List of infantry weapons and equipment of the Canadian military

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This is a list of Infantry weapons used by the Canadian Military throughout its history and military arms used by militaries in pre-Confederation conflicts in Canada.

Colonial Era to Confederation (1604 - 1867)[edit]

Black Powder Rifles, Carbines and Pistols[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Charleville 1717  France
Charleville 1728  France
Charleville 1746  France
Fusil de Grenadier Tulle  France
Fusil de Chasse Tulle  France
Queen Ann Musket 1702-1714  United Kingdom
William III Carbine  United Kingdom
Nock Carbine 1780-1790s  United Kingdom
Elliot Carbine 1770s  United Kingdom
Brown Bess Long Land, Short Land, India Patterns  United Kingdom
Lovells Pattern 1838 musket and Double Barrel Carbine  United Kingdom
Pattern 1842 Musket  United Kingdom
Pattern 1851 Rifle  United Kingdom
Pattern 1853 Enfield  United Kingdom
Lancaster Rifle  United Kingdom
Baker rifle  United Kingdom
Brunswick rifle  United Kingdom

Service rifles and carbines[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Starr Carbine US Civil War 1860s  United States
Spencer rifle and carbine US Civil War 1860s  United States
Westley Richards Rifle  United Kingdom
Peabody Rifle  United Kingdom
Snider Enfield 1860s-1901  United Kingdom

Confederation to First World War (1867 - 1914)[edit]

Service Pistols[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Colt Model 1878 Revolver 1885-1902  United States
Colt "New Service" Revolver Revolver 1900-1928  United States Also used by the NWMP and RCMP from 1905-1954

Service Rifles[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Martini-Henry Breech-Loading 1870s-1918  United Kingdom
Winchester Repeater 1870s-1918  United States
Martini-Metford Breech-Loading 1894-whenever  United Kingdom
Martini-Enfield Breech-Loading  United Kingdom
Lee-Metford Bolt Action 1895-whenever  United Kingdom
Lee-Enfield Mk.I Bolt Action 1896-1905  United Kingdom
Ross Mk.I and Mk.II Bolt Action 1905-1915  Canada

First World War to Second World War (1914 - 1939)[edit]

Service Pistols[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Colt "New Service" Revolver Revolver 1900-1928  United States Also used by the NWMP and RCMP from 1905-1954. chambered in .455 Webley
Colt Model 1911 Pistol Semi-automatic pistol 1914-1945  United States

.45 ACP chambering, Royal Navy also had .455 Webley Auto version.

Smith & Wesson 2nd Model "Hand Ejector" Revolver 1915-1951  United States

first orders were rechambered from .44 special models to .455

Rifles[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Ross Mk.III 1913-1916  Canada Withdrawn from service following poor performance in battlefield conditions. Replaced by the Lee-Enfield Mk.III.
Lee Enfield (SMLE) Mk.III 1916-1943  United Kingdom

Machine Guns[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Colt Machine Gun 1914-1916  United States
Vickers Machine Gun 1914-1919  United Kingdom
Lewis Machine Gun 1916-1939  United States

Armoured Fighting Vehicles[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Armoured Autocar Armoured Car  United States/ Canada Commercial Autocar trucks covered with armour plate and armed with several machine guns.
Mk.V tank Tank 1918  United Kingdom Used by the Canadian Tank Corps in 1918. Never used in combat.

Second World War to Cold War (1939 - 1946)[edit]

