List of introduced species

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A complete list of introduced species for even quite small areas of the world would be dauntingly long. Humans have introduced more different species to new environments than any single document can hope to record. This list is generally for established species with truly wild populations—not kept domestically or on ranches—that have been seen numerous times, and have breeding populations.

Australia[edit]

Australia has a huge range of introduced species, so sub-classifications are necessary:

  • Invasive - species have a tendency to spread their range into new areas
  • Ferals - domestic animals (i.e., pets or beasts of burden) that have gone wild
  • Pests - animals that have a direct effect on human standards of living or the environment/ecosystems, have a high rate of reproduction, and are difficult to control

Feral animals that cause the most public concern, and economic and ecological damage include:

Image Name Species Overview Introduced Reason Introduced from Distribution Feral Pest Threat level Est. pop. Main control measures Notes / ref
Bufo marinus from Australia.JPG Cane toad Bufo marinus Cane toads in Australia 1935 Biological control (cane beetle) South America via Hawaii Queensland (extensive), northern New South Wales, Top End, Kimberley No Yes Extreme 200 million + Culling; trapping;[1] genetic[2] (under research) prolific breeders and bufotoxin kills native animals [3]
Vulpes vulpes sitting.jpg Red fox Vulpes vulpes Feral foxes in Australia 1855 Recreational hunting Europe Most of mainland Australia; small numbers in Tasmania[4] No Yes Extreme 7.2 million + 1080 baiting; hunting Elusive prolific predator of native animals and livestock.[5]
Wild rabbit.jpg European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus Rabbits in Australia 1854 Recreational hunting Europe Throughout Australia (extensive) No Yes High 200 million + rabbit-proof fence; Myxomatosis; Calicivirus (RHD) Prolific breeders that destroy land.
07. Camel Profile, near Silverton, NSW, 07.07.2007.jpg Dromedary camel Camelus dromedarius Australian feral camel 1841 Beast of burden India Central Australia (extensive) Yes Yes Medium to high 1.1 million Helicopter culling Grazer, though arid Australian conditions suit the camel perfectly.[6]
Goats - Wilpena Pound.JPG Feral goat Capra hircus Feral goats in Australia 1840 Domestic livestock  ?? Throughout Australia (extensive) Yes Yes High + Helicopter culling [7]
Gato en Boiro Galicia.jpg Feral cat Felis catus Feral cat c. 1838 Pets Europe Throughout Australia, except in tropical rainforests (extensive) Yes Yes High to extreme  ?? Barrier fencing, shooting, trapping. Control measures effective on small islands; less so on the mainland. The most widely spread and invasive of all introduced species. It is possibly responsible for the extinction of some species of small mammals.[8]
Perlino brumby.JPG Brumby Equus ferus caballus Brumby 1788 Farm and utility work Europe; some later imports from South Africa and Indonesia Throughout Australia (extensive) Yes Yes Medium to high 300,000+ Musters, ground and helicopter culling, fertility control Grazers that damage sensitive lands[9]
Wild Boar Habbitat 3.jpg Feral pig Sus scrofa Feral pig 1788 Domestic livestock Europe Throughout Australia, except in deserts (extensive) Yes Yes High 13 million to 23 million Musters, ground and helicopter culling, trapping, poisoning, fencing Prolific breeders that destroy land and have the potential to spread disease[10]

Plants (Australia)[edit]

Mammals (Australia)[edit]

Birds (Australia)[edit]

Fish (Australia)[edit]

Reptiles (Australia)[edit]

Arthropods (Australia)[edit]

Echinoderms (Australia)[edit]

British Isles[edit]

See also Invasive species in the British Isles

Further information can be found at the GB Non-native Species Secretariat, which has a free tool kit of resources on non-native species, including a photo gallery, ID sheets, risk assessments, projects database, case studies and resources for local action groups.

Mammals[edit]

Birds[edit]

Fish[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Reptiles[edit]

Crustaceans[edit]

Insects[edit]

  • African pine mosquitos - from Africa

Butterflies and moths[edit]

Ants[edit]

Coleoptera (beetles)[edit]

Plants[edit]

Hawaiian Islands[edit]

See also Canoe plants

Birds[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Mammals[edit]

Birds[edit]

Fish[edit]

Insects[edit]

Plants[edit]

Up to 26,000 plants have been introduced into New Zealand. This list is a few of the more common and more invasive species.

United States and Canada[edit]

Mammals[edit]

Birds[edit]

Reptiles and amphibians[edit]

Fish[edit]

Crustaceans[edit]

Mollusks[edit]

Marine

Freshwater

Terrestrial

Insects[edit]

Plants[edit]

South America[edit]

Mammals[edit]

Fish[edit]

Continental Europe[edit]

Mammals[edit]

Birds[edit]

Reptiles and amphibians[edit]

Fish[edit]

Asia[edit]

Mammals[edit]

Reptiles[edit]

Africa[edit]

Mammals[edit]

Birds[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.frogwatch.org.au/index.cfm?attributes.fuseaction=viewResearch&research_id=101
  2. ^ http://www.imb.uq.edu.au/index.html?page=48437&pid=48437&ntemplate=235
  3. ^ The Feral Cane Toad (Bufo marinus) - Invasive species fact sheet
  4. ^ http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/LBUN-5K46YA?open
  5. ^ "Invasive Species Fact Sheet: European red fox (Vulpes vulpes)". Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia). 2004. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  6. ^ "Camel Fact Sheet". Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (Australia). 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  7. ^ - Invasive species fact sheet
  8. ^ "Invasive Species Fact Sheet: The feral cat (Felis catus)". Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia). 2004. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  9. ^ "Invasive Species Fact Sheet: Feral horse (Equus caballus) and feral donkey (Equus asinus)". Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia). 2004. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 
  10. ^ "Invasive Species Fact Sheet: The feral pig (Sus scrofa)". Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia). 2004. Retrieved 2010-12-06. 

External links[edit]