigenous Palestinian population of this area into its control system in two different ways: some as second-class citizens of Israel, but most as subjects devoid of rights living under military rule." 
Rouse, Irving (1992), The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People who greeted Columbus, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-05181-6, OCLC 24469325 
Sawalha, Faisal; and Ariel Dloomy (2007), "The Arab Bedouins of Israel" (PDF online edition), in Sille Stidsen (compilation and ed.), The Indigenous World 2007, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs yearbooks (ISSN 1024-0217), Copenhagen: IWGIA, distributed by Transaction Publishers, pp. 425–433, ISBN 978-87-91563-23-2, OCLC 30981676 
United Nations (30 June 1978), The Origins and Evolution of the Palestine Problem: 1917–1988, Part I, New York: United Nations, retrieved 5 April 2011