Infantry Weapons[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Smith & Wesson "Military & Police Victory model" Handgun 1939-1964  United States
Inglis "High Power" Pistol Semi-automatic pistol 1944–Present  Canada Canadian re-engineering of the Browning Hi-Power
Thompson M1928-M1A1 Submachine gun 1940-1945  United States
Sten MK.II Submachine gun 1942-1958  United Kingdom
Lee-Enfield SMLE Mk.III Service rifle 1916-1943  United Kingdom
Lee-Enfield No.4 Mk.I Service rifle 1943-1955  United Kingdom Still in use with the Canadian Rangers
Boys ATR Anti-Tank rifle  United Kingdom
Bren LMG Light machine gun 1939-1955  United Kingdom
M1941 Johnson Machine Gun Light machine gun  United States 1st Special Service Force (Devil's Brigade) only
C5 GPMG General purpose machine gun 1939?-1980s  United States M1919 Browning
M2 HMG Heavy machine gun WWII-Present  United States
Bangalore torpedo Obstacle Clearing Charge  United Kingdom
PIAT Anti-tank weapon 1943-1950s  United Kingdom
3.5" Rocket Launcher  ????-????  United States In Reserve Force inventory as late as 1977
Flamethrower, Portable, No 2 "Ack-Pack" Flamethrower  United Kingdom

Utility Vehicles[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Willys Jeep Light Utility Vehicle WWII-1970s  United States
Morris C8 WWII  United Kingdom
AEC Matador WWII  United Kingdom
Diamond T 4-Ton lorry  United States
Ford F-8  Canada Built by Ford Motor Company of Canada.
Ford F-15  Canada Built by Ford Motor Company of Canada.
Ford F-30  Canada Built by Ford Motor Company of Canada.
Ford F-60S, F-60L, F-60H, F-60T  Canada Built by Ford Motor Company of Canada.
Ford F-GT  Canada
Chevrolet C-8, C-8A  Canada Built by General Motors of Canada.
Chevrolet C-15, C-15A  Canada Built by General Motors of Canada.
Chevrolet C15TA Armoured Truck  Canada Built by General Motors of Canada.
Chevrolet C-30, C-60S, C-60L, C-60X  Canada Built by General Motors of Canada.
Chevrolet C-GT  Canada Built by General Motors of Canada.
Chevrolet Field Artillery Tractor  Canada Built by General Motors of Canada.

Scout Vehicles[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Daimler Dingo WWII  United Kingdom
Daimler Mk. I Armoured Car WWII  United Kingdom
Humber Mk. I Scout Car WWII  United Kingdom
Humber Mk. IV Armoured Car  United Kingdom
M3 Scout Car WWII  United States
Otter Light Reconnaissance Car WWII  Canada Built by General Motors of Canada.
Staghound Armoured Car WWII  United States
Fox Armoured Car WWII  Canada
Lynx Scout Car WWII  United Kingdom/ Canada
M5 Reconnaissance Vehicle WWII  United States A turretless variant of the M5 light tank

Armoured Carriers and Armoured Tractors[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Kangaroo WWII  Canada Converted Ram, Priest, and Sherman AFVs (See respective entries)
Loyd Carrier WWII  United Kingdom
Universal Carrier WWII-?  United Kingdom
Wasp WWII-?  United Kingdom Universal Carrier with flame-thrower equipment
T-16 Carrier WWII-?  United States Universal carrier produced under license and modified in the United States.
Windsor Carrier 1944-1945  United Kingdom Elongated Universal Carrier
M3A1 Half-track WWII  United States
Truck,15-cwt, Half-track  United States
M5 Half-track  United States
M9A1 Half-track  United States

Tanks[edit]

Combat Tanks[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Stuart tank Light tank  United Kingdom
Churchill MkI-IV Infantry tank  United Kingdom
Sherman I, III, V Medium tank  United States Sherman I (M4), III (M4A2 w/75 mm gun) and V (M4A4 w/75 mm gun) used.
Sherman IC (Firefly) Medium Tank  United States/ United Kingdom M4 with a 17 pounder gun
Sherman VC (Firefly) Medium tank  United States/ United Kingdom M4A4 with a 17 pounder gun
Grizzly Medium tank  Canada Canadian built and modified M4A1
Sherman V DD Medium Tank  United States M4A4 {75 mm} with Duplex Drive system and flotation screen for amphibious landings
Sherman Ib Close Support Tank  United States M4 with a 105 mm howitzer
Centaur IV Close Support Tank 1944-1944  United Kingdom In service for less than a month with the 1st Canadian Centaur Battery (formed Aug 6, 1944 - disbanded Aug 29, 1944), RCA, after landing in Normandy. Tanks returned to the Royal Marines.
Ram Badger Flame tank Early WW2  Canada
Churchill Oke Flame tank  United Kingdom
Sherman Badger Flame tank  United States
M10 Wolverine Tank destroyer WW2  United States Modified Sherman hull with an open turret and 3in. gun
17pdr SP Achilles Tank destroyer WW2  United States/ United Kingdom M10 equipped with a 17pdr gun
17pdr SP Archer Tank destroyer WW2, Suez Crisis  United Kingdom Built on a Valentine tank hull

Training Tanks[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Carden Loyd Mk IV tankette Tankette  United Kingdom
Light Tank Mk VIA Light tank  United Kingdom
Six Ton Tank Model 1917 Light tank  France
Ram tank I and II Cruiser tank  Canada
Vickers Valentine Mark VI Infantry tank  Canada Canadian built version of the British Valentine IV
Matilda II Infantry tank  United Kingdom
Lee/Grant Medium tank  United States

Self-Propelled Artillery and Anti-Aircraft[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
M3 75mm Gun Motor Carriage Self-propelled artillery  United States M3 Half-track equipped with the M1A1 75 mm gun
Sexton Self-propelled artillery 1943-1956  Canada Open box superstructure on a Ram tank hull. Armed with a 25pdr gun
M7 Priest Self-propelled artillery Template:USA / Canada Open box superstructure on a Sherman tank hull. Armed with a 105mm howitzer.
M14 SPAA Self-propelled anti-aircraft  United States Twin .50 mount on an M3 half-track
Crusader AA Mk.I and Mk.III Self-propelled anti-aircraft 1944-????  United Kingdom Mk.I armed with a Bofors 40mm anti-aircraft gun, Mk.III armed with twin Oerlikon 20mm guns
Skink anti-aircraft tank Self-propelled anti-aircraft 1944  Canada Enclosed turret on a Grizzly tank hull. Armed with 4 Polsten guns. Introduced late in the war and only saw use as an anti-infantry weapon.

Engineering Vehicles[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Ram ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle  Canada
M4A4 Sherman V ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle  United States
Valentine Bridgelayer AVLB  United Kingdom
M416 trailers 1940s-1990s  United States
M101 trailers 1992-?  United States

Artillery[edit]

Field artillery[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
QF 25 pounder howitzer/field gun  United Kingdom
BL 4.5 inch Medium Field Gun field gun WWII  United Kingdom
BL 5.5 inch Medium Gun medium field gun WWII  United Kingdom
Land Mattress multiple rocket launcher WWII  United Kingdom

Anti-tank guns[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Ordnance QF 6 pounder  United Kingdom
Ordnance QF 17 pounder  United Kingdom

Anti-aircraft guns[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Bofors 40 mm gun  Sweden
QF 3.75 inch AA  United Kingdom
Polsten-Oerlikon gun  Poland

Cold War to Modern (1946 - Present)[edit]

This section is about equipment retired since 1946. For in-service equipment, see List of modern Canadian Army equipment.

Infantry Weapons[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
C1 SMG Submachine gun 1958-1988  United Kingdom/ Canada License produced Sterling SMG
FN C1 and FN C1A1 Battle rifle 1955-1987  Belgium/ Canada License produced by Canadian Arsenals Limited
FN C2 and C2A1 SAW Squad Automatic Weapon 1955-1987  Belgium/ Canada C1 modified for SAW role
Javelin surface-to-air missile MANPADS  ????-????  United Kingdom No longer in service
106mm recoilless rifle Recoilless rifle  United States In Reserve Forces]]
C7/C7A2 Assault rifle 1988 - Present  Canada Replaced the FNC1A1's
McMillan TAC-50 Sniper Rifle 2000 - Present  United States

Utility Vehicles[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
M151A2 Jeep Light utility vehicle 1974-1984  United States 935 purchased and retired in the 1980s[1]
M37 Jeep Light utility vehicle 1951-1970s?  United States/ Canada 4500 built by Chrysler/Dodge in Windsor 1951-1955[2]
M38/M38A1 Jeep Light utility vehicle 1950-1980s  United States/ Canada Built 1950-1952 and replaced by M151[3] for regular forces by 1974 and retired in the Reserves in 1980s
M43 Ambulance utility vehicle 1950s-?  United States/ Canada Variant of M37 built by Chrysler/Dodge in Windsor 1951-1955[4]
M152 utility truck 1950s-?  United States/ Canada Radio Command unit - 1038 produced by Chrysler in Windsor[5]
M38A1CDN Jeep Light utility vehicle 1952-1984  United States/ Canada Built by Ford of Canada
M38A1CDN2 Jeep Light utility vehicle 1967-1984  United States/ Canada Built by Ford of Canada
M38A1CDN3 Jeep Light utility vehicle 1970-1984  United States/ Canada Built by Ford of Canada
Iltis Light utility vehicle 1984-2003  Germany/ Canada Licensed produced version of the Volkswagen Iltis
G Wagon LUV(W) Light utility vehicle 1996 - present  Germany
Light Support Vehicle Wheeled (LSVW) Light utility vehicle 1993–present  Canada
Medium Logistic Vehicle Wheeled (MLVW) Medium utility vehicle 1982–present  Canada
Heavy Logistic Vehicle Wheeled (HLVW) Heavy utility vehicle 1992–present  Canada
BV 206 Al terrain utility vehicle 1983–present  Sweden
Humvee M1113 and M1117 Light Utility Vehicle ~ 2010  United States used by Canadian Special Operations Regiment and Joint Task Force 2 and since replaced by Jackal MWMIK

Armoured Fighting Vehicles[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Sherman M4A2 (76)W HVSS Medium tank 1946-1970  United States Kept in the reserves until 1970.
Sherman M4A3 (76)W HVSS Medium tank 1950-1953?  United States Acquired from US stocks for use during the Korean War.
Centurion Mk.3 Main Battle Tank 1952-????  United Kingdom Acquired to replace the Shermans
Centurion Mk.5 Main Battle Tank  ????-????  United Kingdom
Centurion Mk.11 Main Battle Tank  ????-1979  United Kingdom
Leopard C1 Main Battle Tank 1978-2000  Germany 127 Acquired to replace the Centurions. 114 of these 'Canadianized' Leopard 1A3 were used in active service.
Leopard C2 Main Battle Tank 2000–present  Germany Leopard C1 upgraded and refitted with Leopard 1A5 turret. 66 remain active.
Leopard 2A6M CAN Main Battle Tank 2007–Present  Germany 20 leopard 2s were loaned from Germany. Then Canada acquired 80 tanks from the Netherlands.
Lynx C&R Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle 1968-1993  United States
M109A4+ Self-propelled artillery 1964-2005  United States Replaced with towed M777 guns in 2007.
AVGP Cougar Wheeled light armoured vehicle 1976–present  Canada 6x6 vehicle based on the MOWAG Piranha with a Scorpion tank turret.
AVGP Grizzly Wheeled Armoured personnel carrier 1976–present  Canada 6x6 vehicle based on the MOWAG Piranha with a Cadillac-Gage 1 metre turret, designed to carry a section of infantry.
AVGP Husky Wheeled Armoured recovery/repair variant 1976–present  Canada 6x6 vehicle based on the MOWAG Piranha.
Ferret Scout Car Wheeled reconnaissance vehicle 1954-1981  United Kingdom
Mamba Wheeled Armoured personnel carrier  ???? - present  South Africa
Nyala Wheeled Armoured personnel carrier  ???? - present  South Africa
M113 Tracked Armoured personnel carrier mid 1960s - present  United States Current in service variants: M113A3 Personnel carrier with Remote Weapon System (RWS), M113A3 Personnel carrier with One Metre Turret, M113A3 Mobile Repair Team, M577A3 Command Post, MTVL Basic Personnel Carrier / Light Re-supply, MTVC Heavy Re-supply, MTVE Engineer Vehicle, MTVF Fitter (Repair) Vehicle, MTVR Recovery Vehicle
Lynx Tracked reconnaissance vehicle 1968 - 1993  United States
Coyote Wheeled reconnaissance vehicle 1996–present  Canada
Bison Wheeled Armoured personnel carrier 1990–present  Canada Converted to supporting variants.
LAV III Wheeled Infantry Fighting Vehicle 1999–present  Canada can also be used as a Armoured personnel carrier

Unsorted[edit]

Approved private purchase and secondary side-arms[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Webley Mark VI Revolver  United Kingdom
Enfield No. 2 MkI Revolver  United Kingdom
Colt Police Positive - 1941–present  United States
Colt Model 1911A1 - 1942-1945  United States

Grenades, mines and other explosives[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Mills bomb  United Kingdom
No 68 AT Grenade  United Kingdom
No 69 Bakelite Percussion Grenade  United Kingdom
No 73 Grenade  United Kingdom
No. 74 Sticky bomb  United Kingdom
No. 75 AT Hawkins Mine  United Kingdom
No. 82 Gammon  United Kingdom
Clam Magnetic Mine  United Kingdom
GS.MV Anti-tank Mine
GS.MkII Anti-tank Mine
M61 grenade  United States
M67 grenade  United States
V40 Mini-Grenade  Netherlands

Infantry Mortars[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
2 inch Mortar WWII  United Kingdom
3 inch Mortar WWII  United Kingdom
4.2 inch Mortar WWII
60 mm M19 CAN Light Mortar WWII-present  United States
81 mm C3 Medium Mortar 1967–present  United Kingdom

Bayonets and Knives[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
Pattern 1888 Bayonet Bayonet
Pattern 1907 Bayonet Bayonet
Pattern 1913 Bayonet Bayonet
Ross Bayonet Bayonet  Canada
No. 4 Rifle Bayonets Bayonet
Mk I Spike Bayonet Bayonet
Mk II Spike Bayone Bayonet
Mk III Spike Bayonet Bayonet
No. 5 Mk II Knife Bayonet Bayonet
No. 7 Knife Bayonet Bayonet
No. 9 Socket Knife Bayonet Bayonet
C1 Bayonet Bayonet  Canada
Nella C7 Bayonet Bayonet
Bayonet 2000 Bayonet
Fairbairn-Sykes fighting knife Combat knife  United Kingdom
Grohmann #3 CAF Knife Combat knife 1967–present  Canada
C-5 pocket knife/ utility knife Utility knife 1973-2004
Gerber multi-tool knife Utility knife 2001–present  United States
V-42 Stiletto Combat knife 1942-1944  United States Used by the 1st Special Service Force

Ammunition[edit]

Model Type Service Period Origin Details
.303 British  United Kingdom only in service with Canadian Rangers
.455 Webley  United Kingdom no longer in service
7.62 × 51 mm NATO  United States/ Canada
5.56 x 45 mm NATO 1984–present  United States/ Canada
9 x 19mm Parabellum 1944–present  German Empire
.50 BMG  United States Used by Canadian snipers to set the previous longest distance kill record
12 Gauge  United States
5.7x28 mm  Belgium only in use by Canadian Special Forces
.338 Lapua Magnum 2005–present  Finland

Swords[edit]

Uniforms, Load Bearing and Protective Equipment[edit]

Uniforms

See also: Battledress, Uniforms of the Canadian Forces

Load bearing equipment

  • Oliver Pattern Equipment 1898-19??
  • 1903 Pattern Bandolier Equipment
  • 1937 Pattern Web Equipment
  • 1942 Battle Jerkin
  • 1951 Pattern Web Equipment
  • 1964 Pattern Web Equipment
  • 1982 Pattern Web Equipment
  • Tactical Vest (or just known as Tac Vest). 2003–Present

Head dress

Protective equipment

  • Fragmentation Protection Vest

References[edit]

External links[edit]